Martin Schwarzschild (1912-1997)
May 31, 1912|
|Died||April 10, 1997
Langhorne, Pennsylvania, United States
|Alma mater||Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen|
|Known for||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Notable awards||Karl Schwarzschild Medal (1959)
Henry Draper Medal (1960)
Bruce Medal (1965)
Brouwer Award (1992)
Balzan Prize (1994)
National Medal of Science (1997)
Fellow of the Royal Society
Martin Schwarzschild (May 31, 1912 – April 10, 1997) was a German-born American astrophysicist. He was the son of German physicist Karl Schwarzschild and the nephew of the Swiss astrophysicist Robert Emden.
Schwarzschild was born in Potsdam into a distinguished German Jewish academic family. In line with a request in his father's will, his family moved to Göttingen in 1916. Schwarzschild studied at the University of Göttingen and took his doctoral examination in December 1936. He left Germany in 1936 for Norway and then the United States. Schwarzschild served in the US army intelligence. He was awarded the Legion of Merit and the Bronze Star for his wartime service. After returning to the US, he married fellow astronomer Barbara Cherry. In 1947, Martin Schwarzschild joined his lifelong friend, Lyman Spitzer at Princeton University. Spitzer died 10 days before Schwarzschild.
Schwarzschild's work in the fields of stellar structure and stellar evolution led to improved understanding of pulsating stars, differential solar rotation, post-main sequence evolutionary tracks on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (including how stars become red giants), hydrogen shell sources, the helium flash, and the ages of star clusters. With Fred Hoyle, he computed some of the first stellar models to correctly ascend the red giant branch by steadily burning hydrogen in a shell around the core. He and Härm were the first to compute stellar models going through thermal pulses on the asymptotic giant branch and later showed that these models develop convective zones between the helium- and hydrogen-burning shells, which can bring nuclear ashes to the visible surface. Schwarzschild’s 1958 book Structure and Evolution of the Stars taught a generation of astrophysicists how to apply electronic computers to the computation of stellar models.
In the 1950s and ’60s he headed the Stratoscope projects, which took instrumented balloons to unprecedented heights. The first Stratoscope produced high resolution images of solar granules and sunspots, confirming the existence of convection in the solar atmosphere, and the second obtained infrared spectra of planets, red giant stars, and the nuclei of galaxies. In his later years he made significant contributions toward understanding the dynamics of elliptical galaxies. Schwarzschild was renowned as a teacher and held major leadership positions in several scientific societies.
In the 1980s, Schwarzschild applied his numerical skills to building models for triaxial galaxies. 
- Karl Schwarzschild Medal (1959)
- Henry Norris Russell Lectureship (1960)
- Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences (1960)
- Eddington Medal (1963)
- Bruce Medal (1965)
- Rittenhouse Medal (1966)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1969)
- Brouwer Award (1992)
- Balzan Prize (1994, with Fred Hoyle)
- National Medal of Science (1997)
Named after him
- Mestel, L. (1999). "Martin Schwarzschild. 31 May 1912 -- 10 April 1997: Elected For.Mem.R.S. 1996". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 45: 469. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1999.0031.
- Virginia Trimble (December 1997). "Martin Schwarzschild (1912-1997)". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Astronomical Society of Pacific. 109: 1289. Bibcode:1997PASP..109.1289T. doi:10.1086/134011.
- Hoyle, F.; Schwarzschild, M. (1955), "On the Evolution of Type II Stars", ApJS, 2: 1, Bibcode:1955ApJS....2....1H
- Schwarzschild, M.; Härm, R. (1965), "Thermal Instability in Non-Degenerate Stars.", ApJ, 142: 855, Bibcode:1965ApJ...142..855S
- Schwarzschild, M.; Härm, R. (1967), "Hydrogen Mixing by Helium-Shell Flashes", ApJ, 150: 961, Bibcode:1967ApJ...150..961S
- Schwarzschild, M. (1958). Structure and evolution of the stars. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Bibcode:1958ses..book.....S.
- Ostriker, J. P. (1997). "Obituary: Martin Schwarzschild (1912-97)". Nature. 388 (6641): 430. Bibcode:1997Natur.388..430.. doi:10.1038/41230.
- DAVID M. HERSZENHORN (April 12, 1997). "Martin Schwarzschild, 84, Innovative Astronomer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Grants, Prizes and Awards". American Astronomical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Henry Draper Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Past Winners of the Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Winners of the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society". Royal Astronomical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Published papers of Martin Schwarzschild on SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
- D. Merritt, Martin Schwarzschild's Contributions to Galaxy Dynamics
- Oral history interview with Martin Schwarzschild. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Schwarzschild describes his early training in automatic computing when he assumed the position of director of the Watson Scientific Computation Laboratory at Columbia University upon the resignation of Wallace Eckert. Schwarzschild describes the computational research he did there on stellar models, then turns to his experience during World War II at Aberdeen Proving Ground, mentioning work of John von Neumann and other scientific consultants on the design of new automatic calculating equipment. Schwarzschild answers questions about the relationship between R. H. Kent and von Neumann. His final topic is the work during the 1950s he undertook on stellar interiors using the Institute for Advanced Study computer. He describes his experiences trying to use the computer for large scientific purposes, and recalls the reception of his computational research by the professional astronomy journals.