Marthandavarma (novel)

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Marthandavarma
This is the title page of first edition
Title page of the first edition
Author C.V. Raman Pillai
Original title മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ
Translator B. K. Menon (1936 – English)
O. Krishna Pillai (1954 – Tamil)
R. Leela Devi (1979 – English)
Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty (1990 – Hindi)
P. Padmanabhan Thambi (2007 – Tamil)
Country India
Language Malayalam
Genre Historical Novel
Historical Romance
Set in Travancore (1727 – 1732)
Published

Malayalam :

June 11, 1891 (Author)
1911 – 1925 (B. V. Book Depot)
1931 – 1971 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
1973 onwards (Sahithya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sangham)
1983 onwards (Poorna Publications)
1992 onwards (D. C. Books)
1999 (Kerala Sahitya Akademi)

English :

1936 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
1979 (Sterling Publishers)
1998 (Sahitya Akademi)

Tamil :

1954 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
2007 (Sahitya Akademi)

Hindi :

1990 (Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha)
Media type Print (Paperback)
ISBN 8171301304 (D. C. Books ed.)
Followed by Dharmaraja, Ramarajabahadur
Original text
മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ at Malayalam Wikisource

Marthandavarma (Malayalamമാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ, Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma [mɑːṟt̪t̪ɑːɳɖaʋaṟmma]) is a historical romance novel by C. V. Raman Pillai published in 1891. It recounts the history of Venad (Travancore) during the final period of Rajah Rama Varma’s reign and subsequently to the accession of Marthanda Varma. Set in Kollavarsham 901–906 (Gregorian calendar: 1727–1732), the story revolves around three protagonists, Ananthapadmanabhan, Subhadra and Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who try to protect the title character from Padmanabhan Thambi and Ettu Veetil Pillamar who plan to oust him from the throne of Travancore. The novel utilizes rich allusions to the Indian subcontinent and Western, historical, cultural and literary traditions.

The historical plot is aided with the love story of one of the lead pairs, Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, the chivalric actions of the former, and the aspects of romanticism in the longing of Parukutty for her lover as well as in the unrequited love of Zulaikha. The yesteryear politics of Venad is presented thru the council of Ettuveettil Pillas, the subsequent claim of throne for Padmanabhan Thambi, the coup attempt, the patriotic conduct of Subhadra, and finally to her tragedy following the suppression of revolt. The intertwined representation of history and romance is attained thru classic style of narration, which includes vernacular languages for various characters, rhetorical embellishments, and the blend of dramatic and archaic style of language suitably to the bygone period.

This novel is the first historical novel published in Malayalam language and in south India. The first edition, self published by the author in 1891, received positive to mixed reviews, but book sales did not produce significant revenue. The revised edition, published in 1911, was an enormous success and became a bestseller. The story of Travancore is continued in the later novels, Dharmaraja (1913) and Ramarajabahadur (1918–1919). These three novels are together known as CV's Historical Narratives and C. V. Raman Pillai's Novel Trilogy in Malayalam literature.

The 1933 movie adaptation Marthanda Varma led to a legal dispute with the novel's publishers and became the first literary work in Malayalam to be the subject of a copyright infringement. The novel has been translated into English, Tamil, and Hindi, and has also been abridged and adapted in a number of formats, including theater, radio, television, and comic book. The Marthandavarma has been included in the curriculum for courses offered by universities in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, as well as the curriculum of the Kerala State Education Board.

Historical background and context[edit]

Princely states in Kerala

The Venad kingdom under Ravi Varma (Kollavarsham 859–893, Gregorian Calendar: 1684–1718) had to resist the foreign attacks and do the eventual payments of arrears to Madurai Nayaks; which resulted in the imposition of fresh taxes to meet the expenses. This made the feudal chieftains, the feudal lords (Ettuveettil Pillamar) and their confederates (Madampimar), who were once suppressed by Kerala Varma of Kottayam (Wayanad) during the period of Umayamma Rani, to become recalcitrant.[1] Ravi Varma was succeeded by Aditya Varma (Kollavarsham 893–894, Gregorian Calendar:1718), and during his reign, resolutions are made by the local bodies in villages not to pay the taxes.[2] Unni Kerala Varma succeeded to the throne, and during his reign, the feudal chieftains became more powerful as the King was weak in disposition. The forces once organized by Kerala Varma were disbanded and some of them took services under the feudal lords.[3] Unni Kerala Varma was succeeded by Rama Varma in Kollavarsham 899 (Gregorian Calendar: 1724); during his reign the feudal lords were grown stronger.[4][5]

Rama Varma, pleased with the energy and intelligence of the then prince Marthanda Varma, allowed the latter to take necessary actions in the affairs of government; which the prince utilized to adopt the measures against rebellious spirit of feudal lords, who in-turn became his inveterate enemies and planned lethal actions against the prince.[6] Marthanda Varma suggested to the King to avail aid from the foreign forces against the power of feudal lords, and Rama Varma made a treaty with Madurai Nayaks at Tiruchirappalli in Kollavarsham 901 (Gregorian Calendar 1726) to have additional forces be supplied to Venad for an annual payment.[5]

Context[edit]

The Travancore royal family follows Marumakkathayam as the rule of succession, which is collateral descent through maternal nephews.[7] The feudatory chiefs persuaded the sons of King Rama Varma, Pappu Thambi and Raman Thambi to claim their father’s throne through Makkathayam, which is lineal descent through sons, while Marthanda Varma was the legal heir.[8] The novel opens in Kollavarsham 901, when feudatory chiefs are taking lethal actions against prince Marthanda Varma, while King Rama Varma headed to Tiruchirappalli for the treaty with Nayaks.[9] The plot moves two years ahead during when the payment to Madurai forces became arrears, the King become ill and bed ridden, feudatory chiefs and sons of Rama Varma joined hands in conspiring against the prince.[10]

The novel narrates how Marthanda Varma ascended to the throne overcoming the hurdles[11] with the help of his well wishers and the entanglements of their personal lives with the history of Travancore (Venad).[12][13]

Title[edit]

The novel released with the title scripted as മാൎത്താണ്ഡവൎമ്മാ in Malayalam, for which the Latin equivalent is Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmmā. Though the original title is a single word, the English counterpart was scripted as Martanda Varma with a space between Martanda and Varma akin to the scripting of the title in Tamil as மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா. The title was later changed to മാൎത്താണ്ഡവൎമ്മ in the editions brought out by Kamalalaya Book Depot by omitting the long Monophthong vowel sign ാ (ā) in the end, the English counterpart was corrected as Marthandavarma. The title was further revised post the centenary of the novel as മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ, replacing the Dot reph, ൎ with Chillu, ർ inline with the contemporary Malayalam script usage.

Plot summary[edit]

In Panchavan forest a group of merchants find a young man, Ananthapadmanabhan, unconscious and covered in blood. They take him with them. Two years later, Parukutty still refuses to believe that her missing lover, Ananthapadmanabhan, is dead. Her mother arranges for her to marry Padmanabhan Thambi, elder son of aging King Rama Varma, through Thambi's right hand, Sundarayyan. The king has fallen ill and is confined to his bed. Desiring the throne, Thambi, with Sundarayyan, spreads the lie that the rightful heir, Prince Marthanda Varma, planned the attack on Ananthapadmanabhan because of an argument over a prostitute. Thambi allies himself with the Ettuveettil Pillas to oust the prince, stirring up the people against him and the royal officials. Some citizens stop paying taxes and the forces and finances of the royals are diminished.

Prince Marthanda Varma and his aide, Parameswaran Pilla, go to Bhoothapandi. The forces from Madurai are camped there, unwilling to support the royals until they are paid the full price agreed upon by the king. A payment, brought by the prime minister, was insufficient and he was forced to stay as an assurance of payment. Marthanda Varma worries that Raman Thambi, the king's second son, may adversely influence the Madurai forces while visiting. When the prince and his aide are at Padmanabhapuram, Padmanabhan Thambi arrives. To evade him, they travel through an underground tunnel to Charottu palace.

While visiting Thambi’s palace, Sundarayyan sees the prince's aide and tips off Velu Kuruppu, a loyalist fighter who serves Padmanabhan Thambi. Velu Kuruppu and lancers chase the prince and his aide from Charottu palace. A mad Channan, Ananthapadmanabhan in disguise, helps the duo escape by fighting with their pursuers. He is in turn rescued by an archer who is indebted to him for saving his life when he was bitten by a snake. The prince and his aide take refuge at Mangoikkal Kuruppu's house. Velu Kuruppu tells his master, Thambi, about the fight with the Channan. Following Thambi's order to capture the Channan-people, the mad Channan is captured and locked in the dungeon. Upon discovering that Marthanda Varma is at Mangoikkal's house, Velu Kuruppu sends his men to the house and rushes back to Thambi to arrange for more lancers and Nair soldiers to finish off the prince. The mad Channan finds an underground passage from the dungeon to Charottu palace.

As the prince and Mangoikkal arrange for additional forces, Velu Kuruppu and his men launch an attack on Mangoikkal. The mad Channan leaves Charottu palace and rushes to the Channan-people. Mangoikkal and his nephews try to resist Velu Kuruppu’s men as they surround the house and set it afire. The mad Channan and the Channan-people reach Mangoikkal's house and fight the attackers. The mad Channan rescues the prince and his aide from the house before its consumed by fire. Fighters from Mangoikkal's martial arts school join the fight and defeat Velu Kuruppu’s men. That night, Thirumukhathu Pilla visits Thambi to ask about the murder of his son, Ananthapadmanabhan. One of Velu Kuruppu’s lancers arrives and tells of the defeat at Mangoikkal's.

Marthanda Varma returns to his Thiruvananthapuram home. A message arrives at Chembakasserry from Thirumukhathu Pilla about his son's murder. Parukutty still refuses to believe Ananthapadmanabhan is dead. Thambi and Sundarayyan arrive to stay at Chembakassery. At night, Ananthapadmanabhan, disguised as a citizen of Kasi (Kasivasi) enters Chembakassery by drugging the caretaker of the armory. Thambi, overwhelmed by Parukutty's beauty, goes to her room to attain her but is dragged out by Kasivasi. Half asleep, Parukutty is disturbed by glimpses of the scuffle and falls ill. Later, Sundarayyan steals ornaments from the house.

Thambi and his team leave the next morning. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla comes to inquire into Parukutty's illness. He is then followed by Ananthapadmanabhan, disguised as a beggar, to Kudamon Pilla's house. At Kudamon's house a council is formed by the Ettuveettil Pillas and Sundarayyan in support of Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla voices his dissatisfaction with the situation but assures his support. He leaves the council, followed by the beggar. Kazhakkoottathu meets Mangoikkal on the way. The beggar returns to the council to hear the final decision. The council decides to assassinate Prince Marthanda Varma.

Afterwards, Ramanamadathil Pilla meets Subhadra, the granddaughter of Kudamon Pilla's maternal aunt. Kazhakkoottathu tricks Mangoikkal and abducts him. As Sundarayyan is returning from the council, he is confronted by the beggar who tries to snatch the council note from him. Struggling, they both fall into the Killiyar. The beggar rescues Sundarayyan, who cannot swim. Sundarayyan awakes on the shore and delivers the council decision to Thambi. Learning of Parukutty's illness, Subhadra goes to console her mother and learns about Thambi’s stay and the theft at the house. At the royal palace a message arrives from Pathan camp warning of the council at Kudamon Pilla’s house, as the resolution is unknown, the prince should stay alert at all times. The message also announces the arrival of Mangoikkal. Ramayyan recommends strict action against the conspirators but the prince disagrees. During the discussion the prince realizes that Kalakkutty, whom he had sent to deliver a request for help to Thirumakhathu Pilla, is the maternal uncle-in-law of Sundarayyan. The prince's aide goes to find Mangoikkal but returns unsuccessful. The prince says the Ettuveettil Pillas may have harmed Mangoikkal. At this, his aide rushes to Pathan camp.

Meanwhile, Thambi sends Sundarayyan to ask about Parukutty’s illness. Sundarayyan, frightened from last night's fight, hides in the house. Subhadra arrives and asks Thambi about his actions at Chembakassery. Thambi says he was confronted by Ananthapadmanabhan's ghost before he could touch Parukutty and he does not know anything about the ornaments. During the conversation Thambi realizes that Subhadra knows that the murder that he and Sundarayyan are trying to blame on the prince was committed by Velu Kuruppu. Thambi goes to stab her with his dagger but, seeing her unmoved, he shrinks back. When Subhadra leaves, Thambi and Sundarayyan decide to kill her, as she knows their secret.

Sundarayyan buys poison at Pathan camp but Ananthapadmanabhan, disguised as Shamsudeen, sells him a harmless colored powder. Subhadra persuades Shanku Assan to tell her if the Kasivasi who entered Chambakassery the other night is still at Pathan camp. On his return from Pathan camp, Assan tells her that Sundarayyan was there buying poison. At Pathan camp, Hakkim warns Shamsudeen to be careful of danger when searching for Mangoikkal. Subhadra realizes that Sundarayyan plans to poison her and returns home. The prince and his aide, disguised as civilians, go with Ramayyan to look for Mangoikkal.

At night, Ramayyan goes to Sree Pandarathu house, home of Kazhakkoottathu, searching for Mangoikkal. The prince and his aide, sheltered behind a tree, notice an unidentifiable figure (Velu Kuruppu) pass by in a westerly direction. Later, the prince witnesses Sundarayyan heading to his wife, Anantham's, house. Subhadra is with Ramanamadathil Pilla, who leaves after assuring her that he will return. As Ramanamadathil passes by, the prince overhears him talking to himself about the greatness of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, who captured Mangoikkal. Ramayyan returns to the prince and tells him that he could not check at Sree Panadarathu house due to additional security forces stationed there. The prince sends him to Anantham's house to learn her husband’s plans.

Ramayyan soon returns as Sundarayyan and Anantham were talking behind the doors and the house's parameter was being watched by Sundarayyan's brother, Kodanki. Velu Kuruppu arrives at Thambi’s house. Pleased to see him, Thambi hides him in his house. The prince and his aides leave to check on the ailing king. The archer, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, chases after them, shooting arrows. The arrows are struck down by the mad Channan who then beats down the archer. Anantham brings food, that her husband secretly poisoned, to Subhadra. Subhadra realizes that the stolen ornaments are at Anantham's house and that she is unaware of her husband's plans. The mad Channan, hiding nearby, overhears their conversation. Ramanamadathil, Sundarayyan and Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla visit Thambi’s house to talk about assassinating the prince.

When Ramanamadathil returns, Subhadra realizes the plan to assassinate the prince by Velu Kuruppu. She sends Shankarachar to deliver a note to the prince, orders ten of her servants to retrieve the ornaments and orders her servant Pappu to announce at Thambi’s house that she is dead. She sends another servant to Pathan camp. At the king’s palace, the prince is relieved to find that the king is a bit better after receiving medicine. Velu Kuruppu attempts to stab the prince while he is returning to his palace with his aide. Shankarachar stops him, they fight and Velu Kuruppu stabs Shankarachar then runs away. The prince and his aide reach Shankarachar, who manages to deliver the note before his final breath. Velu Kuruppu reaches Thambi, who summons Ramanamadathil, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, Sundarayyan and Kodanki. They decide to move Mangoikkal from Sree Pandarathu house to Chembakassery.

Meanwhile, the mad Channan goes to Sree Pandarathu house, drugs the guards and gets the keys. He finds Mangoikkal in the dungeon but Ramanamadathil and company arrive and cut off their escape. In turn, Velu Kuruppu then Kondanki approach the Channan and are shot dead by his pistol. Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla draws his bow. The Channan takes another pistol from his waist. Ramanamadathil intervenes and says that they will go to Chembakassery and be prosecuted by Thirumikhathu Pilla. The Channan agrees on the condition that he be allowed to keep his weapons. Subhadra’s servants return with the items from Anantham's house. Subhadra sends two of her servants to learn the whereabouts of Shankarachar. After a few hours the servants return with news of the deaths that occurred that night. Mangoikkal and the Channan are moved to Chembakassery and are watched over by palace guards who are loyal to Thambi. Sundarayyan and others spread the lie that prince Marthanda Varma tried to assassinate Ramanamadathil and is responsible for the night's murders.

Anantham tells Subhadra about the theft at her house. Saddened, Subhadra gets some relief when her servant returns from Pathan camp with medicine for Parukutty. He also tells her that one of the men at the camp resembles her ex-spouse. Pappu announces Subhadra's death at Thambi’s house but one of Thambi’s servants brings news of the theft at Sundarayyan’s house and Sundarayyan learns from his wife that Subhadra still lives. An angry mob of citizens rushes the palace, but are turned back by the ailing king who signals them to leave. Ramanamadathil arrives at Thambi’s house to tell about the revolt at the palace and praises the actions of Sundarayyan. Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla and a servant arrive and announce the death of King Rama Varma. After Rama Varma's funeral, Marthanda Varma manages to send the required payment to the forces from Madurai. Subhadra reaches Chembakassery with medicine for Parukutty, who immediately begins to recover from her illness. Subhadra stays at Chembakassery for the next five days.

The prince discovers that the men sent from Kilimanoor, led by Narayanayyan, have been defeated by Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and his men. He fires the palace guards who are working for Thambi. At Chembakassery, Subhadra explains that one of the men in detention is a mad man and should be released. Subhadra returns home after learning of the council being held at her house by Thambi and team. Parukutty gets the caretaker to release the two men from detention. She and her mother take the keys down to the dungeon. Upon release, the mad Channan tries to conceal his true identity by running ahead. He is followed by Mangoikkal. Parukutty sees his resembles to her missing lover and realizes that he is the one who fought off Thambi the night he tried to attain her. Ettuveettil Pillas, the Thambi brothers and Sundarayyan decide to assassinate the prince at the palace that night. Mangoikkal's nephews arrive at the palace to support the prince. He tells them to come in the morning and coordinate with Ramayyan.

Later, the prince is awakened from his sleep by Subhadra's arrival in his room. She tells him his life is in danger. He must leave the palace at once and move his nephew and aunt to a safe place. The prince follows her after remembering that she was the one who helped him another night. Kudamon Pilla, Padmanabhan Thambi and company enter the palace to assassinate the prince but find no one. Subhadra sends her servant in another direction and then heads to her house with Marthanada Varma, Parameswaran and Ramayyan who are disguised as menials. They are spotted by Raman Thambi and his team on the way, but she and the trio evade him due to her quick thinking. The trio hide near a banyan tree while Subhadra fetches five men, dressed as porters, from her home and rejoins them. She instructs them to cross Venganoor. They are about to leave when Thirumukhathu Pilla arrives and recognizes the prince. He asks Subhadra why she is helping the one who killed her brother, Ananthapadmanabhan. She assures him that her brother is not dead. Thirumukhathu reveals that he is her father. Subhadra says that her brother will be at Pathan camp.

Subhadra goes home and the others head east as Thirumukhathu knows that Aruveettukar are waiting near the west banks of the river, Karamana. Unable to find the prince, Thambi and the Ettuveettil Pillas lead their forces to Manakkadu, to attack Magaoikkal's fighters. Tipped off by Subhadra, Mangoikkal's fighters are able to put up a stiff resistance despite being outnumbered. Pathan fighters led by Shamsudeen and Beeram Khan arrive and assist against Thambi’s forces. Shamsudeen fights Thambi while Beeram Khan fights Sundarayyan who he has a personal grudge against for causing his separation from, his then-spouse, Subhadra. Sundarayyan brings down Beeram Khan's horse, trapping the latter under the horse. Sundarayyan advances towards him but Beeram Khan springs out from under the body, kills his opponent and leaves the battlefield at once. Shamsudeen shoots Thambi in the hand as he is about to kill Nuradeen. Before Ramanamadathil Pilla and Raman Thambi can advance towards Shamsudden the battlefield is surrounded by Thirumukhathu Pilla and Prince Marthanda Varma's forces. The Thambi brothers and the Ettuveettil Pillas are arrested.

The next day, the prince conducts post funerary rituals for the king. He brings back his nephew, the little prince, and aunt, who were safeguarded by Keralavarma Koithampuran at Chembakassery. There, a joyful Parakutty awaits her lover Ananthapadmanabhan's return from the Pathan camp. A few days later, Marthanda Varma ascends the throne at Pathan camp. It is revealed that Ananthapadmanabhan was attacked two years ago by Velu Kuruppu at Panchavan forest when he was on his way to aid the prince. He was rescued by the Pathan people. The king orders Ananthapadmanabhan to move Subhadra from her house to safeguard her from Kudamon Pilla, who the king has just released. Subhadra is at her house and sad due to the revelation about her ex-spouse. Kudamon Pilla arrives, catches her by the hair and is about to plunge his sword but Beeram Khan rushes in crying not to kill her. On hearing the voice of her ex-spouse and seeing him longing for her, she thanks god that she can even die. The sword falls on her neck. Before Kudamon Pilla can slay Beeram Khan, he is cut into two by Ananthapadmanabhan who has just arrived. On hearing the news, Marthanda Varma swears under his breath that he will seek vengeance on those responsible for the un-warranted deed of blood.

Three years later, Mangoikkal's house has been rebuilt. Ananthapadmanabhan heads Marthanda Varma’s forces in battles with Desinganadu and other kingdoms. He stays at Chembakassery with his family. Marthanda Varma earns fame as a protector of the people as well as a servant to Sreepadmanabha deity. The people celebrate.

Characters[edit]

Development[edit]

Background and composition[edit]

C. V. Raman Pillai was introduced to historical fiction through the works of Sir Walter Scott and Alexandre Dumas during his days at Maharaja's College, Thiruvananthapuram.[14] After graduating in 1881,[15] Pillai traveled to the southern provinces of Travancore with his friend P. Thanu Pillai, then the Tahsildar at Agastheeswaram, and became acquainted with the regional legends that he later incorporated in his novels.[16]

Mukkalampattu Janaki Amma remembers Bhageeridhi Amma telling her that before starting to write Marthandavarma, Pillai used to read English novels and take notes.[17] While writing Marthandavarma, Pillai had difficulty sleeping and his constant betel chewing instigated his writing.[18] During the composition, Pillai’s spouse and Mukkalampattu Janaki Amma were amanuenses, whenever one of them was free. However, Ms. Thazhamadathu Janaki Amma, a neighbor, actually transcribed more for the author than either of them.[17] Pillai went to Madras to pursue his law examination.[19][20]

In January 1890, the Malayalam novel Indulekha was released and became a topic of discussion among the friends-circles in Madras.[22] The instant fame of Indulekha and its author O. Chandumenon swayed C. V. Raman Pillai to complete his novel Marthandavarma.[23] N. Balakrishnan Nair states an account of challenge raised by some Malabarians that whether there were any men in Travancore who could create a literary work as Indulekha, to which C. V. Raman Pillai reciprocated that he will prove it as affirmative.[24] According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, for almost two months from then, author was involved in the scripting of Marthandavarma.[23] C. V. Raman Pillai, while involved in the discussions of memorandum, mentioned to G. Parameswaran Pillai that with the publication of his novel, Marthandavarma, people would be proud about their early history. Eventually he was not interested to pass the law examinations, as his main intention was to complete Marthandavarma novel and ready the manuscript for printing.[25] C. V. Raman Pillai left for Trivandrum after he was entrusted to translate the memorandum to Malayalam.[22] According to N. Balakrishnan Nair, the author rejoined in his job on Ciṅṅaṁ 9, 1066 (August 23, 1890).[26]

C. V. Raman Pillai sent the completed chapters to his friend N. Raman Pillai at Madras, who in turn edited and contributed to the manuscript.[27] The author’s earlier experiences of having estranged from home, his life with Muslims at Hyderabad, having suggested converting to Islam and marry a Muslim girl were adapted to build the characterization of Shamsudeen and the descriptions of Pathan camp in the novel.[28] The character of Karthyayani Amma is based on his elder sister, and the attire of Velu Kuruppu was based on the outlook of K. C. Kesava Pillai.[26]

Controversy over the period[edit]

According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, consensus is the novel was developed during 1890, though he claimed that the author wrote it between 1883 and 1885, which contradicts his own statement that C. V. Raman Pillai thought about writing a novel only at the age of twenty-eight years, which is around 1887.[29] Dr. P. Venugopalan affirms that there is an earlier version of the novel, and that N. Raman Pillai listened to a reading of an early draft while at Madras.[30] The affirmation about the inclusion of Subhadra in the earlier version of novel brought out another contradiction to the claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair with his own quotes from the words of C. V. Raman Pillai, which state that the author envisioned the character of Subhadra through his wife, Bhageeridhi Amma, whom he married only in November 1887.[31] One of Pillai's later amanuenses, K. R. Prameswaran Pilla, quoted the author as saying that he started writing Marthandavarma while staying in Madras.[32] N. Balakrishanan Nair notes that, Pillai made several visits to Madras with the particulars from N. Raman Pillai’s home, while G. Parameswaran Pillai and the latter were in Madras.[33] Dr. George Irumbayam asked P. K. Parameswaran Nair about the existence of such a letter, who said that he had lost it. The claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair and those who supported the same were concluded as attempts of fans of C. V. Raman Pillai, whom they wanted to cast as the first novelist of Malayalam literature, and Dr. George Irumbayam remarked that the fans went to the extent of not believing the words of the writer in the deliberation of their attempt.[34]

Printing[edit]

P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that the proceedings with printers at Madras were initiated after the completion of novel writing, which contradicts his own statement about the completion of printing till 150 pages while quoting a letter from N. Raman Pillai, whose words indicate that the scripting was in progress.[27] K. R. Parameswaran Pilla notes that the printing of the novel was started after the completion of third chapter.[35] The printing was done at Messrs. Addison & Co., Madras, to whom the manuscripts were passed over by N. Raman Pillai.[27] N. Balakrishnan Nair points that C. V. Raman Pillai went to hometown from Madras to arrange the money for printing, and during the time, he sent the manuscripts to N. Raman Pillai.[24]

C. V. Raman Pillai was involved in the Malayalam translation of memorandum proposed by G. Prameswaran Pillai titled then as Malayāḷi Memorial followed by the printing and getting the signatures from supporters, and being involved in the activities, he fell short of money as some promised sponsors pulled out fearing an adverse reaction from Government.[36] K. P. Sankara Menon and G. Parameswaran Pillai came to Trivandrum by the end of December 1890 for campaigning about the memorandum. C. V. Raman Pillai bore the expenses of their commutations and proceedings, and went on to sell his wife’s necklace to meet the requirements.[37] The memorandum was eventually sent to the king on January 10, 1891 by K. P. Sankara Menon.[38]

The financial crunch due to the situations put C. V. Raman Pillai in a difficulty that he could not meet the expenses to complete the printing of the remaining chapters as intended; so, he made a concise version and got it printed as part of twenty-sixth chapter, which thus became the final chapter of the novel. P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that there were three more chapters after the twenty-sixth chapter by referring to a letter from N. Raman Pillai, who came to know about the concise narration only after getting the printed copy as he had left to Thiruvananthapuram before the completion of printing, criticized the author regarding the same.[39] According to N. Balakrishnan Nair, the concise version included in twenty-sixth chapter is an abridgement of two intended chapters. C. V. Raman Pillai states in the preamble that he wanted to have an annexure at the end of the novel.[24]

Publication[edit]

Release[edit]

When printing of further copies with errata was over, C. V. Raman Pillai made a request for permission on April 13, 1891 to submit the first copy at royal palace, and subsequently the book was released on June 11, 1891 after presenting the first copy to Aswathi Thirunal Marthanda Varma, to whom the book is also dedicated to.[40] Pillai sent two copies to Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, one for the recipient and another for recipient’s wife, which was acknowledged in the recipient's letter to the author dated June 24, 1891.[41] N. Balakrishnan Nair states that author gave several copies of book as complimentary ones, out of the total 1000 copies printed.[42] According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, the publication of Marthandavarma was a great event in the history of Malayalam literature.[41] The novel was the first of its kind in Malayalam literature, the release of the novel made Malayalam the sixth[A] Indian language and first Dravidian language to have a novel in the genre of historical fiction, thus became the first[B] historical novel of South India.

Revised edition[edit]

In 1911, Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon,[i] who owned B. V. Book Depot at Trivandrum, acquired rights of the novel, to publish from his own publishing house.[61] C. V. Raman Pillai did a revision for the new edition, in which he had replaced the edits of N. Raman Pillai in the first edition with his own. The author corrected the flaws in the usages of Sanskrit and Malayalam words, together with the change of phrases that are in line with the then usages of Malayalam. The changes included the removal of a precognitive narration about the death of Padmanabhan Thambi at Nagercoil, removal of reference to an earlier spouse of character Anantham prior to her relationship with Sundarayyan and removal of references to mistresses from Thanjavur.[62] The copyrights of the novel were registered on August 11, 1911,[40] and D. C. Kizhakemuri notes that the copyrights were reserved until December 31, 1972.[63]

All the reprints of the novel available after 1911 are only of the revised edition. Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society (SPCS) alias Sahithya Pravarthaka Shakarana Sangham of Kottayam, Poorna Publications of Kozhikode, and D. C. Books of Kottayam started publishing their editions from 1973,[64] 1983,[65] and 1992[66] respectively to remain as the major publishers[C] of the novel.

Translations[edit]

Marthandavarma has been translated into three languages, Tamil, English and Hindi as five different versions, among which two were in Tamil another two, were in English and one incomplete translation was in Hindi.

  • 1936: Marthanda Varma (English) – The first English translation by B. K. Menon[ii] was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot, Trivandrum in 1936,[72] and was republished by Sahitya Akademi in 1998 after a revision by the daughter of B. K. Menon, Prema Jayakumar.[71]
  • 1954: மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmā, Tamil) – The first translation of the novel in Tamil was by O. Krishna Pillai. It was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot, Trivandrum.[73]
  • 1979: Marthanda Varma (English) – The second English translation by R. Leela Devi was published by Sterling Publishers, New Delhi. A reprint by the same publisher was released in 1984.[74]
  • 1990: मार्ताण्ड वर्मा (Mārtāṇḍa Varmā, Hindi) – Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty has done the Hindi translation, which was serialized and left incomplete in the editions of journal Kēraḷ Jyōti from Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha, Thiruvananthapuram during June 1990 to December 1990.[75]
  • 2007: மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmmā, Tamil) – The second Tamil translation of the novel by P. Padmanabhan Thambi was published by Sahitya Akademi.[76]

Reception[edit]

The novel received positive to mixed response, being the first historical novel of Malayalam literature and south India. Prof. Guptan Nair notes that the literary work was hailed as a masterpiece.[77]

Critical reception[edit]

In the review appeared on The Hindu, Madras edition dated December 21, 1891, the novel is mentioned as a respectable specimen what an Indian graduate is capable of accomplishing in the department of fiction.[78] P. Thanu Pillai rated the novel as a rare and valuable addition to the literature of Malayalam.[79] Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran and Kodungallur Kunjikkuttan Thampuran ranked the novel as better than the heretofore-released novels[E] in Malayalam. Kilimanoor Ravi Varma Koil Thampuran remarked that he could not keep aside the novel once he started reading the book. P. Sundaram Pillai stated that he read the novel with so much pride.[41] The review in The Hindu criticized the free usage of Sanskrit words, which will make novel to be enjoyed by the elite people and not the general readers.[77] Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran criticized the inappropriate usages of Sanskrit words, among which some[F] are remarked as unpardonable blunders.[87]

General reception[edit]

When Marthandavarma was released, the people of Trivandrum devoured it.[77] N. Balakrishnan Nair notes that the release of novel was celebrated like a literary festival at Trivandrum.[88] Though the novel became the topic of discussion in cottages, elite circles, clubs and law courts, the sale of book was very poor.[89] The author did not even get the required revenue to pay the printing costs,[30] and at one point of time, he took one hundred numbers of unsold books as a bundle to his elder brother, who was then the Tehsildar at Muvattupuzha and demanded one hundred rupees. C. V. Raman Pillai had sent unsold copies of the novel to P. Ayyappan Pillai[iii], the then Education Secretary and to his friend P. Thanu Pillai, the then Manager of Huzur Court (Court of Appeal) at their respective offices, to have those sold. N. Balakrishnan Nair notes that the remaining copies among the one thousand numbers of first print were damaged due to infestation by termites.[91] The general reading people slowly accepted the novel and, the author went on to release five more editions until 1911.[61]

Reception of revised edition[edit]

The revised edition of the novel, published in 1911 by Kulalakkunnathu Raman Menon's publishing house,[a] received overwhelming positive response and became one of the best sellers of the period. N. Balakrishnan Nair notes that the sale of book was similar to that of Adhyatma Ramayana and by 1951 Kamalalaya Book Depot released the 25th edition.[61] Dr. P. Venugopalan states that it is not doubtful that Marthandavarma is the most sold book in Malayalam.[94]

  1. ^ In 1931, the publishing house, B. V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Printing Works and copyrights of various titles were divided among the sons & daughters and brothers & sisters of the founder, Kulakkunnathu S. Raman Menon, who died in 1925, as B. V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Book Depot to proceed as separate institutions respectively.[92] Kamalalaya Book Depot retained the rights of Marthandavarma, and brought out further editions, translations, abridgment under the labels, Kamalalaya Book Depot, Kamalalaya Book Depot & Printing Works, and Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot.[93]

Theme[edit]

History and chivalric romance[edit]

In the preamble, Pillai states that he wrote the book with the intention of creating a model of historical romance in Malayalam; historical events of the eighteenth century serve as the skeleton of the story.[95] The novel presents the events during Kollavarsham 901 to 906 (Gregorian Calendar: 1726–1731), pertaining to disputes over the throne of Venad during 1729.[96] According to George Irumbayam, history is wrapped in romance,[97][98] and K. M. Tharakan echoes that point.[99] The internal conflicts in this novel are presented through the character of Subhadra, while most of major conflicts in the novel are external.[100] Dr. Kalpatta Balakrishnan notes that Anathapadmanabhan's heroic adventures combine romance and history.[101][102][103] The novel promotes hero-worship and patriotism through romantic affectation, a mode maintained until the end.[104]

Romance and romanticism[edit]

The realistic aspects of the novel are presented through conversations,[99] which in its inherence and vigor provide an individuality to the story.[105] Dr. George Irumbayam is of the view that the romantic elements in the novel are intertwined with the realistic legibility of historical elements.[106] The honest behavior of Mangoikkal Kuruppu to the prince, the anxious preparations of Karthyayani Amma to receive Padmanabhan Thambi, short-tempered reactions of Shanku Assan represent realistic aspects in the novel.[107][108] N. Balakrishnan Nair states that the novel is a love story built around a serious period in the history of Travancore.[109] The romance of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty is presented as a supporting aspect to heroism in the novel, according to Dr. Poojapura Krishnan Nair.[110] Ayyappa Paniker states that the romance between Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty gives a soul and emotional angle to the historical and political themes of the novel.[111] According to Dr. George Irumbayam, the historical plot about power struggle between Marthanda Varma and rebels is presented as rich and active through the love story of Ananthapadmanbhan and Parukutty.[112] The emotional factor of the novel is further emphasized with another plot of romance involving Ananthapadmanabhan with the unrequited love of Zulaikha, there by making the love story to be a triangular one.[113] The story of Subhadra is also considered as a tragic love story, which strengthens the romantic aspects of the novel.[114] The love failures of Subhadra and Zulaikha aid in creating a favorable surrounding for the romantic aspects of the novel.[115] Dr. D. Benjamin remarks that the very first instance of romantic love is in this novel.[116] The longing of Parukutty for the return of her lover, Zulaikha's love failure are seen as reminiscences of romantic love, and latter is considered as foremost romantic heroine of Malayalam literature in romanticism.[117] The romantic aspects similar to that in Prometheus Unbound and in the apocalyptic poetry of William Blake are identified in the personality of Subhadra,[118] with which the character coveys a conflict-oriented complexity of multi-colored romanticism.[119]

Politics[edit]

The author's political interests are shown in allegorical form.[120] The novel presents the conspiracies, power struggle, internal agitations in the political history of Travancore,[121] and history provided the basic conflict and a suitable period.[122] Ayyappa Paniker points that novelist incorporated political and social undercurrents in the novel,[123] which discusses a conflict between the ruler and the ruled.[124] The social relevance lies in its questioning of the collateral rule of succession (Marumakkathayam) followed in Venad,[125] with the failed agitation of Nair-Thambi clans to acquire power from Kshatriyas.[126] In a way, the basic theme of novel is the eruption of revolt against the collateral succession through maternal nephews, and the subsequent suppression of the revolt.[127] Kalpatta Balakrishnan notes that the major theme of the novel is power struggle between the royal head and the kingship seekers,[128] and not a conflict between the ruled and the ruler.[129] The relevance of historical context is that, it is about the contest to acquire political power,[130] and the political significance is that it is about forceful acquisition of royal power,[131] and so novel is previewed as a political novel.[132] The freedom of thought that links the ruled ones to the power is presented through Mangoikkal Kuruppu’s impeccable criticism of kingship.[133] In the high-paced narrative, the character of Subhadra creates the lot of responses,[134] as she is the only political character in the novel,[135] even though the character Marthanda Varma represents royal lineage, royal power and royal justice, where as Thambies and Pillas are the riotous group who try to topple the traditional rule of succession in the kingdom.[136] Subhadra represents the patriotic code of conduct, with which she heads to defeat the attempts of rebel groups, and eventually sacrifices her life.[137] The open claim for the throne and the subsequent agitations lead the course of actions in the novel; which in result is to topple the rule of succession of the kingdom.[138] This no-compromise fight for the throne makes the novel rather a political history of power struggle in Venad.[139] Ayyappa Paniker states that the author raises the royal position through the novel, not the personality of the royal head[140] as the history in novel is the historical awareness constituted by the author.[141]

Conflicts[edit]

When the historical background is kept apart, the novel represents dramatic feud between the good and bad,[142] and concludes to the complete failure of sin and partial success of goodness in the end.[143] The novel presents the fight between respectable and despicable characters as that in devasura conflict.[144] According to K. M. Tharakan, though novelist tries to preach global philosophy about the final victory of goodness through various conflicts in the plot, serious effort is not taken to unveil the human mindset;[145] however, M. P. Paul mentions that author depicts peculiar skill in presenting minute emotions of human mind, in the novel.[146] Even though, the motif of the novel is politics,[147] the curiosity generated in the novel is through exceptional presentation of interpersonal issues.[148] The novel successfully comprises history of the state, interpersonal relationships, and social issues in the outset of imagination.[149] The character of Subhadra adds the investigative mood to the plot,[150] though she is considered as the foremost representation of tragedy in C. V. Raman Pillai's writings.[151] The amusement-thread of the novel is led by her secretive investigations similar to that of Sherlock Holmes.[152] The story of Subhadra is presented as a delightful tragedy, where she realizes her identity apart from the atrocities of her ancestors.[153]

N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair[iv] state that the novel comprises three plots, among which the first one is the political theme about the power struggle between Marthanda Varma and opponents, the second is the romance of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, and the third is the tragedy of Subhadra.[155] Dr. M. G. Sasibhooshan states that the plot consists of four sections, which are the above three together with the adventures of Marthanda Varma, and concordance of these sections made the novel as an exceptional literary work.[156]

Style[edit]

Structure and characters[edit]

The novel is presented in twenty-six chapters describing the historical events, and each chapter is provided with an epigraph in the form of verses that implies the content of the respective chapter.[157] Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair point that the major events of the novel take place during Kollavarsham 903–904 (Gregorian Calendar: 1728), within a span of twenty-eight days, among which only eleven days are explicitly presented through the chapters from two to twenty-six. A night during the Kollavarsham 901 is presented in chapter one and a consolidated set of events until Kollavarsham 906 is narrated in the final chapter.[10] The novel switches to earlier periods, 1680s, 1703, 1720 while describing the backgrounds of Sundarayyan and Subhadra, marriage and breakup of Subhadra, and the relationship of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty. Prof. Thumpamon Thomas[v] points that the narration is as small water streams that eventually form into a waterfall similar to the strands in a twisted rope made of coir.[159] The novel uses a particular style of using verses from ballads, puranas, and archaic literary works in descriptions and dialogs pertaining to the narrative situation,[160] among which usage of puranic quotes are comparatively less in the novel.[161] The major usages of quotes as epigraphs and inline ones are to indicate the plot of respective chapters or to point a particular behavior of characters,[162] and this is noted to be a style inspired from Sir Walter Scott,[163] as well as a manifestation of author's knowledge in the purans, legends, yesteryear ballads, and socio-cultural situation of Venad.[164] The story is narrated in a non-complex structure[165] by maintaining the momentum of heroic valor and action, while presenting three dimensional characters.[166] The unveiling of truth and mystery in the end through conversations is arguably a perfection of narration technique, according to C. Sreekanta Kurup.[167] The narration easily convinces that environment created in the novel and the personalities of bygone period are coherent to the situation and are memorable, historically.[168] The variance in the behavior of characters are shown through specific style of language used for particular characters, though the styles of language in description and narration are same, which are also noted to be light and heart-touching,[169] as well as beautiful and vigorous as that in conversations.[170] The characters are presented in a way that it is impossible to differentiate between fictional and historical ones.[171] N. Krishna Pillai notes that the major attributes of historical characters in the novel are specifically given by the author.[172] The presentation of novel is unique with the creation of unprecedented characters and not through structure complexity, notes Dr. D. Benjamin.[173] The presentation of characters in the novel is noted to be similar to the appearance of roles in Kathakali.[174] The novel is noted to be focused on multiple heroes and heroines.[175] Dr. Grorge Irumbayam states that the hero of the novel is Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukkutty is the heroine,[176] however also mentions that the novel has dual heroines due to the prominence of the character, Subhadra.[177] Dr. D. Benjamin notes that Marthanda Varma is the hero of novel.[178] Dr. Kalpatta Balakrishnan remarks that Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty are leads of the plot only when the story is a romance,[179] and as the story is based on the heir-ship of Marthanda Varma who leads the course of actions,[180] Ananthapadmanabhan is not the hero of the novel.[181]

Narration[edit]

The expansion of plot is noted to be through the stagnantly rising events,[182] without pushing back the narration on the behest of describing the struggles of characters.[183] The narration keeps the reader in suspense, with the rise of incidents out of incidents, leading to unexpected intricacies and complications with a veil of mystery until the final revelations.[184] The novel is presented with so many events, the arrangements of which create a feel that plot is long enough to fit in a book double the present size of the novel.[185] Pillai created a new style of his own for narration,[186] in which author presents different style of languages for different characters.[187] N. Krishna Pillai points that 64% of the novel is used for conversations of characters.[188] The narration style interspersed with fine pieces of humor, and lively flashes of wit[189] is stated as heartily attractive to the readers[190] due to its simplicity and sweetness; which also leads the reader through the events of novel at fast pace.[191] Dr. Raghavan Pillai notes that the language used in the novel is simple and is not overly mixed with Sanskrit, when tallying with author's later novels.[192] The language used in this novel does not create any resistance to reading, unlike in his later novels.[193] The style of narration in Dharmaraja is termed as Kirmīravadhaśaili,[194] adhering to author’s terminology, Kiṟmīravadharīti[G], where as the narrative style used in this novel is termed as Śī Vī Śaili.[196] The author termed it as Mārttāṇḍavaṟmmā-style,[H] which he admitted to not able to continue in his later works.[198] The novel is noted for the usage of rhetorical embellishments in narration.[199] The narrative style comprises plenty of such embellishments as in a lyric, to form a rhetorical prose,[200] and this is noted to be author’s crookedness of narrative style.[201] The narrative style depicts a considerable level of the coherence between the consecutive sentences and in parts,[202] and presents notions adapted from performance arts such as Kathakali, Play, Kudiyattam, Mohiniyattam, and Bharatanatyam.[203] The dramatic language attained in the narration is through the abundant usages of passive voice and gender-neutral pronouns in objective case,[204] where as the archaic style of language is through usages of dative case.[205] The stylistic symbols among the specialties of language variance and author's idiolect marks the narration as a classic style.[206] The narration is presented in a manner that makes a reader to feel the accomplishment of wonders in the novel are inevitable.[207] The author successfully combines geographical structure of locality and suitable historical period with a legitimacy of day and night, and an accuracy as in an almanac, through his narrative style.[208]

The narrative style is noted to be of a global standard due to the extraordinary brilliance and greatness of subject as well as the presentation of human mindset in the novel.[209] The novel is identified as an incident-rich work interlaced with fast-paced events[165] during the period of a well-known historical personality, there by possessing the most required aspect of a historical novel.[210]

Intertextuality and allusions[edit]

The novel has a rich focus on intertextuality, making regular references and homages to both Indian subcontinent and Western literary traditions, histories and cultures. These sections provide a limited overview of the most important references and allusions in the novel and links to more thorough examinations of the allusions and intertextuality used throughout the novel.

Characters based on legends, history and real life[edit]

Marthanda Varma
Ananthan
Dharmaraja
Ramayyan

The novel presents characters with allusions to personalities from history, legends and personal life of author. The major characters based on history and legends apart from the title character, the prince Marthanda Varma based on Marthanda Varma[211][212] are Pappu Thambi & Raman Thambi,[213] based on the Thambi brothers,[214] Ananthapadmanabhan based on Ananthan / Ananthapadmanabhan, a warrior and commander in Travancore forces during the reign of Marthanda Varma,[155][215] Mangoikkal Kuruppu based on Mangottu Assan, a martial arts master from Mancode[I],[216][217] Ettuveettil Pillas[218] based on Ettuveetil Pillamar,[219][220] Ramayyan based on Ramayyan Dalawa,[221][222] and Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla based on Chadachi Marthandan, a legendary character from Chulliyur[J].[223][224]

The other characters are the King Rama Varma based on Rajah Rama Varma,[225][226] the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma based on the infant Dharma Raja,[227][228] and Ammattampurāṭṭi is based on his mother.[226][227] The novel also mentions about Narayanayyan, an assistant of Ramayyan Dalawa,[229][230] and Arumukham Pilla, the acting Dalawa of Venad during Kollavarsham 901–903 and Dalawa during 904–909.[221][231]

Events based on legends, history and politics[edit]

The novel mentions the pact with Madurai Nayaks made by king Rama Varma in Kollavarsham 901 at Tiruchirappalli to supply additional forces to Travancore for a fixed annual payment. It also mentions the lethal attempts on Marthanda Varma at Kalliyankattu temple, and also refers to similar attempts at Panathara, near the Ezhava house at Perunkadavila, as well as at the Nedumangad fort. The novel narrates an attempt by Velu Kuruppu and his men, when Marthanda Varma is aided by mad Channan to hide inside a tree implying the aid by a Channan plougher to hide and another attempt where Marthanda Varma hides inside the big hole within a jack tree at the Neyyattinkara Sree Krishna Swami Temple.[232] The novel makes references to lethal attempt on the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma, in Kollavarsham 903[226] while the little prince and mother were heading from Trivandrum to Attingal.[225] One of the major events mentioned novel is the heirship claim by Thambi brothers through linear succession[230] against the collateral rule of succession followed in Venad.[233] This is followed by the treaty of Thambi brothers with foreign forces[229] to out-throw Marthanda Varma from power.[4] The novel presents the council of Ettuveettil Pillas[234] planning the murder attempt on Marthanda Varma,[235] as well as the coup d'état by Thambi brothers.[213][236] The accession of Marthanda Varma[237] in Kollavarsham 904[221] post the illness and demise of king Rama Varma is mentioned in the novel.[238][10] The novel also narrates the detention of Arumukham Pilla by Madurai forces.

The other events mentioned in the novel are the conquest of Desiganadu by Marthanda Varma post the accession and the Kalipankulam incident as a murder of five princes with the involvement of Ramanamadathil Pilla, as well as the death of Padmanabhan Thambi at the hands of Marthanda Varma's accomplices. The novel also refers to the attack of a Mukilan (a petty chieftain under Moghul emperor) in Travancore during Kollavarsham 853–855[239] when, a few families were converted as Mohammedians,[240] and the tragic death of Iravikutti Pilla in the war against forces of Thirumalai Nayak.[241]

Architecture and geography[edit]

The novel describes the setting as the kingdom of Venad under the rule of the king Rama Varma . The major events of the novel happen in and around Padmanabhapuram, the capital of the kingdom, and Thiruvananthapuram within Venad. Other kingdoms also have importance in the novel: traitorous criminals are exiled to Aralvaimozhi, (Āṟāṁvaḻi), to the south-east.

Padmanabhapuram locations[edit]

Much of the novel is set in Padmanabhapuram Palace, Charottu palace, and Mangoikkal house. According to M. G. Sasibooshan, only the Darbhakulam mansion and the Kalkulam mansion of Padmanabhapuram Palace existed during the timeline of novel.[242] The novel describes the residence at the place of the present southern mansion on the northern side of the contemporary palace. Prince Marthada Varma halts there on his way to Boothapandi and later Padmanabhan Thambi camps there, after which fifty numbers of Channar people were executed at the palace compound.[242] Charottu palace is 2 miles (3.218688 km) north to Padmanabhapuram palace. Charottu palace is small, with only an enclosed quadrangular homestead (Nalukettu) and a cookhouse (Madapalli). The prince Marthanda Varma and his aide Parameswaran Pilla reside here after evading from Padmanabhan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace through the tunnel passage.[243] Dr. P. Venugopalan states that the closed tunnel passage between Padmanabhapuram palace and Charottu palace had access from the Tāikoṭṭāraṁ (Mother’s mansion) at the former palace, and cites its closed existence.[243]

Mangoikkal house is 2 Nazhika north to Charode. The house includes a grove, through which mad Channan reaches Mangoikkal house to rescue the prince Marthanda Varma. The novel also mentions the Mangoikkal kalari (martial arts school of Mangoikkal) is nearby which aid Mangoikkal Kuruppu and his nephews. The house name Mangoikkal is in reminiscence of house of Mangottu Assan at Mancode,[217] a village in Vilavancode taluk of Kanniyakumari district, and the house name of author’s patron Kesavan Thambi Karyakkar, Nangoikkal.[244]

In the novel, prince Marthanda Varma is cornered and trapped at Kalliancaud temple or Kaḷḷiyankāṭṭukṣētraṁ, from where, he is later escaped as a Brahmin. The temple is Kalliancaud Sivan Kovil (located at 8°11'52"N 77°23'27"E). Ananthapadmanabhan is attacked and left for dead by Velu Kuruppu in Panchavankadu or Panchavan forest, a forest area on the way to Nagercoil from the residence of Ananthapadmanbhan’s mother near Kollavarsham 901. Prof. N. Krishna Pilla and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair state that Panchavankadu and Kalliyankadu are the same.[245]

Thiruvananthapuram locations[edit]

The novel describes Thiruvananthapuram as the capital of the kingdom, but Dr. P. Venugopalan describes this as historically inaccurate, because the capital hadn't yet changed from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram.[246] The novel includes four major locations in Thiruvananthapuram: Thiruvananthapuram fort, Subhadra's house, Killi river, and Manacaud.

Thekkekoyikkal or the southern mansion within the fort is home to prince Marthanda Varma.[247] In the novel, Velu Kuruppu tries to attack Marthada Varma, while the latter is on his way to the mansion, but is foiled by Shankarachar.[248] The novel mentions another location within the fort, the house Chembakassery. Scholars debate Chembakassery's historicity: P. K. Parameswaran Nair assumes that Chembakassery house never existed,[249] where as the article Anantapadmanābhan nāṭāruṁ tiruvitāṁkūṟ niṟmmitiyuṁ states that the house existed and the author C. V. Raman Pillai was familiar with it.[250] The fort present in the novel was later rebuilt during Kollavarsham 922–928 and eventually demolished after the independence of India;[251] preserved ruins can be found at the east fort in Thiruvananthapuram.[252]

Subhadra's house is a few blocks north to the royal passage at Andiyirakkam.[253] Manacaud or Manakadu is referred in the novel as the place where Pathan merchants are camped.[254] Fighters of Mangoikkal also camp there, where their final confrontation with Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas take place.[255]

Sociocultural practices[edit]

The novel presents that practices of Indian traditional medicine and Unani traditional medicine were prevailed in Venad during the timeline of the story.[256] The novel states that Hakkim tried a kind of narcoanalysis on Ananthapadmanabhan after getting him drugged, to know the whereabouts of the latter however it did not yield any results.[257][258] The novel refers to astrological practices, such as praśnaṁ vayppŭ,[K][260] and Natal astrology, which is referred when Shanku Assan says to Parukutty that chothirisham or jyothisham will not go wrong.[261][262]

The novel remarks about superstitious customs prevail among the hindu religion followers such as Ūṭṭŭ or Kāḷiyūṭṭŭ, Pāṭṭŭ,[263] Uruvaṁ Vaypŭ,[264] Amman Koṭa,[265] Cāvūṭṭŭ,[265] Uccinakāḷi Sēva.[266] The novel mentions that the people at palace opts to conduct occult acts by clergies, priests and magicians to extend the lifetime of the king. Thirumukhathu Pilla goes for paranormal retrocognition through Mashinottam,[L] an Indian clairvoyant practice, to confirm about the rumors about the death of his son, Ananthapadmanabhan.[268] Velu Kuruppu mentions about the sorcery done by a namboothiripad of Akavoor family[M] by evoking protection on his armor shield by the incantation of seventy million Dhanwantharam, a set of hymns offered to Dhanvantari in order to safeguard from any ill luck.[270]

The novel presents Beeram Khan as a converted Muslim, who was a Nair and ex-spouse of Subhadra; he married Fathima after proselytization to Islam, as he became a dependent of the Hakkim's family. In the novel, at one point of time Hakkim intended to proselytize Ananthapadmanabhan to Islam with the support of Usman Khan while the latter was unconscious as being drugged, but could not do so because Zulaikha opposed the act.[271][272] The novel presents the miscegenation between a Shasthri (an aryan race) and a lady of Marvar caste (a dravidian race); whom are the parents of Sundarayyan and Kondanki.[273]

In the novel, Padmanabhan Thambi is presented as philanderer, who keeps relationships with the paramours Kamalam, Sivakami, the mistress at the seventh house, and the unnamed female prostitute at Kottar.[274] Subhadra mentions that he was after her since she was ten years old. So, Ananthapadmanabhan opposes the agreement of his father to the marriage proposal for his younger sister from Padmanabhan Thambi and when the proposal is cancelled,[275] an enraged Sundarayyan says to Ananthapadmanabhan to keep an incestuous relationship with his younger sister;[276] to which Ananthapadmanabhan makes a racist remark against Sundarayyan that "thān maṟavanaṭō" (hey! you are a Maravar). This further enrages Sundarayyan to favor the attack on Anathapadmanabhan at Panchavankadu, which starts the series of events in the novel.[277]

The Venad royal family follows the heirship through Marumakkathayam, collateral descent through maternal nephews. In the novel, Sundarayyan points that the above system is opposed to the common system of heirship through Makkathayam, which is lineal descent through sons, and propose to raise the claim of throne for the elder son of the king Rama Varma, Padmanabhan Thambi, who at one point of time conveys his worry to Sunadarayyan about the latter system, which will bring his younger brother Raman Thambi against him. In the novel, Ettuveettil Pillas pledge to make Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king by taking lethal actions against the prince Marthanda Varma, the legal heir to the kingdom,[278] even though Ettuveettil Pillas follow the system of matrilineality with avuncular paterfamilias.[279] Dr. P. V. Velayudhan Pillai[vi] points that some of the Ettuveettil Pillas are of Vellalar clan, who follow Makkathayam.[281]

Writers and literature[edit]

The novel explicitly mentions Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, P. Shangoony Menon, and also refers Shankaracharyar as kēraḷēcārakaṟttāvŭ,[282] which means the author of customs in Kerala, Venmani Achhan Nambudiripad as kavikulōttaṁsan (one at the crest of poets clan) and compares his lifetime to that of Sundarayyan.[283]

Story-line adaptation

The novel uses the references of Ettuveettil Pillas in the Sree Veera Marthandavarmacharitham Aattakatha, to form the characters and also uses the four-line verse about the same as epigraph to the eleventh chapter. The character of Sundarayyan in the novel is similar to the character of Pichakappalli in this Aattakatha.[219] The situations in which Marthanda Varma escapes the attempts on his life by Thambi's men are in line with similar events mentioned in Marthandamahathmyam, a lyrical work written as a Kilippattu based on the stories about Marthanda Varma.[219] The attack at Mangoikkal house by Padmanabhan Thambi's men in the novel is similar to the attack and eventual burning of Mangottu Assan’s house in Ottan Katha, one of the ballads of Venad based on the stories about Marthanda Varma.[216] Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott is considered as the most influential work in the development of Marthandavarma.[284] Like in Ivanhoe, the first chapter of the novel opens with the description of a forest, and every chapter opens with an epigraph similar to those in Scott’s books.[285] M. P. Paul claims that the characters Marthanda Vama, Ananthapadmanabhan, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla are based on the characters from Ivanhoe, even though those are based on the history and legends of Venad.[286]

M. P. Paul also claims that the situations involving either of mad Channan, Subhadra or Thirumukhathu Pilla are similar to situations in King Lear by William Shakespeare, the character of Shanku Assan is similar to that of Dominie Sampson in Guy Mannering by Sir Walter Scott.[286] Dr. M. Leelavathy points that the character of Subhadra is prototyped from the Flora McIvor of Waverley by Sir Walter Scott.[287]

Neelikatha (subplot)
According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, the story of Panchavankattu Neeli (Pañcavankāṭṭunīli, lit. Neeli of Pachavan forest) in the third chapter of novel is a combination of stories form the ballads Panchavankattu Neelikatha (Pañcavankāṭṭunīlikatha) and Neelikatha (Nīlikatha, lit. story of Neeli).[288] Dr. Thikkurissi Gangadharan states that Kaḷḷiyankāttunīli (Neeli of Kalliyancaud) is changed to Pañcavankāṭṭunīli by the author of the novel.[289]

Appropriations

The novel heavily incorporates verses from Nalacharitham Aattakatha (Day 1,[290] Day 2,[291] Day3,[292] Day4[293]) Adhyathmaramayanam Kilippattu, Sree Mahabharatham Kilippattu by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan,[294][295] Harishchandracharitham Aattakatha by Pettayil Raman Pilla Asan,[296] Ravanavijayam Aattakatha by Vidwan Rajarajavarma Koi Tampuran of Kilimanur,[297] Rukmineeswayamvaram Aattakatha by Aswathi Thirunal Ramavarma Thampuran,[297] Kalakeyawadham Aattakatha by Kōṭṭayattŭ Tampuran,[296] Bashanaishadham Champu by Mazhamangalam[298] as epigraphs, as descriptions and quotations. The novel also draws verses from Kirmeerawadham Aattakatha by Kōṭṭayattŭ Tampuran,[297] Subhadraharanam Aattakatha by Mantṟēṭattŭ Nampūtiri,[299] Dakshayagam Aattakatha by Irayimman Thampi,[271] Banayudham Aattakatha by Bālakavi Rāmaśāstrikaḷ,[300] Keechakawadham Aattakatha by Irayimman Thampi,[299] Rāmāyaṇaṁ (Irupattunālu vr̥ttaṁ),[301] Ramayanam Vilpattu,[299] Vethalacharitham Kilippattu by Kallēkuḷaṅṅara Rāghavapiṣāraṭi,[302] Symanthakam Ottan Thullal by Kunchan Nambiar,[303] Krishnarjunavijayam Thullal,[304] Kuchelavritham Vanchipattu by Ramapurathu Varrier.[299] The novel also comprises verses from ballads Neelikatha,[219] Ponnarithal Katha,[305] Mavaratham,[306] and Iravikuttipillaporu.[307]

Languages[edit]

The novel mentions the languages, Malayalam, Tamil and Hindustani, among which the former one is used primarily for the narration with the adopted words from Tamil, Sanskrit, English, Hindustani, Persian and a conversation in a substitution cipher, Mulabhadra.

Malayalam is the primary language used in the novel, Sanskrit words are extensively used in the novel such as khādyapēyalēhyabhōjya[308] (Sanskrit: खाद्यपेयलेह्यभोज्य, ഖാദ്യപേയലേഹ്യഭോജ്യ, lit. 'chew-able, drinkable, lick-able, and eatable'), tējaḥpuñjaṁ[309] (Sanskrit: तेजःपुञ्ज, തേജഃപുഞ്ജ, lit. 'heap of ardor'). Tamil words and prepositions are used in the statements of Shanku Assan, Anantham, Mangoikkal Kuruppu and in the narrations, among which, the Tamil word nāyaki (Tamil: நாயகி, lit. 'spouse[feminine]', Malayalam: നായകി) in the first edition of the novel is replaced with the adapted one from sanskrit, nāyikā (Sanskrit: नायिका, lit. 'the lady who leads') as the malayalam version nāyika (Malayalam: നായിക, lit. 'heroine') in the second edition.[310] The novel uses the word caittān[311] which is a form of Hindustani word šaitān (Hindustani: शैतान, شیطون, lit. 'devil')[N], and also uses the word bahadūṟ,[312] a form of Hindustani word bahādur (Hindustani: बहादुर, بهادر, lit. 'brave')[O]. The novel makes a malayalam usage for the shawl used by Thirumukhathu Pilla as sālva,[313] which is analogous to the English word shawl and the Persian version shāl (Persian: شال‎‎), and for the meaning of guard while referring to the posture of Chembakassery Mootha Pilla at the door of Parukutty's room, the novel uses a word gāṭṭ[314] akin to the obsolete form gard.

The novel uses the word kinkāb which is a form of word kinkhab, which stands for silk brocade with gold and silver designs and term is a conjoined form of kin kab originated or westernized from kam (Hindi: कम, lit. 'less') and khwab[P] (Hindi: ख्वाब, lit. 'dream').[315]

  • Ambiguous usage – The novel presents the ambiguous usages of the term nazhika (Malayalamനാഴിക, nāḻika), as a unit of measure for time and as a unit of measure for length. Nazhika1 as a unit of measure for time is analogous to Ghaṭi and 1 Nazhika corresponds to 24 minutes. Nazhika2 is a unit of measure for length prevailed in yesteryear Kerala at different denominations such as 1 Nazhika = 1.828 kilometers and 1 Nazhika = 914.4 meters.[316] The C. V. Vyakhyanakosam[Q] states that 1 Nazhika in the novel corresponds to approximately 1.5 kilometers.[318]

Adaptations[edit]

Abridgement[edit]

  • 1964: Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Kannan Janardhanan,[vii] published by Kamalalaya Book Depot.[325]
  • 1984: Kuttikalude Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Dr. M. M. Basheer, published by C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation.[326]
  • 2011: Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair[viii], published by D. C. Books with illustrations by Reji Karimulackal.[328]
  • 2012: Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Dr. V. Ramachandran[ix], distributed through National Book Stall, Kottayam.[330]

Comics[edit]

In 1985, Amar Chitra Katha comics of IBH Publishers Pvt. Ltd released an English comic book adaptation of novel. The thirty-two pages of comic book adaptation was scripted by Radha Nair, illustrated by M. Mohandas, had the cover art by Ramesh Umrotkar under the consultancy by Ram Waeerkar and editing by Anant Pai.[331]

In 2007, the comic book adaptation was released in Malayalam by Balarama Amar Chithra Katha of Malayala Manorama group as Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma.[332] The title The Legend of Maathaanda Varma was later altered to Maarthaanda Varma and released in 2010 by Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd, and it was included in the comics-collection The Great Indian Classics.[333]

Films[edit]

Marthanda Varma (1933)
  • 1933: Marthanda Varma – a silent black & white film directed by P. V Rao.
The film released on May 12, 1933 to face litigation from the publishers of the novel during the period through a court order as the producer of the movie did not have the required rights, subsequently the film was retained by court authorities and imposed a stay on further screening of the film till the closure of legal proceedings which later went against the film producer.[334][335] Thus, the film marked the first of its kind copyright case involving a literary work and a feature film in India[336] by being a second feature film of Malayalam film industry and the novel being the first Malayalam literary work to adapt to a film from the same industry.[337][338]
The film released on Feb 21, 1997 through Ambadi Pictures,[339] focuses only on the story of Subhadra,[340] the pivotal character of the novel by exploring her marital and non-marital relationships finally to her murder by Kudamon Pilla.[341]

Television[edit]

  • 2003: Marthanda Varma  – A television serial directed by Suryan Chennithala.[342] The telecast of the serial commenced on January 15, 2003 at 18:00 hours as an episode of 30 minutes on Doordarshan’s Thiruvananthapuram channel.[343] The serial was abruptly discontinued after the telecast of fourth episode on March 3, 2003 due to non-agreement of terms between the producer and the television channel team.[344]
  • 2010: Veera Marthanda Varma – A television serial produced by Colosceum Media Pvt Ltd.[345] The telecast commenced on July 19, 2010 through Surya TV as a daily serial on weekdays from Monday to Friday at 21:30 hours, which was later changed to weekend slot after the eighty-third episode in November 2010.[346][347] The telecast slots of the serial on Surya TV were intermittently skipped from March 2011 and eventually it was discontinued after the 128th episode on May 21, 2011.[348]
  • 2014: Marthanda Varma – A television play based on the script of stage adaptation by Dr. P. Venugopalan and performed in 2013, with the same cast members who reprised their roles from the stage performance except for a few including the replacement of Jiji Kalamandir by Vinayan for the role of mad Channan. The program was telecasted on March 27, 2014 at 15:30 hours through DD Malayalam, and it was re-telecasted as six episodes on Sundays from the following week.[349][350]

Theatre[edit]

Marthandavarma was first adapted for theater in 1919 by Sree Chithira Thirunal Grandhasala. It featured an all male cast. Dr. N. Rajan Nair notes that Nair societies of Palkulangara, Vanchiyoor and Kunnukuzhy also staged theatre adaptations in early days. The cultural organization, Kalavedi of Thiruvananthapuram forayed into theatre adaptations of Marthandavarma from 1957. Dr. N. Rajan Nair points that a stage performance of Marthandavarma once happened at Kozhikode and performances are happened at Delhi, Bombay and Madras under the respective Malayali associations.[351]

  • 2008: Marthanda Varma – A stage adaptation directed by Kaladharan staged on May 18, 2008 at VJT hall, Thiruvananthapuram under the banner of cultural organization, Rasika.[352][353]
  • 2013: Marthanda Varma – A stage adaptation staged on May 19, 2013 17:30 hours at Prof. N. Krishnapillai Foundation Theatre, Nandavanam under the banner of Kalavedi, Thiruvananthapuram.[354][355]

Radio[edit]

  • 1991–1992: Marthandavarma – A radio play produced by All India Radio, Thiruvananthapuram. The radio play was broadcast in 30 minutes episodes, every Wednesday at 21:30 hours from July 17, 1991 to January 1, 1992, and it was re-broadcast in 15-minute episodes from Monday to Saturday at 14:15 hours between January 20, 2014 and February 8, 2014.[356][357]
  • 2012: Subhadra  – A radio program produced by All India Radio, Thiruvananthapuram. The radio play was broadcast in 30 minutes episodes, every Wednesday at 21:30 hours from November 28, 2012 to December 12, 2012.[358][359]

Sequels[edit]

Raman Pillai received many requests for a sequel, and created three.[360]

  • 1913 : Dharmaraja – The story follows the novel with the return of Thripura Sunadari Kunjamma, the sister of Thevan Vikaraman Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and her granddaughter Meenakshi to Travancore and subsequent situations in which Kesava Pilla (young Kesavadas) gets involved with the proceedings of Chandrakaran, the son of Ramanamadathil Pilla and the emergence of Haripanchanan as the antagonist, who is later revealed by Ananthapadmanabhan to be one among the twins of Thripura Sunadari Kunjamma, Ugran, who plan to topple the kingdom.[361]
  • 1918 : Ramarajabahadur Part I – The story continues with the return of Chandrakaran as Manikyagoundan while Tipu Sultan is planning a march to Travancore for eventual conquer and presents cousin of Raja Kesavadas, Perinchakodan as main antagonist, who abducts Savithri, the daughter of Meenakshi.[362]
  • 1919 : Ramarajabahadur Part II – After the failed meeting of Raja Kesavadas and the Ajithasimhan, the messenger of Tipu Sultan, war ensues between the Mysore forces and Travancore forces.[363]
P. K. Parmeswaran Nair guesses that Raman Pillai's Diṣṭadaṁṣṭṟaṁ, serialized in the 1920 periodical Mitabhāṣi to incomplete is the follow up of above story.[364] N. Balakrishnan Nair claims that C. V. Raman Pillai never wrote the third part of story based on Raja Kesavadas.[365] Dr. Ayyappa Panicker, who analyzes the published texts of Diṣṭadaṁṣṭṟaṁ to find no historical or related references to above story line and concludes the claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair as a mere assumption.[366]

Significance[edit]

Influence[edit]

The novel was a forerunner in Malayalam historical fiction. According to Kalpetta Balakrishnan, C. R. Velu Pillai's Rājaśēkaran and K. M. Varghese's Nellimūṭṭile Nammuṭe Ammacci and Taccil Māttu Tarakan were influenced by Marthandavarma.[367] Kunjunni Mash said he wrote a novel after reading Marthandavarma at young age, but never published it.[368] For Malayalam writer Paul Zacharia, Marthandavarma gained him the ability to imagine a scene for his writing career.[369]

  • Kuñcuttampimāṟ, the historical novel by N. Parameswaran Pilla, is presented as an unauthorized sequel to Marthandavarma.[370]
  • Śītālakṣmi, the historical play by E. V. Krishna Pillai, is also considered an unauthorized sequel.[371]

Academic usage[edit]

The literary significance of novel led the text of the novel to be used in school curriculum as original and abridged forms, and also been included in the course programs offered by various universities of south India.

Relevance[edit]

Dr. Ayyappa Paniker notes that Marthandavarma has the highest position among the novels in Malayalam, particularly historical novels.[380] The novel attracts new readers and researchers over the time and remains as the most popular historical novel in Malayalam, thus considered as one among the classics of Malayalam literature.[381] Dr. K. M. George notes that though C. V. Raman Pillai wrote two more historical novels, Dharmaraja and Ramarajabahadur, the reception of Marthandavarma was unsurpassed.[382] The romantic elements are more elegant in Marthandavarma than to the author's later historical novels, according to Dr. K. Raghavan Pillai.[383] Prof. K. M. Tharakan notes that legends about Marthanda Varma are believable due to the presentation of romance clad yesteryear history in the novel.[384] Dr. George Irumbayam notes that the unexpected adventurous events in the novel are romantic where as historical events shows realism,[385] and further states that the author united romantic elements with historical facts to make the narrative an excellent one.[386]

The novel is also the subject in the marketing of other historical novels. D. C. Books, in one of their advertisements for novel Atijīvanaṁ by Ettumanoor Somadasan, states that there would not be any Malayali who has not read the novel Marthandavarma.[387]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 1. Bengali: অঙ্গুরীয় বিনিময়, anguriyô binimôy (1862, Anguriya Binimaya by Bhudev Mukhopadhyay[43]) or দুর্গেশনন্দিনী, durgeshnôndini (1865, Durgeshnandini by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay[44]), 2. Gujarati: કરણ ઘેલો, karaṇ ghēlō (1866, Karan Ghelo by Nandshankar Tuljashankar Mehta[45][46]), 3. Marathi: मोचनगड, mōcanagaḍ (1871, Mochanagad by Ramchandra Bhikaji Gunjikar[47][48]), 4. Odia: ପଦ୍ମମାଲୀ, padmamāḷī (1888, Padmamali by Umesh Chandra Sarkar[49][50]), 5. Urdu: ملک العزیز ورجنا‎, malikuʹl-ʻazīz varjanā, (1888, ملک [عبد] العزیز ورجنا‎, Malik-ul-Aziz Varjana by Abdul Halim Sharar[51][52]), 6. Malayalam: മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാ, māṟttāṇḍavaṟmmā (1891, Marthandavarma).
  2. ^ 1. 1891–Marthandavarma (Malayalam: മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാ, māṟttāṇḍavaṟmmā) 2. 1892–Suryakantha (Kannada: ಸೂರ್ಯಕಾಂತಾ, sūryakāṁtā) by Lakshman Gadagkar,[53][54] 3. 1895–Mohanangi (Tamil: மோகனாங்கி, mōkaṉāṅki) by T. T. Saravanamuthu Pillai,[55][56] 4. 1896–Hemalata (Telugu: హేమలత, hēmalata) by Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham.[57][58]
  3. ^ The Little Prince Publications of Kottayam, Kerala Sahitya Akademi, Rachana Books of Kollam, and Chintha Publishers of Thiruvananthapuram released their editions in 1983,[67] 1999,[68] 2009,[69] and 2010 respectively.[70]
  4. ^ Though Indulekha novel was reportedly published in 1889, its author, O. Chandumenon confirms that the novel was available for sale only by January 1890.[82]
  5. ^ 1. Kundalatha (കുന്ദലത, Kundalata) in 1887 by Appu Nedungadi,[80][81] 2. Indulekha (ഇന്ദുലേഖ, Indulēkha) in 1889[D] by O. Chandu Menon,[83][84] 3. Indumathee Swayamvaram (ഇന്ദുമതീസ്വയംവരം, Indumatīsvayaṁvaraṁ) in 1890 by Padinjare Kovilakathu Ammaman Raja,[85] 4. Meenakshi (മീനാക്ഷി, Mīṉākṣi) in 1890 by Cheruvalathu Chathu Nair.[86]
  6. ^ Manōsukhaṁ, Manōkāṭhinyaṁ (മനോസുഖം, മനോകാഠിന്യം) instead of the correct ones manassukhaṁ, manaḥkāṭhinyaṁ (മനസ്സുഖം, മനഃകാഠിന്യം.)[87]
  7. ^ Kirmeerawadha-reethi (Malayalam: കിർമ്മീരവധരീതി, lit. 'method of slaying Kirmira')[195]
  8. ^ Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmmārīti (Malayalam: മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാരീതി, lit. 'Marthandavarma-method', Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma-rīti[197])
  9. ^ Mancode is a village in Vilavancode taluk of Kanniyakumari district
  10. ^ Chulliyur is a locality in the Perumkadavila Panchayat in the Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district
  11. ^ An astrological practice that prevails in Kerala; in which specially selected conch shells are used for conclusions based on zodiacal positions.[259]
  12. ^ Mashinottam is an Indian clairvoyant practice, which includes gazing on the ink laid smooth surface to view the matters that are sought.[267]
  13. ^ Akavoor Mana was a house of namboothiries situated at Vellarappilly near Kalady of Ernakulam district; some of the members of family were ascetics devoted to prayers, meditation, and Thaanthric rites.[269]
  14. ^ Analogous to the Arabic version (Arabic: شیطون‎‎, šayṭān) rooted from the Hebrew one (Hebrew: שָׂטָן‎‎, śāṭān).
  15. ^ Adapted from the Persian version (Persian: بهادر‎‎, bahadur) rooted from the Turkish one (Ottoman Turkish: بهادر‎, Turkish: baghatur, bahadır).
  16. ^ Analogous to the Hindustani or Urdu version (Hindustani: ख़्वाब, Urdu: خواب‎, xvāb) rooted from the Persian one (Persian: خواب‎‎, xâb).
  17. ^ C. V. Vyakhyanakosham is a lexicographic work in four volumes published by C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation during 1994–2004, comprising explanations and interpretations of words, phrases, idioms used by C. V. Raman Pillai in his literary works, four novels and nine farces, which include Marthandavarma.[317]

Biographical notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kulakkunnathu S. Raman Menon (1877–1925), who hails from Mayannur near Ottapalam was a school teacher at Trivandrum, where he established the publishing house BāṣābhiVaṟdhini Book Depot alias B. V. Book Depot in 1902 for the printing of academic books, later started Kamalalaya Printing Press in 1918, and known as B. V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Printing Works to become the leading book publisher and printer in Travancore,[59] which published the works of Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, C. V. Raman Pillai, A. R. Raja Raja Varma after acquiring the copyrights.[60]
  2. ^ B. K. Menon (1907–1950) was a writer in Malayalam and English who wrote poetry in Malayalam, articles and short stories in English.[71]
  3. ^ P. Ayyappan Pillai (1857–1907) was an alumnus of Maharaja's College, Thiruvananthapuram, later teacher and assistant professor there. Served as headmaster at Trivandrum Vernacular High School, then Inspector of Schools and promoted as Education Secretary in Travancore. Author of the pamphlet, Raja Keshava Dass and His Times.[90]
  4. ^ Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair (1920–2000) a writer in Malayalam, served as vice-president and then the president of Sahithya Prvarthaka Sahagarana Sangham.[154]
  5. ^ Thumpamon Thomas (1946–2014) was a reader at Mar Thoma College, Tiruvalla and a noted writer in Malayalam, served at State Institute of Children’s Literature and as director of the State Institute of Encyclopaedic Publications.[158]
  6. ^ Dr. P. V. Velayudhan Pillai (1931–?) was a lecturer in Malayalam at University of Kerala, later became head of the department. He is a writer in Malayalam known under the pen-name, Āluvā PiVi. He is the author of Āṇuṅṅaḷillātta Koṟa Valyakoṟa (Si.vi nōvalukaḷ oru punaṟvāyana) and editor of Si.Vi.yuṭe Sāhityalōkaṁ.[280]
  7. ^ Kannan Janardhanan (1885–1955), was a journalist and writer in Malayalam known under his real name, Kunnath Janardhana Menon. He served as the first editor of the Malayalam periodical Kēraḷa Cintāmaṇi,[319] later became the founder-editor of Gōmati, a newspaper from Thrissur,[320] and wrote the biographies of Kumaran Asan and V. C. Balakrishna Panicker.[321] He authored the abridged version of C. V. Raman Pillai's Marthandavarma followed by that of Dharmaraja,[322] both of which were published posthumously under the author name Kannan Janardhanan by Kamalalaya Book Depot in 1964[323] and 1968[324] respectively.
  8. ^ Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair was the head of Malayalam department in Mananam K. E. college.[327]
  9. ^ Dr. V. Ramachandran is a PhD holder in psychology from University of Kerala, worked as a scientist at Defence Research and Development Organisation.[329]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual. I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 318–319. 
  2. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "പതിനേഴാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിലെ വേണാടു രാഷ്ട്രീയം" [Venadu politics in seventeenth century]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 16. 
  3. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 107. ..all the organized forces of the able and wise commander Kerala Vurmah, which had been maintained by Revi Vurmah, during his reign of thirty-four years, were disbanded or scattered over the country, or took services under the feudatory chiefs. 
  4. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual. I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 327, 333–334. 
  5. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 109. 
  6. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 107. ..Ettu Veettil Pillamar and Madempimar, in their turn became inveterate enemies of the prince, and began to seek measures for his destruction. 
  7. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Modern History". The Travancore State Manual. II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 271. ..the well established custom that the rule of succession in the royal family was Maŕumakkaťhāyam and not Makkaťhāyam. 
  8. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 116. ..considering them proper instruments for overthrowing the royal authority, they persuaded them to claim their father's throne;... 
  9. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 103. ISBN 8171301304. 
  10. ^ a b c Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "കഥാകാലം; സംഭവസ്ഥലങ്ങൾ" [Timeline of story; Incident locations]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 126–127. ISBN 8171301304. 
  11. ^ Nair, Dr. Poojapura Krishnan (2013). "രസാവിഷ്കരണം സി.വി.നോവലുകളിൽ" [Representation of themes in C. V. Novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 54. ISBN 9788124019566. 
  12. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 77. 
  13. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (2009) [1992]. "ശതാബ്ദി പ്രശസ്തി" [Centenary Fame]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 13. 
  14. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "വ്യക്തിജീവിതം" [Personal Life]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 22. 
  15. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "നവോത്ഥാനത്തിന്റെ കിരണങ്ങൾ" [Rays of Renaissance]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 19. 
  16. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. pp. 41–42. 
  17. ^ a b Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 69. 
  18. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 98. 
  19. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ" [Malayāḷi Memorial]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 119. 1889-ൽ സി.വി. നിയമപരീക്ഷ സംബന്ധിച്ചു മദ്രാസിൽ താമസിച്ചപ്പോഴാണ്...[When C.V. stayed at Madras for law examination in 1889...] 
  20. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 77. കൊല്ലവർഷം 1065 കുംഭം പത്താംതീയതി മുതൽ സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയ്ക്കു നിയമാദ്ധ്യയനത്തിനായി ആറു മാസത്തെ അവധി അനുവദിക്കപ്പെട്ടു [C. V. Raman Pillai was granted leave of six months from Kuṁbhaṁ 10, Kollavarsham 1065 for the study of law.] 
  21. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P., ed. (2009) [2007]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 8. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ എഴുതിയ കാലത്തെ സി.വി.യുടെ ചിത്രം [photograph of C.V. during the period of writing Marthandavarma] 
  22. ^ a b Gopalakrishnan, Malayankeezh (2007). "പാരമ്പര്യത്തിന്റെ യവനിക പിച്ചിച്ചീന്താൻ രണ്ട് സ്വാമിമാർ" [Two masters to tore the screen of tradition]. Ji. Pi. Piḷḷa Mahātmagāndhikk MāṟgadaṟśiyāyaMalayāḷi ജി. പി. പിള്ള മഹാത്മാഗാന്ധിക്ക് മാർഗദർശിയായ മലയാളി [G. P. Pillai : Malayali guidance to Mahatma Gandhi] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Information & Public Relations Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 84–85. 
  23. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 100. 
  24. ^ a b c Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. pp. 85–87. 
  25. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. pp. 79–80. 
  26. ^ a b Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. pp. 97–98. 
  27. ^ a b c Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 101–104. 
  28. ^ Krishnan, K. S. (1991) [1988]. "ജീവിതത്തിൽനിന്നുതന്നെ" [From life itself]. Si. Vi. Caritrākhyāyikakaḷilūṭe സി. വി. ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകളിലൂടെ [C. V., through the Historical Narratives] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 50. 
  29. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "ചന്ദ്രമുഖീവിലാസം" [Candramukhīvilāsaṁ]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 84. 
  30. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. 60, 66–69. 
  31. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 94. 
  32. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. pp. 70–71. 
  33. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 44. ജി. പി. യും എൻ. രാമൻപിളളയും മറ്റും മദ്രാസിലായതു മുതൽ സി. വി. അങ്ങോട്ട് കൂടെക്കൂടെ പോകാറുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. [When G. P., N. Raman Pillai and others were in Madras, C. V used to go there frequently.] 
  34. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2009) [1996]. "സി.വി.യെ വിശ്വസിക്കുക, ആരാധകരിൽ നിന്നു രക്ഷിക്കുക" [Believe C. V., Relieve from fans]. Nōval Si.Vi. Mutal Baṣīṟ Vare നോവൽ സി. വി. മുതൽ ബഷീർ വരെ [Novel : From C. V. until Basheer] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 131–134. 
  35. ^ Pilla, K. R. Parameswaran (1921). "Ātmapōṣiṇi" ആത്മപോഷിണി [Soul-nourishing] (in Malayalam). Kunnamkulam: A. R. P: 588–589. സി. വി.രാമൻപിള്ള അവർകളുടെ നോവലെഴുത്ത് [The novel scripting of respected C. V. Raman Pillai] 
  36. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Malayankeezh (2007). "മഹാരാജാവിന് മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ സമർപ്പിക്കുന്നു" [Submitting Malayali Memorial to the king]. Ji. Pi. Piḷḷa Mahātmagāndhikk MāṟgadaṟśiyāyaMalayāḷi ജി. പി. പിള്ള മഹാത്മാഗാന്ധിക്ക് മാർഗദർശിയായ മലയാളി [G. P. Pillai : Malayali guidance to Mahatma Gandhi] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Information & Public Relations Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 86–87. 
  37. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ" [Malayāḷi Memorial]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 122. 
  38. ^ Jeffrey, Robin (2014) [1976]. "The Malayali Sabha and the Malayali Memorial : Out of Change, Conflict 1886–89". The Decline of Nair Dominance: Society and Politics in Travancore, 1847–1908. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors. 150–151, 155. ISBN 9789350980347. K. P. Sankara Menon, who became the titular leader of the Memorial campaign, sent it to the Maharaja on 10 January 1891. 
  39. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 112. 
  40. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 57–58. 
  41. ^ a b c Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 105–106. 
  42. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 105. 
  43. ^ Mahapatra, B. P.; Padmanabha, P.; McConnell, Grant D.; Verma, V. S. (1989). "The Written Languages of India : Bengali". Constitutional languages. The Written Languages of the World: A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use. India. II. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval. p. 83. ISBN 9782763771861. Bhudev Mukhopadhyaya's Anguriya Binimaya (1862) was the first historical novel 
  44. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 199, 292. ISBN 9788172010065. ..tradition of historical novel begun by Bankim Chandra.. 
  45. ^ Vohra, Anirudh (June 28, 2015). "Gujarat’s Last Rajput King Karan Ghelo: A king’s life". Industry. New Delhi: The Financial Express. Retrieved October 26, 2015. 
  46. ^ Herzberger, Radhika (July 19, 2015). "A Fine Balance: Nandshankar’s Karan Ghelo and the Downfall of Gujarat’s Last Rajput Ruler". Vantage. New Delhi: The Caravan. Retrieved October 26, 2015. 
  47. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 201. ISBN 9788172010065. Mocangad (1870), considered to be the first historical novel in Marathi,.. 
  48. ^ Deo, Shripad D. (1996). "Twentieth-Century Marathi Literature". In Natarajan, Nalini; Nelson, Emmanuel Sampath. Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 213. ISBN 9780313287787. 
  49. ^ Nayak, J. K.; Pati, Madhusudana (1982). "Rise of the Historical Novel in Orissa, Evolution of the Historical Novel in Oriya Literature : Padmamali". The Historical Novel in Oriya. Cuttak: Shri Anant Misra, Cuttak Students' Store. pp. 42–49. 
  50. ^ Samal, J. K.; Nayak, P. K. (1996). "Fakir Mohan Senapati". Makers of Modern Orissa. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 84. ISBN 9788170173229. 
  51. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 291. ISBN 9788172010065. 
  52. ^ Yousaf, Farida (2001). "Scott and Sharar: A study of Common Aspects of Historical Themes" (PDF). Faculty of Languages & Islamic Studies. Journal of Research. Multan: Bahauddin Zakariya University. Retrieved October 26, 2015. 
  53. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 289. ISBN 9788172010065. 
  54. ^ Murthy, K. Narasimha (1992). "Modern Kannada Literature". In George, K. M. Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and Poems. Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology. I. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 169. ISBN 9788172013240. 
  55. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 290. ISBN 9788172010065. 
  56. ^ Padmanabhan, Neela (1992). "Modern Tamil Literature". In George, K. M. Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and Poems. Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology. I. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 383. ISBN 9788172013240. 
  57. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) [1991]. "The Novel". A History of Indian Literature: 1800–1910, Western Impact: Indian Responses. History of Indian Literature. 8 (Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 291. ISBN 9788172010065. .. a fertile ground for historical novels introduced by Chilakamarti Lakshminarasimham.. 
  58. ^ Narasiṃha Rao, V. V. Yal (1993). Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham. Makers of Indian literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 21, 55. ISBN 9788172014995. 
  59. ^ Nair, Perunna K. N. (1984). "കുളക്കുന്നത്തു രാമമേനോൻ" [Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon]. In Warrier, P. A.; Kizhakemuri, D. C. Kuḷakkunnattu Rāmamēnōn Māḷiyammāvu Kuññuvaṟīt Es. Ṭi. Ṟeḍyāṟ E. Ke. Ṭi. Ke. Eṁ Tōmas Pōḷ Eṁ. Je. Tōmas കുളക്കുന്നത്തു രാമമേനോൻ മാളിയമ്മാവു കുഞ്ഞുവറീത് എസ്. ടി. റെഡ്യാർ എ. കെ. ടി. കെ. എം. തോമസ് പോൾ എം. ജെ. തോമസ് [Biographies of Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon, Maliyammavu Kunjuvareethu, S. T. Reddiar, A. K. T. K. M. Vasudevan Namboothiripad, Thomas Paul, M. J. Thomas]. Mahacharithamaala (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Kairali Childrens Book Trust. 3, 22. 
  60. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2006) [1995]. A History of Indian Literature: 1911–1956, Struggle for Freedom : Triumph and Tragedy. History of Indian Literature. II. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 27. ISBN 9788172017989. 
  61. ^ a b c Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 107. 
  62. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. 69–72, 75–77. ISBN 8171301304. 
  63. ^ Kizhakemuri, D C (2009) [1992]. "പ്രസാധകക്കുറിപ്പ്" [Publishers' Note]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 5. ISBN 8171301304. 
  64. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1973) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. 
  65. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1983) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. 
  66. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1992) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. ISBN 8171301304. 
  67. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1983) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Little Prince Publications. 
  68. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1999) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 8176900001. 
  69. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2009) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma]. Malayalam Classics (in Malayalam). Kollam: Rachana Books. 
  70. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2013) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma]. Nōval Paḻama (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Chintha Publishers. 
  71. ^ a b Jayakumar, Prema (1998). "Foreword". Marthanda varma. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 9–10. 
  72. ^ Menon, B.K (1936). Marthanda varma (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. A Historical Romance 
  73. ^ Pillai, O. Krishna (1954). Mārttāṇṭa Varma மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா [Marthandavarma] (in Tamil). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. 
  74. ^ Devi, R. Leela (1984) [1979]. Marthanda varma (Second ed.). New Delhi: Sterling Paperbacks. A Historical Novel 
  75. ^ Krishnankutty, Kunnukuzhy (1990). "Mārtāṇḍa Varma" मार्ताण्ड वर्मा [Marthandavarma]. Keral Jyoti (in Hindi). Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha. XXV (3). 
  76. ^ Thambi, P. Padmanabhan (2007). Mārttāṇṭa Varmma மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா [Marthandavarma] (in Tamil). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 8126016582. 
  77. ^ a b c Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Foreword". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 7. 
  78. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 72. 
  79. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 105–106. 
  80. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2010) [1958]. "നോവൽ" [Novel]. Malayāḷa sahityacaritraṁ മലയാള സാഹിത്യചരിത്രം [Malayalam literary history] (in Malayalam) (12th ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 122. മലയാളത്തിൽ നോവൽ ഇനത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്താവുന്ന ആദ്യത്തെ കൃതി അപ്പു നെടുങ്ങാടിയുടെ കുന്ദലതയാണ്. [Kundalatha is the work that can be included as first novel type in Malaayalam.] 
  81. ^ (Staff Reporter) (October 5, 2010). "Seminar in memory of Appu Nedungadi". Kerala. Palakkad: The Hindu. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  82. ^ Chandumenon, O (1995) [1890]. "ഇന്ദുലേഖ രണ്ടാം അച്ചടിപ്പിന്റെ അവതാരിക" [Introduction of Indulekha, second print]. Indulēkha ഇന്ദുലേഖ [Indulekha] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 13. 1890 ജനുവരി ആദ്യത്തിൽ വില്പാൻ തുടങ്ങിയ ഈ പുസ്തകത്തിന്റെ ഒന്നാം അച്ചടിപ്പ്.. [The first print of this book, the sale of which begun in early January 1890..] 
  83. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–ഒ. ചന്തുമേനോൻ" [Novel in Language – O. Chandumenon]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 123. 
  84. ^ Anima, P. (January 31, 2012). "Tours de force in Kozhikode". Editorial Features. Kozhikode: The Hindu. Retrieved July 2, 2014. Chandu Menon's Indulekha, the second novel in Malayalam,... 
  85. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (July 1981). "Indian Literature". Treasures of Malayalam Literature from Europe. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 24 (4): 95–96. 
  86. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മീനാക്ഷി" [Meenakshi]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 62. 
  87. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 116. 
  88. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 88. 
  89. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 93. 
  90. ^ Jeffrey, Robin (2014) [1976]. "Biographical Notes". The Decline of Nair Dominance: Society and Politics in Travancore, 1847–1908. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors. pp. 359–360. ISBN 9789350980347. 
  91. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. pp. 105–106. 
  92. ^ "Sahithya Pravarthaka Cooperative Society Ltd Vs. Kamalalaya Printing Works And Book Depot". Encyclopedia. Ahmadabad: Regent Computronics Pvt. Ltd. Archived from the original on April 21, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  93. ^ Nair, Perunna K. N. (1984). "കുളക്കുന്നത്തു രാമമേനോൻ" [Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon]. In Warrier, P. A.; Kizhakemuri, D. C. Kuḷakkunnattu Rāmamēnōn Māḷiyammāvu Kuññuvaṟīt Es. Ṭi. Ṟeḍyāṟ E. Ke. Ṭi. Ke. Eṁ Tōmas Pōḷ Eṁ. Je. Tōmas കുളക്കുന്നത്തു രാമമേനോൻ മാളിയമ്മാവു കുഞ്ഞുവറീത് എസ്. ടി. റെഡ്യാർ എ. കെ. ടി. കെ. എം. തോമസ് പോൾ എം. ജെ. തോമസ് [Biographies of Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon, Maliyammavu Kunjuvareethu, S. T. Reddiar, A. K. T. K. M. Vasudevan Namboothiripad, Thomas Paul, M. J. Thomas]. Mahacharithamaala (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Kairali Childrens Book Trust. 12–13, 15. 
  94. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 59. ISBN 8171301304. മലയാളത്തിൽ ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ വിറ്റഴിഞ്ഞിട്ടുള്ള പുസ്തകം മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ ആണെന്നതിൽ സംശയമില്ല. [It is not doubtful that Marthandavarma is the most sold book in Malayalam.] 
  95. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I: Editorial from THE HINDU, dated December 21, 1891". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 68–70. 
  96. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. ചരിത്രപരമായ അംശം [Historical aspect] 
    • Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. 1729–മാണ്ട് അന്നത്തെ വേണാടിന്റെ ഭരണാവകാശത്തെ ചുറ്റിപ്പറ്റിയുണ്ടായ തർക്കങ്ങൾ ആണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ചരിത്രപരമായ അംശം.[In the year 1729, the disputes around the right to rule (heirship) in the then Venad are the historical aspects of Marthandavarma.] 
    • Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. ഈ ചരിത്രാംശത്തെ അസ്ഥിപഞ്ജരമായുപയോഗിച്ചുകൊണ്ട് കാല്പനികഭാവനയുടെ സംഭാവനകളാൽ മാംസളവും കമനീയവുമാക്കിത്തീർത്ത ഒരു ശില്പമാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡമർമ്മയ്ക്കുള്ളത്.[This historical aspect is used as a skeleton embodied with contributions of romantic imagination to form an elegant as well as fleshy structure for Marthandavarma.] 
    • Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. ... ചരിത്രഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളിൽ നിന്ന് ലഭ്യമാകുന്നതിനെക്കാൾ ദീപ്രമായ ഒരു ചരിത്രവീക്ഷണമാണ് നോവലിൽ നിന്ന് വായനക്കാർക്കു ലഭിക്കുന്നത്.[Readers get a brighter outlook of history from the novel to that available from history books.] 
  97. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 75. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ മുൻപറഞ്ഞ ചരിത്രയാഥാർത്ഥ്യത്തിന്റെ കങ്കാളത്തിന്മേൽ കാല്പനികാംശത്തിന്റെ മജ്ജയും മാംസവും പിടിപ്പിച്ചിരിക്കയാണ്. [In Marthandavarma, the marrow and flesh of romantic aspect are fixed on the skeleton of historic reality.] 
  98. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 76. ഇത്തരം കാല്പനികാംശങ്ങളെയും താൻ മനസ്സിലാക്കിയ ചരിത്രവസ്തുക്കളെയും സംയോജിപ്പിച്ചു മലയാളത്തിലെ ആദ്യത്തെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായിക, അതും വിശിഷ്ടമായ ഒന്ന്,... [These romantic elements and the historic facts realized by himself are combined to the first historical narrative in Malayalam, that too so precious...] 
  99. ^ a b Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 49. ISBN 8176900788. കാല്പനികതയിൽ മുങ്ങി നിൽക്കുന്ന ഈ ആഖ്യായികയ്ക്ക് റിയലിസ്റ്റ് അംശങ്ങൾ ആവോളം നൽകുന്നതും സംഭാഷണമാണ്. [The realist aspects given as possible to this narrative, which is immersed in romance, is through dialog.] 
  100. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 51. ISBN 8176900788. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ സംഘർഷം ഏറിയ കൂറും ബാഹ്യമാണ്. ആന്തരികമായ സംഘർഷത്തിന് വേദിയൊരുക്കുന്നത് സുഭദ്ര മാത്രമാണ്.[The conflict in Marthandavarma is more over external. The platform for internal conflict is formed by only Subhadra.] 
  101. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 63. ISBN 8176900869. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ ഒരു ചരിത്രറൊമാൻസാണെന്ന വാദത്തിന് ഏറ്റവും വലിയ മുതൽക്കൂട്ട് അനന്തപത്മനാഭനാകുന്നു. അവിശ്യസനീയമായ വീരസാഹസികതകൾ... [Ananthapadmanabhan is the biggest principal addition to the argument that Marthandavarma is a historical romance. Unbelievable heroic adventures...] 
  102. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. അനന്തപത്മനാഭൻ സാങ്കല്പികകഥാപാത്രമല്ലെന്നാണ് പുതിയ വാദഗതി. [The new course of argument is that Ananthapadmanabhan is not an imaginary character.] 
  103. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 67. ISBN 8176900869. മധ്യകാലഘട്ടത്തിലെ ഒരു കഥാപാത്രത്തെപോലെ വീരസാഹസികതകളും വേഷപ്രച്ഛന്നതകളും... [As a character from middle-age, heroic adventures, disguise...] 
  104. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 51. ISBN 8176900788. ഇത് വീരാത്ഭുതരസങ്ങളെ ഉണർത്തുന്നു, വീരാരാധന വളർത്തുന്നു; ദേശപ്രേമത്തെ ജ്വലിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. കൗമാരപ്രണയവികാരങ്ങളെ തർപ്പണം ചെയ്യുന്നു. ജിജ്ഞാസയെ ഉദ്ദീപിപ്പിച്ചിട്ട് അവസാനം വരെ കെടാതെ സൂക്ഷിക്കുന്നു. [This arouses amusement on heroic wonders, develops hero-worship, ignites patriotism. (This) does the libation of teenage romantic emotions. The curiosity is generated, then kept until the end.] 
  105. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 49. ISBN 8176900788. കഥയിൽ കൊടുത്തിരിക്കുന്ന സംഭാഷണത്തിന്റെ സ്വാഭാവികതയും ഓജസ്സും കഥാപാത്രങ്ങൾക്കെന്നപോലെ കഥയ്ക്കും സ്വകീയ സത്വശോഭയും തന്മയത്വവും സമാമനിക്കുന്നു. [The inherency and vigor of the dialogues given in the plot gift its own venerable grace and individuality to the story as that to the characters.] 
  106. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (1997) [1984]. "ചരിത്രനോവൽ–മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയും അക്ബറും" [Historical Novel–Marthandavarma and Akbar]. Malayāḷanōval Pattompatāṁ Nūṯāṇṭil മലയാളനോവൽ പത്തൊമ്പതാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിൽ [Malayalam Novel in Nineteenth Century] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 99. ...മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ ഇടകലർന്നു കാണാം. ഇതിവൃത്തത്തിലെ ചരിത്രസംഭവങ്ങളുടെ യാഥാർത്ഥ്യനിഷ്ഠയും കല്പിതഭാഗങ്ങളുടെ കാല്പനികതയും പ്രകടമാണ്. [...can be seen intermixed. The realistic legibility of historical events and the romance in deemed parts are visible.] 
  107. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 76. കാർത്ത്യായനിയമ്മ, ശങ്കു ആശാൻ, മാങ്കോയിക്കൽ കുറുപ്പ് എന്നിവരുടെ പെരുമാറ്റവും സംഭാഷണവും മറ്റും യഥാതഥമായ നോവലിലേതുതന്നെയാണ്. [The behavior, dialogs, and others of Karthyayani Amma, Shanku Assan, and Mangoikkal Kuruppu are as that in a realistic novel.] 
  108. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 77. എന്നാൽ മാങ്കോയിക്കൽ കുറുപ്പെന്ന നാടൻ കൃഷീവലന്റെ യുവരാജാവിനോടുള്ള നിഷ്കപടമായ പെരുമാറ്റം, തമ്പിയെ സ്വീകരിക്കാനുള്ള കാർത്ത്യായനിയമ്മയുടെ തിരക്കുകളും ഒരുക്കുകൂട്ടലും, ശങ്കു ആശാന്റെ എടുത്തുചാട്ടവും ശുണ്ഠിയും, തുടങ്ങിയവയിലെല്ലാം യഥാതഥമായ ജീവിതചിത്രങ്ങൾ തന്നെയാണു കാണുക. [But in the, sincere behavior of provincial farmer, Mangoikkal Kuruppu to the prince, Karthyayani Amma's haste and preparations to receive Thambi, recklessness and short-temper of Shanku Assan, and in those follows, the realistic pictures of life are seen.] 
  109. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & Book Depot. p. 89. 
  110. ^ Nair, Dr. Poojapura Krishnan (2013). "രസാവിഷ്കരണം സി.വി.നോവലുകളിൽ" [Manifestation of theme in C. V. novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 56. ISBN 9788124019566. വീരത്തിന് അംഗമായി ശൃംഗാരത്തിന്റെ നിബന്ധനം അനന്തപത്മനാഭന്റെയും പാറുക്കുട്ടിയുടെയും പ്രണയാഭിലാഷങ്ങളിലൂടെ...[As a limb to heroism, amor is bound through the romantic desires of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty...] 
  111. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. ...പാറുക്കുട്ടിയും തിരുമുഖത്തുപിള്ളയുടെ മകനും ഇളയ രാജാവിന്റെ വാത്സല്യഭാജനവും ആശ്രിതനുമായ അനന്തപത്മനാഭനും തമ്മിലുള്ള പ്രണയത്തിന്റെ കഥ ചരിത്രപരവും രാഷ്ട്രീയവുമായ കഥാവസ്തുവിന് പുതു ജീവൻ നൽകുന്നു.[The story of romance between Parukutty and Anandapadmanabhan, who is the son of Thirumukhathu Pilla, also the dearest of prince, provides new life to the plot which is historical as well as politics itself.] 
  112. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 73. അവരുടെ പ്രണയകഥയാണു മേല്പറഞ്ഞ ചരിത്രശകലത്തിന് മജ്ജയും മാംസവും ജീവനും നല്കുന്നത്. [The above said historical piece is given with marrow, flesh, and life by their love story.] 
  113. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. നോവലിലെ വൈകാരിക ഘടകത്തിന് ഊന്നൽ നൽകുന്ന മറ്റൊരു കഥാതന്തുവും ഒരു ത്രികോണ പ്രണയരൂപത്തിൽ നോവലിൽ സന്നിവേശിപ്പിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്.[In the novel, another story-line is comprised in the form of a triangular love story to support the emotional factor of the novel.] 
  114. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. മറ്റൊരു ദുരന്തപ്രണയകഥയും കൂടി ഈ നോവലിലെ കല്പിതാംശത്തിന് ശക്തി പകർന്നുകൊണ്ട് സി. വി. അവതരിപ്പിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്.[C. V. also presents another tragic love story to strengthen the deemed aspect of this novel.] 
  115. ^ Nair, Dr. Poojapura Krishnan (2013). "രസാവിഷ്കരണം സി.വി.നോവലുകളിൽ" [Manifestation of theme in C. V. novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 56. ISBN 9788124019566. സുലൈഖയുടെയും സുഭദ്രയുടെയും വിപ്രലംഭദുഃഖങ്ങൾ...[The sadness of Zulaikha and Subhadra due to love failures...] 
  116. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 25. ISBN 9788187480655. കാല്പനികപ്രണയത്തിന്റെ മുഗ്ധമായ ഭാവഭംഗികൾ ആദ്യം പ്രകടിതമാകുന്നതും മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽതന്നെ. [The elegant expression of romantic love is first displayed in Marthandavarma.] 
  117. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 25. ISBN 9788187480655. പ്രതീക്ഷകൾക്കെതിരായ പ്രതീക്ഷയോടെ കാത്തിരിക്കുന്ന പാറുക്കുട്ടി... ...സുലൈഖ 'നളിനി'ക്കും 'ലീല'ക്കും മുമ്പേ മലയാളം കണ്ട കാല്പനികപ്രണയനായികയത്രേ.[...hopeful awaiting of Parukutty against expectations... ...Zulaikha is the romantic lover seen in Malayalam before 'Naḷiṉi' and 'Līla'.] 
  118. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 26. ISBN 9788187480655. പ്രൊമെത്യൂസ് അൺബൗണ്ടിലെ 'മെഡൂസ'യും ബ്ലേക്കിന്റെ അപ്പോക്കാലിപ്റ്റിക് കവിതകളിലെ ബിംബകല്പനകളും സൃഷ്ടിക്കുന്ന അപസാമാന്യമായ കാല്പനികാനുഭവത്തിന്റെ ഒരംശം സുഭദ്രയുടെ വ്യക്തിത്വത്തിൽ ലയിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. [An aspect of the unusual feel of romanticism create by 'Medusa' of Prometheus Unbound and by imaginations of images in the poetry of Blake is blended in the personality of Subhadra.] 
  119. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 26. ISBN 9788187480655. ...കാല്പനികമായ ഭാവശബളത നിറഞ്ഞ ഒരു സങ്കീർണ്ണചിത്രമാണ് സുഭദ്രയുടേത്.ഈ വൈരുദ്ധ്യവിശിഷ്ടമായ സങ്കീർണ്ണതയ്കക്ക് വല്ലാത്തൊരാകർഷകത്വമുണ്ട്. [...Subhadra's is a complex picture, which is romantically multicolored. This conflict-oriented complexity has an unbearable attraction.] 
  120. ^ Pillai, Dr. A. M. Vasudevan (1991). "സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയുടെ രാഷ്ട്രീയ നോവലുകൾ" [Political novels of C. V. Raman Pillai]. Nōvaluṁ Rāṣṭṟīyavuṁ നോവലും രാഷ്ട്രീയവും [Novel and Politics] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 43. 
  121. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2013). "ദേശചരിത്രം സി.വി.യുടെ നോവലുകളിൽ" [Locality history in C.V.'s novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 36. ISBN 9788124019566. തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ രാഷ്ട്രീയ ചരിത്രത്തിലെ ഉപജാപങ്ങളും അധികാരത്തിനുവേണ്ടിയുള്ള മല്പിടിത്തവും ആഭ്യന്തരകലാപങ്ങളുമാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ മുതൽ... ...നോവലുകളിലെ പ്രമേയം. [The conspiracies, power struggle, internal agitations in the political history of Travancore are the themes in novels from Marthandavarma...] 
  122. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9788187480655. ...നോവലെന്ന നിലയ്ക്ക് ഈ കൃതിയുടെ മഹത്വം ഈ ചരിത്രപശ്ചാത്തലത്തെയല്ല ആശ്രയിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നത്. നോവലിന് സുനിശ്ചിതമായ ഒരു കാലവും സ്ഥലവും ക്രിയാപദ്ധതിക്കടിസ്ഥാനമായ സംഘർഷത്തിന്റെ ബീജവും നൽകുക എന്ന ധർമ്മമാണ് ഈ ചരിത്രപശ്ചാത്തലം നിർവഹിക്കുന്നത്. [...as a novel the greatness of this work is not dependent on this historical background. This historical background accomplishes the ethic, which provides a suitable period, location and a cause for the conflict, which is base to course of action in the novel.] 
  123. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 39. ... രാഷ്ട്രീയവും സാമൂഹികവുമായ അന്തർധാരകൾ...[...political and social undercurrents...] 
  124. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 39. രാഷ്ട്രീയപരമായി നോക്കിയാൽ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ പ്രശ്നം അധികാരത്തിന്റെ, രാജാ—പ്രജാ ബന്ധത്തിന്റെ പ്രശ്നം തന്നെയാണ്. [If perceived poltitically, the issue in Marthandavarma is power, rather the issue is conflict between the ruler and the ruled.] 
  125. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 19. ISBN 9788187480655. ഈ രാഷ്ട്രീയസംഘർഷത്തിനു സാമൂഹികമായ ഒരു മാനം കൂടിയുണ്ട്.[This political conflict has a social space too.] 
  126. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2013). "ദേശചരിത്രം സി.വി.യുടെ നോവലുകളിൽ" [Locality history in C.V.'s novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 40. ISBN 9788124019566. ചരിത്രപരമായി നോക്കുമ്പോൾ ക്ഷത്രിയരിൽ നിന്ന് രാജാധികാരം പിടിച്ചെടുക്കാൻ നായന്മാർ-തമ്പിമാർ നടത്തിയ പരാജയപ്പെട്ട സമരമായും... [If previewed historically, the failed agitation by Nairs-Thambies to conquer power from Kshatriyas...] 
  127. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2013). "ദേശചരിത്രം സി.വി.യുടെ നോവലുകളിൽ" [Locality history in C.V.'s novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 40. ISBN 9788124019566. മരുമക്കത്തായത്തിനെതിരെ കലാപം പൊട്ടിപ്പുറപ്പെടുന്നതും അതടിച്ചമർത്തുന്നതുമാണ് ഒരർത്ഥത്തിൽ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ അടിസ്ഥാനപ്രമേയം. [The eruption of revolt against the collateral succession through maternal nephews, and the suppression of that (revolt) is the basic theme of Marthandavarma.] 
  128. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 60. ISBN 8176900869. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ രാജാവും രാജപദമോഹികളും തമ്മിലുള്ള സംഘട്ടനമാണ് സുപ്രധാനം [In Marthandavarma, the fight between king and kingship seekers.] 
  129. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 61. ISBN 8176900869. ...അതിനാൽത്തന്നെ പ്രജകളും രാജാവും തമ്മിലുള്ള സംഘട്ടനമല്ല മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ മുഖ്യപ്രമേയം. [...so, the fight between the ruled and ruler is not the main theme in Marthandavarma.] 
  130. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9788187480655. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ സൂചിതമാകുന്ന ചരിത്രസന്ധിയുടെ പ്രസക്തി അത് രാഷ്ട്രീയാധികാരം പിടിച്ചെടുക്കാനുള്ള മൽസരത്തിന്റേതാണെന്നാണ്. ഇതിവൃത്തശില്പത്തിന്റെ മുഖ്യസൂത്രംതന്നെ ഈ അധികാരവടംവലിയും അതിന്റെ പരിണാമവുമാണല്ലോ. [The relevance of historical juncture indicated in Marthandavarma is that it is about the contest to acquire political power. The main idea of plot structure is this power struggle and its conclusion.] 
  131. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2013). "ദേശചരിത്രം സി.വി.യുടെ നോവലുകളിൽ" [Locality history in C.V.'s novels]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 40. ISBN 9788124019566. ...രാജാധികാരം സ്ഥാപിക്കുകയാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ രാജാവ് ചെയ്തത്. ആദ്യനോവലിന്റെ രാഷ്ട്രീയമായ അർത്ഥമാനം ഈ അധികാരത്തിന്റെ ബലാത്കാരമായ പിടിച്ചെടുക്കലാണ്. [...Marthanda Varma did the establishment of royal power. The political significance of first novel is the forceful acquisition of this power.] 
  132. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 19. ISBN 9788187480655. അതുകൊണ്ടുതന്നെ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയെ ഒരു രാഷ്ട്രീയനോവലായിക്കാണുകയല്ലേ...[So, its better to see Marthandavarma as a political novel...] 
  133. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 61. ISBN 8176900869. ഈ സ്വാന്ത്ര്യബുദ്ധി, ഒരു ഗ്രാമീണകർഷകന്റെ നിഷ്കളങ്കമായ രാജത്വവിമർശനമായി മാങ്കോയിക്കൽ കുറുപ്പിലൂടെയും... [This freedom of thought through Mangoikkal Kuruppu's honest criticism of kingship...] 
  134. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 61. ISBN 8176900869. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ക്രിയാചടുലതയിൽ ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ പ്രതികരണം സൃഷ്ടിക്കുന്ന കഥാപാത്രം സുഭദ്രയായത്... [...that Subhadra became the character that creates maximum responses within the speed of events in Marthandavarma.] 
  135. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ഏക രാഷ്ട്രീയകഥാപാത്രം സുഭദ്രയാണ്. [Subhadra is the only political character in Marthandavarma.] 
  136. ^ Nair I. A. S, R. Ramachandran (2013). "രാജനീതിയും പ്രജാധർമ്മവും" [Royal policies and populus ethics]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 20. ISBN 9788124019566. ...രാജവംശത്തെയും രാജാധികാരത്തെയും രാജനീതിയെയും തന്നെയാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ ഈ നോവലിൽ... [..in this novel Marthanda Varma represents royal lineage, royal power and royal justice...] 
  137. ^ Nair I. A. S, R. Ramachandran (2013). "രാജനീതിയും പ്രജാധർമ്മവും" [Royal policies and populus ethics]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 20. ISBN 9788124019566. ...സുഭദ്ര രാജ്യസ്നേഹപ്രചോദിതമായ പ്രജാധർമ്മാനുഷ്ഠാനത്തിന്റെ മറ്റൊരു ... [..Subhadra is an image of code of conduct influenced by patriotism...] 
  138. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Historical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 25. ISBN 8171301304. സിംഹാസനത്തിനുവേണ്ടി, അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഭരണസ്ഥാനത്തിനവവേണ്ടി നേരിട്ടുള്ള അവകാശവാദവും, വെല്ലുവിളിയും സമരവും മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ നഗ്നമായി കാണാം.ആ സമരത്തിലെ ക്രിയാംശമാണ് നോവലിന്റെ നീല ഞരമ്പുകൾ. ഇതൊരു വിട്ടവീഴ്ചയില്ലാത്ത സമരവും ഈ സരത്തിന്റെ ഫലം രാജഭരണത്തെ നയിച്ചിരുന്ന ദായക്രമത്തെ മാറ്റിമറിക്കാവുന്നതുമാണ്. [The direct claim, challenge and agitation for the throne or the ruling position can be seen nakedly in Marthandavarma. The aspect of action in that, agitations are the blue veins of novel. This is a no-compromise agitation and result of the agitation is to topple the rule of succession that led the kingship.] 
  139. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Historical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 26. ISBN 8171301304. ...സിംഹാസനത്തിന് ചുറ്റും നടക്കുന്ന വിധിനിർണ്ണായകമായ ഒരു അധികാരസമരം. അതാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയെ കൂടുതലളവിൽ നിർബന്ധമായി ഒരു അധികാരരാഷ്ട്രീയ സമരത്തിന്റെ ചരിത്രമാക്കുന്നത്. [...a fate-decisive power struggle around the throne. That makes Marthandavarma moreover, compulsorily a history of power-politics-agitation.] 
  140. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (2009) [1992]. "ശതാബ്ദി പ്രശസ്തി" [Centenary Fame]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 13. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ പ്രതിനിധാനം ചെയ്യുന്ന രാജസ്ഥാനത്തെയാണ്, രാജാവായ വ്യക്തിയെയല്ല സി. വി. ഉയർത്തിക്കാട്ടുന്നത്. [C. V. raises the royal position in Marthandavarma not the royal head.] 
  141. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 39. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ചരിത്രം നോവലിസ്റ്റ് സംഘടിപ്പിച്ചെടുത്ത ചരിത്രാവബോധമാണ്. [History in Marthandavarma is historical awareness constituted by the novelist.] 
  142. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. pp. 43–44. ചരിത്രപശ്ചാത്തലം മാറ്റിനിർത്തി നോക്കുകയാണെങ്കിൽ നന്മതിന്മകൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള സംഘർഷത്തിന്റെ നാടകീയാവതരണമാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ കാണാവുന്നത്. [Dramatic presentation of feud between the good and bad is seen in Marthandavarma, when the historical background is kept apart.] 
  143. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 44. ...ദുരന്തനാടകങ്ങളിലെന്നപോലെ തിന്മയുടെ ആത്യന്തികപരാജയവും നന്മയുടെ ഭാഗികവിജയവും ആണ്. [...complete failure of sin and partial win of goodness as in tragedy plays.] 
  144. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 51. ISBN 8176900788. ദേവാസുരന്മാരെന്നപോലെ ഉത്തമന്മാരും അധമന്മാരുമായ കഥാപാത്രങ്ങൾ രണ്ടു ചേരിയിലായി നില്ക്കുന്നു. സംഘട്ടനവും ആരംഭിക്കുന്നു.[Respectable and despicable characters stands on two sides like devas and asuras. The fight also begin.] 
  145. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 51. ISBN 8176900788. ഈ യുദ്ധത്തിലും ജയിക്കുന്നത്ദേവന്മാർ തന്നെ. ക്രിയാപ്രധാനമായ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ ലോകതത്ത്വോപദേശത്തിനു സി. വി. അവിടവിടെ മുതിരുന്നുവെങ്കിലും മാനവചിത്തവൃത്തികളെ അനാവരണം ചെയ്യാൻ ഗൗരവപൂർവ്വം പരിശ്രമിക്കുന്നില്ല. [Devas win this fight. Though C. V. attempts to preach global philosophy in the action oriented Marthandavarma, serious effort is not taken to unveil human mindset.] 
  146. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള" [Novel in Language – C. V. Raman Pilla]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 141. മനുഷ്യഹൃദയത്തിന്റെ അതിസൂക്ഷ്മങ്ങളായ വികാരഭേദങ്ങൾ ചിത്രീകരിക്കുവാൻ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാ കർത്താവിന്നുള്ളതിനു തുല്യമായ പാടവം... [..the equivalent skill of Marthandavarma creator to picturize very minute emotional variations of human heart.] 
  147. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 19. ISBN 9788187480655. ...ഈ നോവലിന്റെ മോട്ടിഫ് രാഷ്ട്രീയമാണെന്നാണ്...[...is that novel's motif is politics...] 
  148. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9788187480655. ...രാഷ്ട്രീയ സംഭവഗതികളല്ല. സവിശേഷമായ വ്യക്തിബന്ധങ്ങളിൽനിന്നുയിർക്കൊള്ളുന്ന സമസ്യകളാണ്.[...not the course of political events. From the problems that get life from especial personal relations (of characters).] 
  149. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. pp. 42–43. രാജ്യചരിത്രത്തെയും വ്യക്തിബന്ധങ്ങളെയും സമുദായപ്രശ്നങ്ങളെയും ഭാവനയുടെ പരിവേഷമണിയിച്ച് അവതരിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിൽ ആ കൃതി വിജയം വരിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. [That literary work successfully presents the history of the state, interpersonal relationships, and social issues in the outset of imagination.] 
  150. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. ...ഒരു ഡിറ്റക്ടീവ് കഥാപാത്രത്തിൽനിന്ന് സുഭദ്രയ്ക്കുള്ള അന്വേഷണത്വരയുടെ പ്രസക്തി... [...the investigative intention of Subhadra despite being a detective character...] 
  151. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "ദുരന്തബോധം സി. വി. സാഹിത്യത്തിൽ" [Tragic consciousness in C. V. literature]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 30. ISBN 9788187480655. ...പെട്ടെന്നു നമ്മുടെ മനസ്സിൽ തെളിയുക സുഭദ്രയുടെ ... [..very then, Subhadra's... in our mind.] 
  152. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 20. ISBN 9788187480655. ...രഹസ്യങ്ങൾ അനാവരണം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സുഭദ്രയുടെ സ്വകാര്യ പരിശ്രമങ്ങളാണ് ഈ നോവലിന്റെ രസച്ചരട് മുന്നോട്ടു നയിക്കുന്നത്.ഷെർലക് ഹോംസിന്റെ രഹസ്യാന്വേഷണവൈദഗ്ദ്ധ്യം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുന്ന സുഭദ്ര... [...the private attempts of Subhadra to unveil the secrets lead the amusement-thread of this novel. Subhadra, who displays Sherlok Holme's talent of secret investigation...] 
  153. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 86. ISBN 8176900869. എട്ടുവീടരുടെ കാടത്തത്തിൽ നിന്ന് ഭിന്നമായി തനിക്കുള്ള അസ്തിത്വമെന്തെന്നറിഞ്ഞവളുടെ സന്തോഷകരമായ ദുരന്തമാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലുള്ളത്. [ Marthandavarma possesses the delightful tragedy of one, who realized her existence apart from the barbarity of Ettuveettil Pillas.] 
  154. ^ Nair, Dr. P. V. Krishnan, ed. (2005) [1980]. "പ്രൊഫ.വി.ആനന്തക്കുട്ടൻ നായർ" [Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair]. Kēraḷbhāṣāgānaṅṅaḷ കേരളഭാഷാഗാനങ്ങൾ [Folk songs in Kerala] (in Malayalam). II. Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 4. 
  155. ^ a b Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 109. ISBN 8171301304. 
  156. ^ Sasibhooshan, Dr. M. G. (2013). "പെരുന്തച്ചന്റെ ബലിഷ്ഠശില്പങ്ങൾ" [Perunthachan's Strong Structures]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 143. ISBN 9788124019566. 
  157. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 112. ISBN 8171301304. ഓരോ അദ്ധ്യായത്തിന്റെയും ആരംഭത്തിൽ കഥാസൂചകങ്ങളായ പദ്യശകലങ്ങൾ നൽകുക, കഥാഖ്യാനത്തിനിടയിൽ നാടോടി വീരഗാഥകളിൽ നിന്നുള്ള ഉദ്ധരണികൾ ചേർക്കുക... [Provision of plot-implicate verses in the beginning of every chapter, addition of verses from ballads in between the plot narration...] 
  158. ^ (Express News Service) (July 18, 2014). "Thumpamon Thomas Passes Away". The New Indian Express. Thiruvananthapuram: The New Indian Express. 
  159. ^ Thomas, Prof. Thumpamon (1992). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Malayāḷanōvalil Oru Punḥapariśōdhana മലയാളനോവലിൽ ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന [A Re-examination in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 42. 
  160. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 123. ISBN 8171301304. ... വർണ്ണനകളിലും സംഭാഷണങ്ങളിലും വരുന്ന സാന്ദർഭിക ഉദ്ധരണികളാണ്. [The situational quotes that come among the descriptions and dialogs ...] 
  161. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 114–115. ISBN 8171301304. ... എന്നിങ്ങനെയുള്ള സംഭാഷണത്തിൽ വരുന്ന പുരാവൃത്തങ്ങളും, ... ഈ പുരാവൃത്തമിശ്രണം മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ താരതേമന്യ കുറവാണ്. [.. the similar puranic quotes among the dialogs, ...this mixing of puranas with plot is comparatively less in Marthandavarma.] 
  162. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 112. ISBN 8171301304. ഉദ്ധരണികളിൽ പ്രധാനം, അദ്ധ്യായങ്ങളുടെ ആരംഭത്തിൽ കൊടുത്തിരിക്കുന്ന കഥാസൂചകങ്ങളോ പാത്രസ്വഭാവസൂചകങ്ങളോ ആയ പദ്യശകലങ്ങളാകയാൽ, അവയ്ക്ക് അതതു അദ്ധ്യായങ്ങളിലെ കഥാസന്ദർഭവുമായുള്ള ബന്ധവും ഔചിത്യവും... [As the, verses that are plot-implication or behavior-implication of characters are the important among the quoted ones, the relation and propriety to the context of plot in the respective chapters...] 
  163. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 112. ISBN 8171301304. സർ വാൾട്ടർ സ്കോട്ടിന്റെ ചരിത്രനോവലുകൾ സി.വി.ൽ ചെലുത്തിയ സ്വാധീനശക്തിയുടെ... [The influence-power of Sir Walter Scott's historical novels in C. V. ...] 
  164. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 112. ISBN 8171301304. പുരാണകഥകളിലും പ്രചീന-മദ്ധ്യകാല മലയാള കവിതകളിലും വേണാടിന്റെ പഴയവീരഗാഥകളിലും നമ്മുടെ ദേശചരിത്രം, ആചാരങ്ങൾ, ഐതിഹ്യങ്ങൾ മുതലായവയിലും ചെറുപ്പത്തിലേ സി.വി. നേടിയ പരിജ്ഞാനമാണിത്. [This is the knowledge acquired by C. V. in the puranic stories, ancient-middle age Malayalam poems, old heroic songs of Venad, history of our country, customs, and legends.] 
  165. ^ a b Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Historical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 24. ISBN 8171301304. ദ്രുതഗതിയിൽ നീങ്ങുന്ന സംഭവങ്ങൾ കോർത്തിണക്കിയ സംഭവപ്രധാനമായ ഒരു നോവലാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ. അതിന്റെ ഘടന സങ്കീർണ്ണമല്ല. [Marthandavarma is an event-oriented novel intertwined with fast moving incidents. Its structure is not complex.] 
  166. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Historical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 24. ISBN 8171301304. ...കഥ പറഞ്ഞുപോകാനും, വീരപരാക്രമങ്ങൾക്ക് സഹജമായുള്ള ക്രിയാവേഗം പരിരക്ഷിച്ചുകൊണ്ടുപോകാനും, സർവ്വോപരി കഥാപാത്രങ്ങളെ ത്രിമാനങ്ങളിൽ സൃഷ്ടിക്കാനുമുള്ള കഴിവ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ വ്യക്തമായി കാണാം. [The ability to convey the story telling, to preserve the momentum of action inborn to heroic valor, above all to create the characters in three dimensions can be seen very clearly in Marthandavarma.] 
  167. ^ Kurup, C. Sreekanta. "നിഗൂഢസ്രഷ്ടാവ്: വർത്തമാനകാലപരിപ്രേക്ഷ്യത്തിന്റെ ആഖ്യാനസമാന്തരം" [Mysterious creator: Narrative similarity of contemporary point of view]. Si. Vi. Manasuṁ Kalayuṁ സി.വി. മനസ്സും കലയും [C.V. Mind and Art] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: The Book Digest. p. 35. ... പ്രധാനകഥാപാത്രങ്ങളെല്ലാം ഒന്നിച്ചുകൂടിയിരുന്നുള്ള സംഭാഷണത്തിലൂടെ അപസർപ്പകഥകളെ അനുസ്മരിപ്പിക്കും വിധം അനാവൃതമാക്കുയാണിവിടെ. ആഖ്യാനപരമായ ഒരുതരം സാങ്കേതികഭദ്രതയുണ്ടെന്നു വാദിക്കാമെങ്കിലും ... [... here uncovers, through the combined conversations of main characters in a way of reminding detective stories. Though arguably a technical perfection, in narrative mode...] 
  168. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 67. ISBN 8176900869. താൻ സൃഷ്ടിക്കുന്ന അന്തരീക്ഷവും വ്യക്തികളും അത്യന്തം യോജിപ്പുള്ളവരാകുന്നു എന്ന സത്യം അനുഭവപ്പെടുത്താനും അവർ നമ്മുക്കു മുമ്പേ ജീവിച്ചവരും നമ്മെ സംബന്ധിച്ചിടത്തോളം സ്മരണാർഹമായ പ്രസക്തിയുള്ളവരും ആണെന്നു ബോധ്യപ്പെടുത്താനും സി.വി. യ്ക്ക് ഒട്ടും ക്ലേശിക്കേണ്ടി വരുന്നില്ല, മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലായാലും ... [C. V. does not have to strain, even in Marthandavarma... to make feel the truth that environment and personalities created by him are completely coherent, and to convince that they (personalities) are memorable relevant ones lived before our time.] 
  169. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 79. ... ലളിതവും ഹൃദയംഗവുമാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ഭാഷ. കഥാപാത്രങ്ങളുടെ സ്വഭാവത്തിനനുസൃതമായി ഭാഷയും ശൈലിയും മാറുന്നുണ്ടെങ്കിലും വർണ്ണന, ആഖ്യാനം എന്നിവയ്ക്ക് ഒരേ ഭാഷ തന്നെ... [... the language in Marthandavarma is light and heart-touching. The language for description and narration are same, though the language and style change with respect to the behavior of characters ...] 
  170. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 79. സംഭാഷണത്തിൽ മാത്രമല്ല, വിവരണങ്ങളിലും സി.വി. യുടെ ഓജസ്സും ഭംഗിയുമുള്ള ശൈലി കണ്ടെത്താൻ പ്രയാസമില്ല. [Not only in conversations, in descriptions too, finding C.V.'s style that has vigor and beauty is not difficult.] 
  171. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2010) [1958]. "നോവൽ" [Novel]. Malayāḷa sahityacaritraṁ മലയാള സാഹിത്യചരിത്രം [Malayalam literary history] (in Malayalam) (12th ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 126. കല്പിതപുരുഷന്മാരേയും യഥാർത്ഥമായി ജീവിച്ചിരുന്നവരേയും തമ്മിൽ വേർതിരിക്കുവാൻ നിവൃത്തിയില്ലാത്തവിധം അത്ര തന്മയത്വത്തോടെയാണു് സി. വി. തന്റെ പാത്രങ്ങളെ സൃഷ്ടിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നത്. [C. V. creates his characters with at-most natural identity, which makes no means to separate between fictional men and really lived ones.] 
  172. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna (2011) [1986]. "അസ്തിവാരം" [Foundation]. Pratipātraṁ Bhāṣaṇabhēdaṁ പ്രതിപാത്രം ഭാഷണഭേദം [Speech variance per character] (in Malayalam) (2nd DCB ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 18. ISBN 8171303943. എന്നാൽ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ, രാമയ്യൻ, പപ്പുത്തമ്പി, എട്ടുവീടർ, ... എന്നീ ചരിത്രപുരുഷന്മാർ കഥാപാത്രങ്ങളായി മാറുമ്പോൾ അവർക്കു സിദ്ധിച്ചിട്ടുള്ള വ്യക്തിത്വങ്ങൾ മുക്കാലേ അരയ്ക്കാലും സി.വി. യുടെ പ്രതിഭ സമ്മാനിച്ചിട്ടുള്ളതാണ്. [But, when the historical personalities, Marthanda Varma, Ramayyan, Pappu Thambi, Ettuveettil Pillas become characters, the seven-eighths of identities obtained by them are gifted by C.V.'s talent.] 
  173. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9788187480655. ...സങ്കീർണ്ണമായ ഇതിവൃത്ത ശില്പങ്ങൾ മെനഞ്ഞെടുക്കുന്നതിലല്ല; അപൂർവ്വമായ കഥാപാത്രസങ്കല്പനത്തിലാണ്.[...not in the creation of complex plot structures; unprecedented imagination of characters.] 
  174. ^ Haridevan (2009) [1983]. "ഭൂമിക" [Prelude]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Fourth ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 12. കഥകളിയിലെ വേഷങ്ങൾ പോലെയാണ് സി.വി. യുടെ കഥാപാത്രങ്ങൾ നോവലിൽ പ്രത്യക്ഷപ്പെടുന്നത്. [C.V.'s characters are appearing in the novel like the roles in Kathakali.] 
  175. ^ Onakkoor, Dr. George (2013). "നായക സങ്കല്പം മലയാള നോവലിൽ" [Concept of Hero in Malayalam Novel]. Nāyaka Sankalpaṁ Malayāḷa Nōvalil നായക സങ്കല്പം മലയാള നോവലിൽ [Concept of Hero in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Ascend Publication. p. 83. നായക കഥാപാത്രങ്ങളായ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ, അനന്തപത്മനാഭൻ... [lead characters Marthandavarma and Ananthapadmanabhan...] 
  176. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 72. ...മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ കഥാനായകൻ അനന്തപത്മനാഭനും നായിക പാറുക്കുട്ടിയുമാണെന്ന ...[...that the hero is Ananthapadmanabhan and heroine is Parukutty in Marthandavarma.] 
  177. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2009) [1996]. "ധർമ്മരാജാ" [Dharmaraja]. Nōval Si.Vi. Mutal Baṣīṟ Vare നോവൽ സി. വി. മുതൽ ബഷീർ വരെ [Novel : From C. V. until Basheer] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 72. ...മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ നായിക പാറുക്കുട്ടിയോ സുഭദ്രയോ? ഒരു ദ്വിനായികാസങ്കൽപ്പത്തിനും ഇവിടെ പ്രസക്തിയില്ലേ? [...the heroine of Marthandavarma is Parukutty or Subahadra?. The concept of dual heroines is relevant here?] 
  178. ^ Benjamin, Dr. D. (2010) [1994]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന" [Marthandavarma: A Re-examination]. Nōvalsāhityapaṭhanaṅṅaḷ നോവൽസാഹിത്യപഠനങ്ങൾ [Novel literature studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: MaluBen Publications. p. 20. ISBN 9788187480655. ഈ നോവലിലെ കഥാനായകൻ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ മഹാരാജാവാണ്.[The hero of this novel is Marthanda Varma.] 
  179. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. ഇതിലെ കഥാംശം ഒരു പ്രേമകഥയാണെങ്കിൽ......അത്തരമൊരു വികാരം അനന്തപത്മനാഭൻ പാറുക്കുട്ടി എന്നിവരിലൂടെ... ...കഥാംശം അധികാരസമരമാണെങ്കിൽ കഥാനായകനും നായികയും വേറെയാണ്. [If the story is a love story, ... then such an emotion through Ananthapadmanbhan and Parukutty... if the story is power struggle then hero and heroine are different.] 
  180. ^ Kurup, C. Sreekanta. "നിഗൂഢസ്രഷ്ടാവ്: വർത്തമാനകാലപരിപ്രേക്ഷ്യത്തിന്റെ ആഖ്യാനസമാന്തരം" [Mysterious creator: Narrative similarity of contemporary point of view]. Si. Vi. Manasuṁ Kalayuṁ സി.വി. മനസ്സും കലയും [C.V. Mind and Art] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: The Book Digest. p. 38. ... മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ ക്രിയാകാണ്ഡത്തിനു നേതൃത്വം കൊടുക്കുന്നത് യുവരാജാവുതന്നെയാണ്. [The prince himself leads the action-section in Marthandavarma...] 
  181. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. അതിനാൽ അനന്തപത്മനാഭനല്ല ഈ കഥയിലെ നായകൻ. [So, Ananthapadmanabhan is not the hero of this story.] 
  182. ^ Thomas, Prof. Thumpamon (1992). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Malayāḷanōvalil Oru Punḥapariśōdhana മലയാളനോവലിൽ ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന [A Re-examination in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 43. ... കെട്ടിക്കയറുന്ന സംഭവങ്ങളിലൂടെ കഥയെ വികസിപ്പിച്ച് ... [... by expanding plot through the stagnantly rising events ...] 
  183. ^ Thomas, Prof. Thumpamon (1992). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Malayāḷanōvalil Oru Punḥapariśōdhana മലയാളനോവലിൽ ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന [A Re-examination in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 43. ... ആഖ്യാനത്തെ പിൻപന്തിയിലേക്കു തള്ളിനീക്കുകയും കഥാപാത്രത്തിന്റെ സംഘർഷത്തിലൂടെ പാത്രസ്വഭാവം വരച്ചെടുക്കുന്നതിൽ ഊന്നൽ നല്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്ന നോവലിന്റെ രചനാകൗശലമല്ല, ... കാണുക. [... the writing trick of novel, which pushes the narration to the back row, and providing emphasize in drawing the behavior of character through character's struggles, are not ... seen.] 
  184. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I: Editorial from THE HINDU, dated December 21, 1891". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 71–72. The author is careful to keep the reader in suspense, making incidents to rise out of incidents, leading to unexpected intricacies and complications with a veil of mystery thrown over the whole, until at last all the incidents and attendant circumstances are explained and the reader finds himself relieved from all embarrassments and impediments. 
  185. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള" [Novel in Language – C. V. Raman Pilla]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. pp. 144–145. ... ഒരു പുസ്തകത്തിന്റെ പരിധിക്കുള്ളിൽ സംഗ്രഹിത്തക്ക ഒരു കഥാവസ്തുവല്ല മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ ഉള്ളത്. ... ഇപ്പോഴുള്ളതിന്റെ ഇരട്ടി വിസ്താരമുള്ള ഒരു പുസ്തകത്തിൽ പ്രതിപാദിക്കപ്പെടേണ്ട കഥാവസ്തുവാണ് മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ ഒരപക്കിയിരിക്കുന്നത്. [Marthandavarma has in it, a story-plot that cannot be abridged in the limit of a book ... . A story-plot that is to be narrated in a book with double size of the present book size is arranged in Marthandavarma.] 
  186. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള" [Novel in Language – C. V. Raman Pilla]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 141. .., അതിനെ ഗ്രന്ഥകാരൻ പ്രതിപാദനരീതിയുടെ നൂതനത്വം വഴിയായി സ്വകീയമാക്കി ചെയ്തിട്ടുണ്ടെന്നുള്ളതിനു നോവലിൽ സർവത്ര തെളിഞ്ഞുകാണപ്പെടുന്ന ഹൃദയമർമ്മജ്ഞത ഉത്തമ ലക്ഷണമാണ്. [... the heartily vital knowledge seen everywhere in the novel is an excellent trait that the author made it his own by way of neo-narrative style.] 
  187. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 66. ISBN 8176900869. ...ടെക്നിക്കുകൾ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ തൊട്ടേ പ്രസക്തമാകുന്നു. സവിശേഷഭാഷയോടുള്ള പ്രതിപത്തി...[ .. the techniques are relevant in Marthandavarma. The affinity towards especial language...] 
  188. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna (2011) [1986]. "അസ്തിവാരം" [Foundation]. Pratipātraṁ Bhāṣaṇabhēdaṁ പ്രതിപാത്രം ഭാഷണഭേദം [Speech variance per character] (in Malayalam) (2nd DCB ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 24. ISBN 8171303943. ആകെ സംഭാഷണഭാഗങ്ങളുടെ വിശകലനത്തിൽ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ മൊത്തം പുറങ്ങളുടെ 64 ശതമാനവും ... സംഭാഷണരചനയ്ക്കുപയോഗിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. [In the analysis of all conversational sections, 64 percentage of total pages in Marthandavarma are used for scripting of dialogs.] 
  189. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I: Editorial from THE HINDU, dated December 21, 1891". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 72. There are interspersed throughout the book fine pieces of humour, lively flashes of wit and imagination and shrewd observations on the ways of the world and the inner workings of the human mind. 
  190. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 116. ഹൃദയാവർജ്ജകത്വമാണ് ശൈലിയുടെ ലക്ഷണമെങ്കിൽ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ അതിൽ തികച്ചും വിജയം പ്രാപിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. [If heartily acquisitiveness is the attribute of Style, then Marthandavarma attains complete success in it.] 
  191. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 117. ..., അത് വായനക്കാരനെ യന്ത്രവേഗത്തിൽ മുന്നോട്ടുകൊണ്ടുപോകുന്നു. കഥയുടെ ആകർഷണം മാത്രമല്ല, ഭാഷയുടെ സാരള്യവും മാധുര്യവും കൂടിയാണ് അവരെ അതിൽ ലയിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. [..., it leads the reader ahead with motor-speed. Not only the attraction of plot, the simplicity and sweetness of language are together make them (readers) absolve.] 
  192. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Historical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 25. ISBN 8171301304. അതുപോലെ അതിലെ ഭാഷയും പിൽക്കാലത്തെ രണ്ടു നോലുകളിലെപ്പോലെ സംസ്കൃതജടിലമല്ല. [Similarly, the language in that is not entangled with Sanskrit as in the two novels of later period.] 
  193. ^ Kurup, C. Sreekanta. "ആഖ്യാനകലയും പാരമ്പര്യഘടകങ്ങളും" [Narrative art and traditional elements]. Si. Vi. Manasuṁ Kalayuṁ സി.വി. മനസ്സും കലയും [C.V. Mind and Art] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: The Book Digest. p. 63. ഇവയിലെ ഭാഷ (മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലേതൊഴികെ) വായനക്കാരനെ പ്രതിരോധിക്കുന്ന ഒരു ഘടകമാണെന്ന് ... [... that the language in these (except in Marthandavarma) is defensive to the reader.] 
  194. ^ Nair, S. Guptan. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയും സി.വി. യും" [Marthandavarma and C.V.]. Gadyaṁ Pinniṭṭa Vaḻikaḷ ഗദ്യം പിന്നിട്ട വഴികൾ [Paths passed by prose] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 87. 'കിർമ്മീരവധശൈലി' എന്നു സി.വി. തന്നെ പേരിട്ടത് ധർമ്മരാജായിലെ ശൈലിക്കാണ്. [C.V. himself named the style as 'Kirmmīravadhaśaili' (Style of slaying Kirmīra) for the style in Dharmaraja.] 
  195. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2009) [1919]. "മുഖവുര" [Address]. Rāmarājābahadūṟ രാമരാജാബഹദൂർ [Ramarajabahadur] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 9. ഒരു 'കിർമ്മീരവധ'രീതിയെ ... [A 'Kiṟmīravadha'rīti ... (One method of 'Slaying Kirmira')] 
  196. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 138. 'സീ വീ ശൈലി' എന്നാണ് ഈ ... മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയെ മാത്രം ... [... that 'Sī Vī Śaili' (C V Style) is this ... only Marthandavarma ...] 
  197. ^ Paul, M. P. (2005). "ഭാഷാഗദ്യശൈലി" [Prose-style of language]. Sāhityavicāraṁ സാഹിത്യവിചാരം [Literary thought] (in Malayalam) (First Lipi ed.). Kozhikode: Lipi Publications. p. 25. 'Style' എന്ന ഇംഗ്ളീഷ് പദത്തിനുള്ള അർത്ഥം ... 'രീതി' എന്നു പറഞ്ഞാൽ ... 'ശൈലി' എന്ന പദം പ്രകൃതത്തിന്നു ... [The meaning for the English-word 'Style' ... if say, 'rīti' (method) ... for realization, the word 'śaili' ...] 
  198. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2009) [1919]. "മുഖവുര" [Address]. Rāmarājābahadūṟ രാമരാജാബഹദൂർ [Ramarajabahadur] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 10. ... 'മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാ'രീതി അതിന്റെ നിർമ്മാണകാലത്തു ഗ്രന്ഥകാരനുണ്ടായിരുന്ന പ്രായത്തോടെ സമഗമനം ചെയ്തു പോയിരിക്കുന്നതായി കണ്ടു. ['Marṟttāṇḍvaṟmmā'rīti (Marthandavarma-style) is seem to be gone with the age of author during its period of creation.] 
  199. ^ Kurup, C. Sreekanta. "ആഖ്യാനകലയും പാരമ്പര്യഘടകങ്ങളും" [Narrative art and traditional elements]. Si. Vi. Manasuṁ Kalayuṁ സി.വി. മനസ്സും കലയും [C.V. Mind and Art] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: The Book Digest. p. 69. വർണ്ണനകളിൽ മറ്റൊരു ഗദ്യകാരനും അദ്ദേഹത്തെപ്പോലെ അലങ്കാരങ്ങൾ പ്രയോഗിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടാവില്ല. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലെ പത്താമധ്യായത്തിൽ ... [No other prose writer would have used rhetoric embellishments in description, like him. In the tenth chapter of Marthandavarma ...] 
  200. ^ Nair, S. Guptan. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയും സി.വി. യും" [Marthandavarma and C.V.]. Gadyaṁ Pinniṭṭa Vaḻikaḷ ഗദ്യം പിന്നിട്ട വഴികൾ [Paths passed by prose] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 88. സി.വി. യുടെ കൃതികളിൽ കാവ്യോചിതമായ അലങ്കാരങ്ങൾ സുലഭമാണ്.... അലംകൃതഗദ്യമെഴുമ്പോഴാണ് സി.വി. ഗദ്യകവിയായിമാറുന്നത്. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ നിന്ന് അല്പം കൂടി... [Rhetoric embellishments suitable to lyric are plenty in C.V.'s works. ... C.V. becomes a prose-poet when he writes rhetoric prose. A little more from Marthandavarma...] 
  201. ^ Nair, S. Guptan. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയും സി.വി. യും" [Marthandavarma and C.V.]. Gadyaṁ Pinniṭṭa Vaḻikaḷ ഗദ്യം പിന്നിട്ട വഴികൾ [Paths passed by prose] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 88. സി.വി. യുടെശൈലീവക്രത ... [C.V.'s style-crookedness] 
  202. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 141–142. ... അടുത്തുവരുന്ന വാക്യങ്ങൾക്കും വാക്യാംഗങ്ങൾക്കും തമ്മിൽ അവശ്യം വേണ്ടുന്ന സംസക്തി (coherence) അഥവാ കൂട്ടിക്കൊളുത്തൽ സാധിക്കുന്നതിന് ... സന്ധായകങ്ങൾ ഒട്ടേറെ ... സീ വീ ശൈലിയുടെ പ്രധാനപ്പെട്ട ഒരു മുദ്രയാണ്. [... to achieve necessarily required coherence between the nearby sentences and sentence-parts ... many blended ones .. an important symbol of Śī Vī style] 
  203. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 142. കഥകളി, നാടകം, കൂടിയാട്ടം, മോഹിനിയാട്ടം, ഭരതനാട്യം തുടങ്ങിയ ദൃശ്യകലാരൂപങ്ങളുടെ രംഗങ്ങളിൽ നിന്നുപോന്നുവന്ന ചിത്രങ്ങൾ .... [The pictures from the scenes of visual arts such as Kathakali, Play, Kudiyattam, Mohiniyattam, Bharatanatyam are ...] 
  204. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 143. കർമ്മിണിപ്രയോഗങ്ങളുടെയും പ്രതതിഗ്രാഹികാ വിഭക്തിപ്രത്യയം ചേർന്ന നപുസകനാമങ്ങളുടെയും പ്രാചുര്യം ... [The abundant usages of passive verbs and gender-neutral pronouns in objective case ...] 
  205. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 145. ... ഉദ്ദേശ്യവാചി പ്രത്യയം സീ വീ ഏറെക്കുറെ മനസ്സിരുത്തിത്തന്നെ ഗ്രന്ഥശരീരത്തിൽ വാരിവിതറിയിട്ടുള്ള പഴമയുടെ ചിഹ്നങ്ങളിൽ ഒന്നുമാത്രമാണ്. [... the dative case, C. V. more or less stressfully scattered in the body of book is one of the symbols of primitiveness.] 
  206. ^ Prabodhachandran, Dr. V. R. (2003). "സീ വീ ശൈലി" [C V Style]. Śailībhaṁgikaḷ ശൈലീഭംഗികൾ [Style-charms] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 145–146. ഗ്രന്ഥകാരന്റെ തന്മൊഴിയുടെയും ഭാഷാഭേദത്തിന്റെയും പ്രത്യകതകളിൽപ്പെടുന്ന ശൈലീപരമായ മുദ്രകളിൽ ചിലവ ... ക്ലാസിക് സമ്പ്രദായത്തിലുള്ള ആഖ്യാനത്തിനിണങ്ങിയ ശൈലീചിഹ്നങ്ങൾതന്നെ. [Some of the stylistic symbols among the specialties of language variance and author's idiolect ... are style marks suitable to narration in classic method.] 
  207. ^ Haridevan (2009) [1983]. "ഭൂമിക" [Prelude]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Fourth ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 15. ഒരു സ്വപ്നം പോലെയെന്നു വിവക്ഷിക്കാവുന്ന വിധത്തിൽ അനുവാചകനിൽ ഈ അദ്ഭുതസിദ്ധി അനിവാര്യമെന്നു തോന്നത്തക്കവിധത്തിലാണ് സി.വി. രംഗമാഷ്ക്കരിക്കുന്നത്. [C.V. manifests scene in the manner that makes the reader feel this accomplishment of wonder is inevitable, that could be implied as a dream.] 
  208. ^ Kurup, C. Sreekanta. "സ്ഥലകാലദർശനം" [Sight of place and time]. Si. Vi. Manasuṁ Kalayuṁ സി.വി. മനസ്സും കലയും [C.V. Mind and Art] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: The Book Digest. p. 94. ... ഇതിവൃത്തത്തെ ഭംഗിയായി ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുന്നതുമായ ഒരു സ്ഥലഘടനയും അതിനിണങ്ങുന്നതും രാപകലുകളുടെ വ്യവസ്ഥയും പഞ്ചാംഗത്തിന്റെ കൃത്യതയും പാലിക്കുന്ന ഒരു കാലസങ്കൽപ്പവും മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിൽ ഇണക്കിയെടുക്കാൻ സി.വി.ക്ക് കഴിഞ്ഞുവെന്നാണ്... [... that C.V. was able to accommodate a geographical structure beautifully comprising the plot with a matching imagination of time, which maintains legitimacy of day and night, as well as the accuracy of almanac ...] 
  209. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള" [Novel in Language – C. V. Raman Pilla]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. p. 137. ... അസാമാന്യമായ പ്രതിഭാവിലാസം കൊണ്ടും വിഷയഗാംഭീര്യം കൊണ്ടും മനുഷ്യചിത്തവൃത്തികളുടെ സുരുചിരമായ പ്രകാശനം കൊണ്ടും ലോകോത്തരമായ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ. [The extraordinary talent-sportiness, subject-greatness, and gracefully long-lasting brightness of human mind-work made Marthandavarma, one with a global standard.] 
  210. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ ധാരാളം സംഭവങ്ങളും അതിപരിചിതനായ ഒരു കഥാനായകനും ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുന്ന കാലഘട്ടത്തിന്റെ ചിത്രീകരണമാണ്. ചരിത്രനോവലിന് ഏറ്റവും ആവശ്യമായ സാഹചര്യമാണിവ രണ്ടും. [Marthandavarma is a novel that comprises so many events and a well known hero. These are the most required situations for historical novel.] 
  211. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual. I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 328–330. 
  212. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 24. 
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  215. ^ Shobhanan, Dr. B. (2011). "A Note on Ananthapadmanabhan". In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. Māvīraṉ Taḷapati Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan]. Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indigenous Research Organisation, India. p. 105. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • (Various contributors) (1992). Sahitya Akademi National Seminar on Martanda Varma. National Seminar on Malayalam Classic Marthandavarma. National Seminar. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 
  • Mukherjee, Meenakshi (1992). Rajan, P.K., ed. "Marthanda Varma and the Historical Novel in India". Littcrit. Thiruvananthapuram: Littcrit. XVIII (1 & 2). 
  • Pillai, Meena T. (2012). "Modernity and the Fetishising of Female Chastity: C.V. Raman Pillai and the Anxieties of the Early Modern Malayalam Novel". South Asian Review. Florida: South Asian Literary Association. XXXIII (1). 

External links[edit]