Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (Turkey)

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Marxist–Leninist Communist Party
Marksist-Leninist Komünist Partisi
Founded10 September 1994; 27 years ago (1994-09-10)
Merger ofTKP/ML-Hareketi
Youth wingKomünist Gençlik Örgütü
Women's wingKomünist Kadın Örgütü
Armed wingFakirlerin ve Ezilenlerin Silahlı Kuvvetleri
Political positionFar-left
National affiliationHBDH[1]
International affiliationICOR
Party flag
MLKP Banner.svg

The Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (Turkish: Marksist-Leninist Komünist Partisi, abbreviated as MLKP) is an underground Hoxhaist communist party in Turkey. It was founded in 1994, and has been involved in the Rojava conflict since 2012.


MLKP was formed in September 1994, through the unification of the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Hareketi (TKP/ML-Hareketi) and the Communist Workers Movement of Turkey (TKİH). TKP/ML-Hareketi was the larger of the two. Both groups came from the pro-Albanian camp. The unity process of negotiations between the groups had started in 1989. Initially MLKP called itself MLKP-Kuruluş (MLKP-Foundation).

In September 1995, at the first congress of MLKP-K, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist (New Build-Up Organization) (TKP/ML (YİÖ)) merged into the party, and the name was changed to MLKP. Later the same year a split occurred, and the Communist Party - Build-up Organization (KP-İÖ) was formed.

MLKP is designated as an active terrorist organisation in Turkey by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of the General Directorate of Security.[2] During the Ergenekon investigation, it was claimed by prosecutors that Ergenekon planned to take over the MLKP, as well as the PKK, and that it was successful to a certain extent.[3][4] In the same investigation, it was found that the hand grenades found in Lieutenant Colonel Mustafa Dönmez' had the same series number as those used by the MLKP.


The youth wing of MLKP is called the Communist Youth Organization (Komünist Gençlik Örgütü in Turkish, abbreviated as KGÖ).

MLKP maintains an armed wing named Armed Forces of the Poor and the Oppressed (Fakirlerin ve Ezilenlerin Silahlı Kuvvetleri in Turkish, abbreviated as FESK). The group had international exposure at the Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus bombing prior to 2004 Istanbul summit where four people were killed.[5] In April 2015, it was announced that MLKP founded a permanent military training centre in PKK-controlled areas of the Iraqi Kurdistan.[6] In July 2015, they attempted bomb attack on Star Media Group (Turkey).[7]

The organisation has had three periodicals: Atılım (The Leap) (or Yeni Atılım (The New Leap)), a daily news bulletin, Partinin Sesi (The Voice of the Party), an institutional publication and Teoride Doğrultu (The Direction in Theory), a theoretical-political journal).[8] The 26th and last issue of Teoride Doğrultu was published in 2006.[9]

Human Resources[edit]

A study carried out by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of General Directorate of Security over a sample of files about people convicted of being a terrorist under Turkish laws including 826 militants from the organisation and the three other currently active left-wing organisations (see reference 1) 65% of the members are aged 14 to 25, 16.8% 25 to 30 and 17.5% are older than 30. University graduates make up 20.4% of the members, high school graduates 33.5%, secondary school graduates 14%, primary school graduates 29.9% and illiterates 1.9% (while they have no sampled literate non-graduate members).[10]

Involvement in Syrian Civil War[edit]

MLKP has reportedly been sending volunteers to Syria to fight with the PYD's People's Protection Units (YPG) of Rojava (Syrian Kurdistan) since 2012. At least four of these fighters have been killed in battle as of February 2015—one during the Battle of Ras al-Ayn, and three during the Siege of Kobanî. MLKP has also declared its intention to form a leftist international brigade within the YPG, modeled after the famous International Brigades who fought on the side of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War.[11] The party released a video in late January 2015 purporting to show several Spanish- and German-speaking communist volunteers from Europe among its ranks in Jazira Canton.[12] In March 2015, Ivana Hoffmann, a MLKP member and German national and daughter of a German mother and a Togolese father,[13] was reported to be killed in clashes with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[14]

The MLKP has set up a political branch in PYD-governed territories as well, known as MLKP (Rojava).[15][16]

MLKP fighters have also joined Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) formations fighting in northern Iraq in defence of the Yezidi minority of Sinjar.[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement established for a joint struggle". Firat News Agency. 12 March 2016. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  2. ^ TÜRKİYE'DE HALEN FAALİYETLERİNE DEVAM EDEN BAŞLICA TERÖR ÖRGÜTLERİ: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Nato Protestolarinin Altindan Ergenekon Çikti".
  5. ^ Bombs explode in Turkey before Bush, NATO summit, China Daily, 24 June 2004
  6. ^ "MLKP komutanı Can: 'Gerilla tarzı yaşam bizim geleceğimizdir'". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  7. ^ Attempted bomb attack on Turkey's Star Media Group a sequel to HDP leader Demirtaş' speech: Media Association, Daily Sabah, 24 July 2015
  8. ^ "Leftist Parties of Turkey". Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  9. ^ Teoride Doğrultu "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Zaman. 25 December 2007. "Dikkat: Hangi yasadışı örgüte kimler üye olur?". Archived 22 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Demir, Arzu (28 January 2015). "Preparations for international brigade in Rojava". Firat News Agency. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  12. ^ "Enternasyonal devrimciler: Her dilden devrimi savunuyoruz" (in Turkish). Etkin Haber Ajansı. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  13. ^ Vater der getöteten Duisburger Kämpferin Ivana ist fassungslos (German)
  14. ^ "German woman fighting ISIL killed in Syria". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  15. ^ "MLKP celebrates 25th anniversary in Kobanê". ANF News. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  16. ^ "MLKP Rojava celebrates the July 19 Rojava Revolution". ANF News. 19 July 2018. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  17. ^ "MLKP fighter: We will be at the front until Sinjar is liberated". Firat News Agency. 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.

External links[edit]