Marxist–Leninist Popular Action Movement
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Popular Action Movement - Marxist–Leninist (Spanish: Movimiento de Acción Popular - Marxista-Leninista) is a communist party and Hoxhaist follower in Nicaragua that surged out of a split from the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in the early 1970s. Since 1985 it is officially named the Marxist–Leninist Party of Nicaragua (Partido Marxista-Leninista de Nicaragua), but the original name MAP-ML is far more known and has been used when participating in elections.
One of the founders of MAP-ML, Marvin Ortega, had belonged to the national leadership of FSLN. MAP-ML built up a militant trade union activism and in urban areas had its own armed militias, Milicias Populares Antisomocistas (MILPAS). In the struggle against the Somoza regime, MILPAS forces fought under the command of the FSLN.
When the Revolution succeeded in 1979, MAP-ML started a series of occupations of lands and industries owned by large capitalists. In order to appease bourgeois allies, FSLN suppressed the occupations and jailed a series of MAP-ML leaders. During the Sandinista government, MAP-ML suffered repression at several points. Its newspaper, El Pueblo (The People), was closed by the government. Its labour wing, Frente Obrero (Workers Front), was also suppressed. Sections of MILPAS would reform as the Milicias Populares Anti-Sandinistas, eventually assimilating into the Nicaraguan Democratic Force, a Contra group.
MAP-ML was generally critical against the mixed economy during the FSLN government. MAP-ML was the only party that voted against the Sandinista constitution in the National Assembly.
In 1984 MAP-ML was one of seven parties that contested the general elections. The party got 2.1% of the votes in the parliamentary election and two seats in the national assembly. In the presidential election the MAP-ML candidate was Isidro Téllez Toruño, the leader of MAP-ML, and vice-presidential candidate was Juan Alberto Henríquez. Isidro and Henríquez got 11 352 votes (1%). An electoral slogan of MAP-ML was "¡Ni un voto a la burguesía! ¡Balas para el imperialismo!" (Not one vote for the bourgeoisie! Bullets against imperialism!).
In 1985 the MAP-ML conference decided to officially change its name to Marxist–Leninist Party of Nicaragua (Partido Marxista-Leninista de Nicaragua).
In the 1990 presidential election, the PMLN candidates (Isidro Téllez for president, Carlos Cuadra for vice-president) got 8 135 votes (0.6%). PMLN lost its parliamentary representation that year. PMLN lost their registration after the 1996 elections.
In the 2001 presidential elections, PMLN supported FSLN candidate Daniel Ortega.