|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 2nd district
January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Ron Barber|
March 22, 1966 |
Warwick, Rhode Island, U.S.
|Alma mater||United States Air Force Academy (BS)
Harvard University (MPP)
|Service/branch||United States Air Force|
|Years of service||1988–2010|
|Commands||354th Fighter Squadron|
|Battles/wars||Operation Southern Watch
Operation Allied Force
Operation Enduring Freedom
Martha Elizabeth McSally (born March 22, 1966) is a retired United States Air Force Colonel and politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2015. She was the first American woman to fly in combat following the 1991 lifting of the prohibition of women in combat, flying the A-10 over Iraq and Kuwait during Operation Southern Watch. She is the first woman to command a USAF fighter squadron, the 354th Fighter Squadron (354 FS) based at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.
She narrowly won her congressional seat in the United States House of Representatives elections of 2014. Following a recount, McSally was declared the winner on December 17, by a margin of 167 votes.
She has been criticized for dodging questions, not taking firm positions, and for avoiding media. McSally has voted with her party in 96% of votes so far in the current session of Congress and voted in line with President Trump's position in 100% of the votes. She opposes same-sex marriage and abortion, and wants to repeal the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). She is in favor of barring the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gas emissions. She has not taken firm positions on what to do with the US-Mexico Border, the undocumented population in the United States, or Trump's executive order to suspend the entry of foreigners from seven Muslim-majority countries into the United States. According to her website, she has not held a face-to-face town hall meeting with constituents since July 30, 2015.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Military career
- 3 U.S. House campaigns
- 4 U.S. House of Representatives
- 5 Political positions
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 Personal life
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early life and education
McSally was born in 1966 in Warwick, Rhode Island, the youngest of five children. In 1978, her father, Bernard, a lawyer, died of a heart attack. Her mother, Eleanor, worked as a reading specialist to support the family.
McSally graduated at the top of her class at St. Mary's Academy, Bayview in 1984. She earned an appointment to the United States Air Force Academy, graduating in 1988. She earned a Master's degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government following graduation from USAFA and then proceeded to pilot training. McSally was first in her class at the Air War College.
McSally earned her wings following graduation from Undergraduate Pilot Training at Laughlin AFB, Texas and was initially assigned to Laughlin as a First Assignment Instructor Pilot (FAIP) in the T-37 jet trainer. Following the repeal of the combat aircraft restriction for female pilots, she completed Lead-in Fighter Training (LIFT) in 1993. McSally became the first woman in U.S. history to fly a combat aircraft into enemy territory when she flew into Iraq in support of the United Nations no-fly zone enforcement.
McSally completed Replacement Training Unit for the A-10 Thunderbolt II at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona, and was assigned to an operational A-10 squadron and was deployed to Kuwait in January 1995. During that deployment, she flew combat patrols over Iraq in support of Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone over southern Iraq. In 1999, she deployed to Europe in support of Operation Allied Force. McSally was selected as one of seven active duty Air Force officers for the Legislative Fellowship program, during which time she lived in Washington, D.C. and advised Senator Jon Kyl (R-AZ) on defense and foreign affairs policy.
Promoted to Major, she reported to Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2000 for an Operation Southern Watch temporary assignment. Promoted below the zone to Lieutenant Colonel, she took command of the A-10 equipped 354th Fighter Squadron at Davis-Monthan AFB in July 2004, and was subsequently deployed to Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom, where she employed weapons loaded on her A-10 in combat for the first time. In 2005, McSally and her squadron were awarded the David C. Shilling Award, given by the Air Force Association for the best aerospace contribution to national defense.
Lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Defense (McSally v. Rumsfeld)
McSally was represented by the Rutherford Institute in a successful 2001 lawsuit against the Department of Defense, challenging the military policy that required U.S. and U.K. servicewomen stationed in Saudi Arabia to wear the body-covering abaya when traveling off base in the country. At the time of the lawsuit McSally, as a Major (O-4), was the highest ranking female fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force. Her suit alleged "the regulations required her to send the message that she believes women are subservient to men." In addition to the issue of religious garb, McSally noted that policies also included other requirements:
In a "60 Minutes" interview broadcast on CBS on January 20, 2002, she described the discrimination she experienced under the policy: "I have to sit in the back and at all times I must be escorted by a male ... [who], when questioned, is supposed to claim me as his wife," she said. "I can fly a single-seat aircraft in enemy territory, but [in Saudi Arabia] I can't drive a vehicle."
During this process, she was granted audience with several high-level officials, including two Secretaries of Defense, William Cohen and Donald Rumsfeld, which was atypical of a service member of her comparatively junior rank and position, especially in light of her public protest. General Tommy Franks, then commander of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM), announced in 2002 that U.S. military servicewomen would no longer be required to wear the abaya, although they would be "encouraged" to do so as a show of respect for local customs. Commenting on the change, Central Command spokesman, Colonel Rick Thomas, said it was not made because of McSally's lawsuit, but had already been "under review" before the lawsuit was filed. News reports noted that McSally had been fighting for a change in the policy for seven years, and had filed the lawsuit after she had been threatened with a court martial if she did not comply and wear the abaya.
Critics of the policy noted that while female U.S. military personnel had been required to wear the abaya outside of military installations in Saudi Arabia, the situation was not the same for "women diplomats" of the U.S. Department of State assigned to the U.S. Embassy in Riyadh, who were actually encouraged not to wear the abaya when they were involved in official business, "...because they are representing the United States." Embassy officials stated that, "...in their personal time, embassy employees can choose how to dress." According to these U.S. officials, "...the Saudi government does not require non-Muslim women to wear a dark robe known as an abaya.... The official guidance, issued by the Saudi Embassy in Washington, says that foreigners should dress conservatively but they are not required to wear the robe."
Eventually the U.S. Congress "approved legislation that prohibited anyone in the military from requiring or encouraging servicewomen to put on abayas in Saudi Arabia or to use taxpayers’ money to buy them."
McSally has continued to speak out about gender relations in Saudi Arabia. McSally retired from active duty with 22 years of commissioned service in the U.S. Air Force on May 6, 2010. As of March 2011, she worked as a professor at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
U.S. House campaigns
On February 9, 2012, McSally announced her candidacy for the special election for Arizona's 8th congressional district vacancy created by the resignation of Gabrielle Giffords. She was an unsuccessful candidate in the Republican nomination for the special election, losing to Republican nominee Jesse Kelly.
McSally then ran for and won the Republican nomination in the regular election for the district, which had been renumbered as the 2nd District. She faced incumbent Democrat Ron Barber and Libertarian nominee Anthony Powell in the November 2012 election. She was endorsed by the National Federation of Independent Businesses, United States Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Wholesalers, of Commerce, National Association of Home Builders and Associated Builders and Contractors.
The race was one of the closest in the nation. McSally led on election night by a few hundred votes, but the race was deemed too close to call due to a large number of provisional ballots. Barber eventually overtook McSally as more ballots were counted. By November 16, most of the outstanding ballots were in heavily Democratic precincts near Tucson. The Arizona Republic determined that as a result, McSally would not be able to pick up enough votes to overcome Barber's lead. By November 17, Barber's lead over McSally had grown to 1,400 votes. That day, the Associated Press determined that there weren't enough ballots outstanding for McSally to regain the lead, and called the race for Barber. She conceded the race later that morning.
McSally declared her intention of running again for the 2nd district seat in 2014. She won the June 3 primary against 2 other Republican opponents, taking nearly 70% of the vote. In the November 4 general election, the race was too close to call by the end of election night, and eventually went on to be the final federal election of the 2014 cycle to be decided. With 100% of the votes counted, McSally had a 161-vote lead and declared victory on November 12, 2014, but due to the fact that the margin of victory was less than 1%, an automatic recount was called on December 1. On December 17, the official recount declared McSally the winner by 167 votes. She is only the second Republican ever to represent a southern Arizona-based district in the U.S. House of Representatives; the first was Jim Kolbe, who represented what is now the 2nd district, from 1985 to 2007. McSally is also the first female Republican representative from Arizona.
U.S. House of Representatives
In her freshman term in Congress, McSally had seven bills approved by the U.S. House. Among all members of the U.S. House, McSally is tied for third in the number of bills she has authored that have made it through the House. Her bills are generally "narrowly drawn proposals to improve homeland security or to help veterans."
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on Homeland Security
She has been criticized for dodging questions, not taking firm positions, and for avoiding media. The Douglas Dispatch criticized her in an editorial for a lack of transparency: "This isn't the type of communication you would expect from a newly elected official who we hoped had a streak of independence outside of Washington politics... It's difficult to be transparent when sit-downs with constituents are closed to the media. We're told that people will talk freely if the media is not present. That may be true, but all citizens have a right to know what's being asked and how the congresswoman truly views an issue."
2016 presidential election
She also supports local control of education, stating that, “education for our kids should not be dictated by Washington bureaucrats but by local experts with parent involvement and rewards for excellence. Hard-earned middle-class-taxpayer money should not go to D.C. to strip funds off the top, then return to the states with conditions, paperwork and mandates resulting in cookie-cutter educational recipes."
Environment and energy
She opposes government funding for the development of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and thermal energy. She is in favor of barring the Environmental Protection Agencypposes from regulating greenhouse gas emissions. She strongly opposed President Obama's Clean Power Plan, which aimed to requires power producers to reduce emissions 32% from 2005 levels by 2030.
McSally has sought the removal of the Mexican wolf from the endangered species act list. She also has introduced legislation in the House to halt a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery program that aims to reintroduce the wolf to areas in Arizona, a position supported by ranchers.
Foreign and defense policy
Politico described her as "hawkish" in 2016. She criticized the international nuclear agreement with Iran and has praised defense contractors. During the House consideration of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, McSally, along with John McCain, fought to increase military spending, particularly on the Tomahawk missile and other programs of Raytheon Co., which is one of the largest employers in McSally's home state of Arizona. She has been an ardent opponent of the retirement of the A-10 Warthog, a warplane which has a strong presence at the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson. She opposes the budget sequestration's effects on military spending.
McSally has introduced legislation to reduce funding for U.S. military bands. McSally supports the indefinite detentions at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and opposed President Obama's efforts to close the camp.
Like other congressional Republicans, McSally criticized President Obama's approach to fighting ISIL in Syria, but proposed no specific alternative to his strategy. In 2015, McSally "would not give an opinion on whether the U.S. should send in ground troops" to Syria.
In 2013, McSally refused to take a position on what her vote would have been on the the compromise that ultimately ended the federal government shutdown. Stuart Rothenberg described her response to the question as doing "her best to bob and weave, clearly intent on not giving a 'yes' or a 'no.'"
McSally is in favor of repealing the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). Although McSally "has committed to repeal of the ACA, she has yet to put forward a plan for replacement, other than to say that the popular parts of the Affordable Care Act (such as protections for people with pre-existing conditions or allowing kids to stay on their parents' health insurance until they reach age 26) should be part of any replacement strategy and unpopular elements (such as the mandate to purchase health insurance) should be done away with." In January 2017, she voted for a Republican-sponsored budget resolution that begins the process of repealing the Act, although congressional Republicans had not released any replacement plan.
In December 2014, McSally criticized President Obama's executive actions on immigration (the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program and the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (DAPA) program), saying that it was "absolutely inappropriate" of Obama to take these actions rather than "allowing the new Congress to sit and try to sort it out."
McSally has not taken a public position on Trump's executive order to suspend the entry of foreigners from seven Muslim-majority countries into the United States.
McSally "opposes abortions in nearly all cases, with exceptions for rape, incest and the mother's health and life." During her 2014 campaign for Congress, McSally did not respond to a question from the Arizona Republic on whether she would vote for a bill backed by House Republicans to ban abortions after 20 weeks. In May 2015, however, McSally voted for the 20-week abortion ban, joining other Republicans in what was mostly a party-line vote.
McSally opposes same-sex marriage. After the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, which upheld a constitutional right to same-sex marriage, McSally said that she would "respect the Supreme Court's decision" but expressed the view that "this debate belongs at the state level."
She has declined to take a position on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), which would bar employers with more than 15 employees from engaging in employment discrimination on the basis of an "actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity." However, during her 2010 campaign, McSally indicated on a Center for Arizona Policy questionnaire that she opposes such additions to anti-discrimination law.
In May 2016, McSally voted for a bill that would have dismantled Obama's executive action that made it illegal for government contractors to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. The Human Rights Campaign, a LGBT civil rights advocacy group, criticized her for her vote.
She appeared on national television in October 2012 saying, "You want to talk about a war on women? Walk in my shoes down the streets of Kabul. Walk in my shoes down the streets of Riyadh; where women have to be covered up. Where they're stoned, where they’re honor killed if they’ve been raped, where they can’t drive and they can’t travel without the permission of a male relative. That’s a war on women."
|Libertarian||Anthony Powell (Write-In)||57||0%||-4.05%|
|Democratic||Ron Barber (incumbent)||109,543||49.73%||-0.68%|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
|Republican||Martha McSally (incumbent)||150,103||56.7%||+6.89%|
- Air Force Lt. Col. Martha McSally profile, US Department of Defense official website; accessed November 7, 2014.
- "UPDATE: McSally Wins Congressional Seat, Recount Confirms".
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- "About Martha". About Martha. mcsallyforcongress. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Valorie Vojdik, "The Invisibility of Gender in War", Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy, 9 (261), 2002.
- John E. Mulligan, "Female pilot sues US, alleging bias", Providence Journal Bulletin, December 5, 2001, p. A01
- Keller, Michele (Spring 2002). "Female Fighter Pilot Battles U.S. Military's Double-Standard in Saudi Arabia". National NOW Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Russell, Jan Jarboe (January 24, 2002). "Pentagon relents on Arabic dress policy for women". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Pound, Edward T. (April 24, 2001). "Saudi rule looser than Pentagon's". USA Today. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
- De Wind, Dorian (February 21, 2011). "Should our Servicewomen in Afghanistan Have to Wear Headscarves?". The Moderate Voice. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Christina Cheakalos et al., "Dress Blues; Fighter pilot Martha McSally battles to liberate US servicewomen in Saudi Arabia from a confining cloak", People Magazine, February 11, 2002, at pg. 71.
- Martha McSally "Should our uniform adapt to their culture?", March 24, 2011.
- McSally, Martha, "Should US uniform adapt to Muslim Culture?", Washington Post, reprinted in the Japan Times, March 2, 2011, p. 12.
- McCombs, Brady (February 9, 2012). "1st Female AF Air Combat Vet in Run for Congress". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "Former Giffords aide beats back primary challenge". KNXV-TV. Associated Press. August 29, 2012.
- McSally, Martha (October 19, 2012). "My commitment: Solutions to get people working again". Inside Tucson Business. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Nowicki, Dan and Jon D'Anna, "Barber wins hard-fought race against McSally", The Arizona Republic, November 17, 2012.
- "Voters in Arizona's 2nd pick Barber over McSally", Associated Press via KOLD-TV, November 17, 2012.
- 2014 Arizona's 2nd District Republican primary results, azsos.gov, June 3, 2014; accessed November 8, 2014. Archived December 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Recount in Barber-McSally race due to 161 margin of victory for McSally, jrn.com; accessed November 14, 2014.
- "McSally Wins Congressional Seat, Ousting Barber".
- "That Congressional District 2 Seat Belongs to the People". Real Estate Daily News.
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- "Martha McSally won't answer border questions". azcentral. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
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- Ronald J. Hansen (October 9, 2016). "Paul Babeu, Martha McSally struggle to respond to Donald Trump fallout". Arizona Republic.
- "Martha McSally". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- McSally, Martha (2012-10-21). "Question from Ron Barber to McSally". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- "The Voter's Self Defense System". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
- Vanessa Barchfield, Mixed Reaction in Arizona to Obama's Clean Power Plan, Arizona Public Media (August 4, 2015).
- Nihal Krishan, Arizona enviros cheer EPA Clean Power Plan, utilities wary, Tuscon Sentinel/Cronkite News (August 4, 2015).
- "Check out Representative Martha McSally's Environmental Voting Record". League of Conservation Voters Scorecard. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
- Carol Broeder, McSally, Gosar seek Mexican wolf delisting, Eastern Arizona Courier (August 26, 2015).
- Ellen Mitchell (May 22, 2016). "The Pentagon's battle of the bands". Politico.
- Rebekah L. Sanders, McCain, McSally pan Iran deal, praise defense industry, Arizona Republic (April 10, 2015).
- McSally wins 'knife fight' over defense spending, Arizona Republic (June 2, 2016).
- David Wichner, McSally vows to be strong voice for defense, Raytheon, Arizona Daily Star (March 11, 2015).
- Dylan Smith, McSally hails reports Air Force backing off A-10 retirement (January 13, 2016).
- Anne Midgette, Congresswoman calls for cuts to military music, Washington Post (March 25, 2016).
- Sara Weber, Obama call to close Guantanamo prison panned by Arizona GOP lawmakers, Cronkite News/Arizona PBS (February 23, 2016).
- Obama: Guantanamo Bay undermines security, must be closed, Associated Press (February 23, 2016).
- U.S. Rep. McSally speaks out about the fight against ISIS, KSLA (Tuscon News Now) (November 18, 2015).
- Stuart Rothenberg (November 4, 2013). "Two House Candidates Who Stumbled Over Simple Questions". Roll Call.
- Jim Nintzel, The Skinny: CD2: The Medicaid Prescription, Tucson Weekly (May 1, 2014).
- Alexis Egeland, Arizona lawmakers mirror House, split by party on Obamacare repeal, Cronkite News/Arizona PBS (January 13, 2017).
- Linda Valdez (September 30, 2014). "Martha McSally won't answer border questions". Arizona Republic.
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- Aaron Blake (January 31, 2017). "Whip Count: Here's where Republicans stand on Trump's controversial travel ban". Washington Post.
- Julia Shumway, Fact Check: McSally's stance on abortion, Arizona Republic (October 31, 2014).
- Jim Nintzel, McSally Supports Abortion Ban After 20 Weeks; Grijalva, Kirkpatrick Oppose Bill, Tuscon Weekly (May 19, 2015).
- Bill Theobald & Rebekah L. Sanders, Reaction to the Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage, Arizona Republic (June 26, 2015).
- Jim Nintzel, The Skinny: A Means to an ENDA, Tucson Weekly (November 14, 2013).
- Jennifer Bendery White (October 12, 2016). "LGBT Rights Take Center Stage In Arizona Congressional Race". The Huffington Post.
- "Congresswoman Martha McSally Pushes Discriminatory, Anti-LGBT Provision in NDAA" (Press release). Human Rights Campaign. May 19, 2016.
- Lopez, Kathryn Jean (October 25, 2012). "A 'War on Women' Education". National Review.
- "STATE OF ARIZONA OFFICIAL CANVASS" (PDF). azsos.gov. December 3, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Unofficial Results Primary Election". Arizona Secretary of State. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "Case L5373439". Arizona Superior Court in Pima County. 1997-03-22. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- Powers Hannley, Pamela (2012-10-31). "'Sham' Marriage Allegations Arise Against Arizona Congressional Candidate Col. Martha McSally". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Bergquist, Carl, "1st Air Force female pilot in combat reflects on career", Aerotech News and Review, December 22, 2006
- SeniorWomen.com articles by author David Westheimer (USAF Reserve Lt. Col.) "Women in Blue" at , & 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Martha McSally.|
- U.S. Representative Martha McSally, official U.S. House website
- Martha McSally for Congress official website,
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Women in Combat, policy change briefing by SecDef Les Aspin, April 28, 1993 (C-SPAN video, forward to 33 minute point)
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Martha McSally speaking on campaign trail in Sierra Vista March 2012
- Profile, ctie.monash.edu.au; accessed November 8, 2014
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 2nd congressional district
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Representatives by seniority
|Arizona's delegation(s) to the 114th–115th United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)|
|114th||Senate: J. McCain • J. Flake||House: T. Franks • R. Grijalva • P. Gosar • D. Schweikert • A. Kirkpatrick • M. Salmon • K. Sinema • R. Gallego • M. McSally|
|115th||Senate: J. McCain • J. Flake||House: T. Franks • R. Grijalva • P. Gosar • D. Schweikert • K. Sinema • R. Gallego • M. McSally • A. Biggs • T. O'Halleran|