|Martinsyde Buzzard in the Aviation Museum of Finland|
|First flight||June 1918|
|Primary user||Royal Air Force|
The Martinsyde F.4 Buzzard was developed as a powerful and fast biplane fighter for the Royal Air Force (RAF), but the end of the First World War led to the abandonment of large-scale production. Fewer than 400 were eventually produced, with many exported. Of particular note was the Buzzard's high speed, being one of the fastest aircraft developed during World War I.
Design and development
In 1917, George Handasyde of Martinsyde designed a single-seat biplane fighter powered by a Rolls-Royce Falcon V-12 engine, the Martinsyde F.3, with a single prototype being built as a private venture without an official order, and had flown at Brooklands aerodrome by October 1917. six being ordered in 1917, with the first flying in November that year. Its performance during testing was impressive, demonstrating a maximum speed of 142 mph (229 km/h), and was described in an official report as "a great advance on all existing fighting scouts", resulting in an order for six pre-production aircraft and 150 production fighters being placed late in 1917. It soon became clear, however, that all Falcon production was required to power Bristol F.2 Fighters, so use of the Falcon for the F.3 would be problematical.
To solve this problem, Martinsyde designed a new fighter based on the F.3, but powered by a 300 hp (224 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8 engine, the F.4 Buzzard. The Buzzard, like the F.3, was a single-bay tractor biplane powered by a water-cooled engine. It had new lower wings compared with the F.3, and the pilot's cockpit was positioned further aft, but otherwise the two aircraft were similar. The prototype F.4 was tested in June 1918, and again demonstrated excellent performance, being easy to fly and maneuverable as well as very fast for the time. Large orders followed, with 1,450 ordered from Martinsyde, Boulton & Paul Ltd, Hooper & Co and the Standard Motor Company. It was planned to equip the French Aéronautique Militaire as well as the British Royal Air Force, and production of a further 1,500 aircraft in the United States of America was planned.
Deliveries to the RAF had just started when the Armistice between the Allies and Germany was signed. Martinsyde was instructed to only complete those aircraft which were part built, while all other orders were cancelled. The Buzzard was not adopted as a fighter by the post war RAF, the cheaper Sopwith Snipe being preferred despite its lower performance.
Martinsyde continued development of the Buzzard, buying back many of the surplus aircraft from the RAF, and producing two-seat tourers and floatplanes. After the bankruptcy of Martinsyde in 1922, these aircraft were obtained by the Aircraft Disposal Company which continued to develop and sell F.4 variants for several years.
Despite the very limited production, four of the six Martinsyde F.3s ordered were issued to Home Defence squadrons of the RAF in 1918, with two being operated by No. 39 Squadron RAF on 8 July 1918 and one used by 141 Squadron. The RAF received 57 F.4 Buzzards before the end of the First World War, but these did not reach operational squadrons. In the immediate post war period, two Buzzards were used as high speed communications aircraft in support of the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, while a few other Buzzards were used at the Central Flying School.
While the postwar RAF did not want the Buzzard, Martinsyde had more success selling the Buzzard overseas, with single and two-seat versions being sold to a number of air forces, including those of Spain (30 aircraft), Finland (15 aircraft) and the Soviet Union (100 aircraft). Some of these aircraft had long careers, with six of the Spanish Buzzards remaining in service at the start of the Spanish Civil War. Following the bankruptcy of Martinsyde, the Aircraft Disposal Company managed to sell eight Jaguar engined versions, the ADC.1 to Latvia, two of these remaining in service until 1938.
Many Martinsydes were sold to civil owners being used as Tourers, racing aircraft and for survey and seal spotting work in Canada.
- Single-seat fighter biplane. Powered by Rolls-Royce Falcon. Seven built.
- F.4 Buzzard
- Single-seat fighter biplane. Powered by 300 hp (220 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8 engine. Main production type.
- F.4 Buzzard 1a
- Long range escort fighter for Independent Air Force; three built.
- Surplus F.4 Buzzards converted into two-seat touring aircraft.
- Type A.Mk I
- Surplus F.4 Buzzards converted into two-seat long-range aircraft. Larger two-bay wings, powered by Rolls-Royce Falcon engines.
- Type AS.Mk I
- This version of the Type A.Mk I was fitted with float landing gear.
- Type A.Mk II
- Four-passenger cabin version of A Mk.I. Powered by Hispano-Suiza or Falcon engine.
- Surplus F.4 Buzzards converted into two-seat aircraft; revised wing and landing gear.
- A.D.C. 1
- Single-seat fighter version, powered by a 395 hp (295 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar radial piston engine. The aircraft was developed by the Aircraft Disposal Company. One prototype. Eight production aircraft were exported to Latvia.
- Nimbus Martinsyde
- One aircraft was converted by A.D.C., and fitted with a 300 hp (220 kW) ADC Nimbus engine.
- A.V. 1
- One aircraft built for the engine designer Amherst Villiers.
- a single A.Mk 1 modified for a transatlantic flight attempt, powered by a 285 hp (213 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon III.
- Finnish Air Force – The Finnish Air Force received one F.4 in 1923 and 14 in 1927, operating them until 1939. One surviving aircraft remains preserved in the Aviation Museum of Central Finland.
- Irish Air Service – Operated one Martinsyde A Mk.II (purchased in November 1921 to allow Michael Collins to quickly escape back to Ireland in the event of a breakdown in the negotiations for the Anglo-Irish Treaty) and four Martinsyde F.4 fighters.
- Polish Air Force – One aircraft used 1923–1926 as a personal machine of the Air Force Commander Włodzimierz Zagórski, all painted in red and white stripes.
- Spanish Republican Air Force – Twenty single- and two-seat aircraft operated.
- Spanish Republican Navy
Data from War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters
- Crew: 1
- Length: 25 ft 5⅝ in (7.76 m)
- Wingspan: 32 ft 9⅜ in (9.99 m)
- Height: 8 ft 10 in (2.69 m)
- Wing area: 320 ft² (29.7 m²)
- Empty weight: 1,811 lb (823 kg)
- Loaded weight: 2,398 lb (1,090 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb inline engine, 300 hp (224 kW)
- Maximum speed: 146 mph (127 knots, 235 km/h) at sea level
- Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7320 m)
- Endurance: 2½ hours
- Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 7 min 55 sec
- Holmes, 2005. p 34.
- Bruce 1965, p.162. Note:"...one of the fastest then in existence."
- Bruce Air International July 1977, p. 28.
- Mason 1992, p.118.
- Bruce 1965, p. 160.
- Bruce Air International July 1977, p. 29.
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- Green and Swanborough 1994, p. 364.
- Bruce 1965, p. 166.
- Jackson 1988, pp. 28–34.
- Jackson 1988, p. 28.
- Flight 17 August 1922, pp. 463–465.
- Donald 1997, p. 605.
- Flight 27 November 1924, pp. 742–745.
- Jackson 1988, p. 33.
- Flight 3 June 1926, pp. 315–317.
- Jackson 1988, p. 31.
- Suomen, Keski. "Ilmavoimien koneet vuodesta 1917 alkaen / Airplanes of FAF since 1917." Ilmailumuseo (Aviation Museum of Central Finland). Retrieved: 25 November 2008.
- "Air Corps History." Archived 2008-12-22 at the Wayback Machine. Irish Defence Forces. Retrieved: 25 November 2008
- "Air Corps Aircraft Register." Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. IrishAirPics.com. Retrieved: 25 November 2008.
- Vistakas 1985, p. 63.
- Bruce Air International September 1977, pp. 135–136.
- 132.5 mph (115 knots, 213 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m).
- "A Martinsyde for Newfoundland: The Type A Mark II, Sold to the Aerial Survey Company". Flight, 17 August 1922, pp. 463–465.
- "Another Interesting A.D.C. Modification: The 'Nimbus-Martinsyde'." Flight, 3 June 1926, pp. 315–317.
- Bruce, Jack M. "From Pachyderm to Bird of Prey: Part 1". Air International, Vol. 13, No. 1, July 1977, pp. 25–32.
- Bruce, Jack M. "From Pachyderm to Bird of Prey: Part 2". Air International, Vol. 13, No. 2, August 1977, pp. 82–86.
- Bruce, Jack M. "From Pachyderm to Bird of Prey: Part 3". Air International, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 1977, pp. 131–137.
- Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters. London: Macdonald, 1965.
- Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters. London: Macdonald, 1965.
- Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Blitz Editions, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
- Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
- Holmes, Tony. Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-00-719292-4.
- Jackson, A.J. British Civil Aircraft since 1919, Volume 3. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
- Mason, Francis K. The British Fighter since 1912. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
- "The Martinsyde A.D.C. I Single Seat Fighter". Flight, 27 November 1924, pp. 742–745.
- Vistakas, C. "The Annals of Lithuanian Aviation". Air Enthusiast, Twenty-nine, November 1985 – February 1986. pp. 61–66. ISSN 0143-5450.