Martin 2-0-2

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Martin 2-0-2
Martin 202 HK-1484 FLL 07.10.73 edited-2.jpg
Ex Northwest Airlines Martin 2-0-2 of Aeroproveedora (Colombia) at Fort Lauderdale Florida in 1973
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company
First flight 22 November 1946
Introduction August, 1947
Retired about 1975
Primary users Northwest Orient Airlines
LAN Chile
Trans World Airlines
Produced 1947-1948
Number built 47
Variants Martin 4-0-4

The Martin 2-0-2 was an airliner introduced in 1947. The twin-engined piston fixed-wing aircraft was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company.

Design and development[edit]

Glenn L. Martin, president of the company, intended that the Model 202 would be a replacement for the Douglas DC-3. It was also known as the "Martin Executive".

The first flight of the model was in November 1946. Full civilian certification was gained in August 1947. This was several months before competing aircraft types. The total production of 2-0-2 and 2-0-2A was 47 aircraft.[1]

The aircraft was non-pressurized but was considered a long range airliner. The fatal crash in 1948 of Northwest Airlines Flight 421 revealed a serious structural problem in the wings. Structural metal fatigue was the problem in a major wing spar. Alloy 7075-T6 was used, which is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking and low toughness. The airliner was grounded and modifications were made. The wing components were redesigned and the engines replaced. The changed type was designated the Martin 2-0-2A.

Operational history[edit]

Japan Airlines Martin 2-0-2 "Mokusei" (1951)
Ex TWA Martin 2-0-2A of Southeast Airlines (Florida) at Miami in 1970

On November 13, 1945 Pennsylvania Central Airlines purchased a fleet of 35 Martin 202's from the Glenn Martin Company for a price of $7,000,000.[2] Two weeks later, Colonial Airlines announced that they would purchase 20 airplanes at the price of $4,000,000, scheduled for delivery in 1947.[3] Early in the next year, Martin announced that Pennsylvania-Central Airlines had ordered 15 more 202's bringing the total aircraft on order in early January 1947 to 137 aircraft, with a sales value of $27,000,000.[4] Despite the announcement of these large orders, the contract terms allowed the airlines to cancel them without any penalty.[5] The 2-0-2 was unpressurised, unlike the competing Convair 240. Therefore, as delays in production built up, all airlines except Northwest, TWA, LAN and LAV cancelled their orders and only 31 2-0-2s and 12 2-0-2As were actually delivered to the airlines.[5] The first scheduled flight was on Northwest between Minneapolis and Chicago on 13 October 1947.

The 2-0-2 was the first airplane subjected to the CAA's then new 'Accelerated Service Test', introduced May 15, 1947. In this test an airliner was to undergo a rigorous 150-hour test, attempting to squeeze one year's service into a week to ten day's flying. The 202 made such a test visiting about 50 cities in 7 days. At each city comprehensive inspections were made of the aircraft systems to assess how wear or malfunction would occur.[6]

TWA and Northwest, initial customers of the 2-0-2, eventually sold their Martin 2-0-2s to California Central and Pioneer Airlines. Later, Allegheny Airlines acquired many of the 2-0-2s as part of the company's expansion plans, beginning June 1, 1955. Eventually they acquired a total of 18 aircraft.

Only one of this type of aircraft is known to survive[citation needed], at the Aviation Hall of Fame and Museum of New Jersey.

This airliner was eventually developed into the Martin 4-0-4, which was more successful.

Variants[edit]

The Martin Company designated the following quantities for the airlines (though not all were built), listed by Martin Model number:[citation needed]

2-0-2
twin engine prototype: 3, in 1946
2-0-2FL
twin engine commercial transport, Chile: 4, in 1947
2-0-2NW
twin engine commercial transport, Northwest Airlines: 25, in 1947
2-0-2LAV
twin engine commercial transport, Venezuela: 2, in 1947
2-0-2A
twin engine commercial transport, Trans World Airlines: 21, in 1947
2-0-2E
twin engine commercial transport, Eastern Airlines: 25, in 1947

Operators[edit]

♠ original operators

 Chile
 Colombia
  • Aeroproveedora
 Japan
 Mexico
 Panama
  • RAPSA Panama
 United States
 Venezuela

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The Martin 2-0-2 had 13 hull-loss accidents and incidents of which nine were fatal accidents.[11]

  • 29 August 1948 - Northwest Airlines Flight 421 crashed after losing a wing near Winona, Minnesota, United States, 37 fatalities.[1][12]
  • 7 March 1950 - Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 307 crashed after hitting a flag pole near Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. 15 fatalities including two on the ground.[1][13]
  • 13 October 1950 - A Northwest Orient 2-0-2 crashed on a training flight at Almelund, Minnesota, United States, 6 fatalities.[1][14]
  • 7 November 1950 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed into a mountain near Butte, Montana, United States, 21 fatalities.[1][15]
  • 16 January 1951 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed near Reardon, Washington, United States, after sudden unexplained loss of control during cruise.[16] 10 fatalities.[1][17]
  • 5 November 1951 - Transocean Air Flight 5763 crashed on approach to Tucumcari, New Mexico, United States, one fatality.[1][18]
  • 9 April 1952 - Japan Airlines Mokusei (operating as Flight 301) crashed into Mihara volcano, Ōshima Island, Japan, 37 fatalities.[1][19]
  • 12 January 1955 - Trans World Airlines Flight 694 was destroyed in a mid-air collision with a Douglas DC-3 near Covington, Kentucky, United States, 13 fatalities plus 2 on the DC-3.[1][20]
  • 14 November 1955 - A Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 had a collapsed undercarriage during a training flight landing at Willimington-Newcastle Airport and was damaged beyond repair.[21]
  • 30 December 1955 - A Southwest Airlines 2-0-2 was destroyed in a hangar fire at San Francisco, California, United States.[1]
  • 21 August 1959 - A Pacific Air Lines 2-0-2A was damaged beyond repair after a ground incident with a C-46 Commando at Burbank, California, United States.[1]
  • 1 December 1959 - Allegheny Airlines Flight 371 crashed into a mountain on approach Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States, 25 fatalities.[1][22]
  • 2 November 1963 - An Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 was damaged beyond repair at Newark, New Jersey, United States.[1]

Specifications (Martin 2-0-2)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52[23]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity:
    • 40 passengers or
    • 9,270 lb (4,200 kg) payload
  • Length: 71 ft 4 in (21.74 m)
  • Wingspan: 93 ft 3 in (28.42 m)
  • Height: 28 ft 5 in (8.66 m)
  • Wing area: 864 sq ft (80.3 m2)
  • Empty weight: 25,086 lb (11,379 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 39,900 lb (18,098 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800 CA-18 Double Wasp 18-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, 1,800 hp (1,300 kW) each (Normal power), 2,400 hp (1,800 kW) (take-off with water injection)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed Hamilton Standard 2H17K3-48R, 13 ft 1 in (3.99 m) diameter

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 193 mph; 168 kn (311 km/h) at 14,000 ft (4,300 m)
  • Cruising speed: 178 mph; 154 kn (286 km/h) at 12,000 ft (3,700 m)
  • Stall speed: 76 mph (66 kn; 122 km/h)
  • Range: 635 mi (552 nmi; 1,022 km) 36 passengers, baggage and 1,000 lb (450 kg) cargo, reserves for 200 mi (170 nmi; 320 km) plus 45 minutes
  • Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,058 m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,200 ft/min (11 m/s)
  • Take-off run to 50 ft (15 m): 1,565 ft (477 m)
  • Landing run from 50 ft (15 m): 1,720 ft (520 m)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Eastwood/Roach 1991, pages 267-269
  2. ^ The Chester Times (Pennsylvania), November 13, 1945, page 3
  3. ^ Frederick News-Post (Maryland), November 29, 1945, page 1
  4. ^ Syracuse Herald Journal, January 8, 1946, page 35
  5. ^ a b Killion 1997, pp. 19–20
  6. ^ Big Spring Daily Herald (Texas), August 12, 1947, page 3
  7. ^ Killion 1997, pp. 128–129
  8. ^ Killion 1997, p. 142
  9. ^ Killion 1997, p. 144
  10. ^ Killion 1997, p. 149
  11. ^ Martin 2-0-2
  12. ^ Northwest Orient Flight 421
  13. ^ Northwest Orient Flight 307
  14. ^ Northwest Orient NC93037
  15. ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1950)
  16. ^ Killion 1997, p. 168
  17. ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1951)
  18. ^ Transocean Air Flight 5763
  19. ^ N93043
  20. ^ Trans World Airways Flight 694
  21. ^ N172A
  22. ^ Allegheny Airlines Flight 371
  23. ^ Bridgman 1951, pp. 265c–266c.

References[edit]

  • Bridgman, Leonard (1951). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd. 
  • Eastwood, Tony; Roach, John (1991). Piston Engine Airliner Production List. West Drayton, England: The Aviation Hobby Shop. ISBN 0-907178-37-5. 
  • Killion, Gary L (1997). The Martinliners. Airways International Inc. ISBN 0-9653993-2-X. 

External links[edit]