Marthaville was founded in 1851. The founder, James Jackson Rains, named the town after his wife, Martha Rains. The town, during its peak, had a train stop, a bank, general store, bar, and hotel, etc. In the late 1960s, the railroad was removed and the town experienced an economic downturn. Now it is an unincorporated community in Natchitoches Parish, still having the store, post office, etc., and it is home to at least a dozen churches in the area in addition to an Elementary and Junior High school.
The Marthaville Good Ole Days Festival is "A two-day September festival that celebrates the past with activities for the whole family, including games, live entertainment, arts and crafts, a parade, and delicious food." The Marthaville Good Ole Days Festival attracts about 1,500 people to the area.