Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (Turkey/Northern Kurdistan)
|Marxist-Leninist Communist Party|
|Founded||10 September 1994|
|International affiliation||International Coordination of Revolutionary Parties and Organizations
International Freedom Battalion
MLKP was formed in September 1994, through the unification of Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Hareketi (TKP/ML-Hareketi) and Communist Workers Movement of Turkey (TKİH). TKP/ML-Hareketi was the larger of the two. Both groups came from the pro-Albanian camp. The unity process of negotiations between the groups had started in 1989. Initially MLKP called itself 'MLKP-Kuruluş' (MLKP-Foundation).
In September 1995, at the first congress of MLKP-K, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist (New Build-Up Organization) (TKP/ML (YİÖ)) merged into the party, and the name was changed to MLKP.
Later the same year a split occurred, and the Communist Party - Build-up Organization (KP-İÖ) was formed.
The youth wing of MLKP is called the Communist Youth Organization (Komünist Gençlik Örgütü in Turkish, abbreviated as KGÖ).
MLKP maintains an armed wing named Armed Forces of the Poor and the Oppressed (Fakirlerin ve Ezilenlerin Silahlı Kuvvetleri in Turkish, abbreviated as FESK). The group had international exposure at the Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus bombing prior to 2004 Istanbul summit where four people were killed. In April 2015, it was announced that MLKP founded a permanent military training centre in PKK-controlled areas of the Iraqi Kurdistan. In July 2015, they attempted bomb attack on Star Media Group (Turkey).
The organisation has had three periodicals: Atılım (The Leap) (or Yeni Atılım (The New Leap)), a daily news bulletin, Partinin Sesi (The Voice of the Party), an institutional publication and Teoride Doğrultu (The Direction in Theory), a theoretical-political journal). The 26th and last issue of Teoride Doğrultu was published in 2006.
A study carried out by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of General Directorate of Security over a sample of files about people convicted of being a terrorist under Turkish laws including 826 militants from the organisation and the three other currently active left-wing organisations (see reference 1) 65% of the members are aged 14 to 25, 16.8% 25 to 30 and 17.5% are older than 30. University graduates make up 20.4% of the members, high school graduates 33.5%, secondary school graduates 14%, primary school graduates 29.9% and illiterates 1.9% (while they have no sampled literate non-graduate members).
Involvement in Syrian Civil War
MLKP has reportedly been sending volunteers to Syria to fight in the People's Protection Units of Rojava (Syrian Kurdistan) since 2012. At least four of these fighters have been killed in battle as of February 2015—one during the Battle of Ras al-Ayn, and three during the Siege of Kobanî. MLKP has also declared its intention to form a leftist international brigade within the YPG, modelled after the famous International Brigades who fought on the side of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War. The party released a video in late January 2015 purporting to show several Spanish- and German-speaking communist volunteers from Europe among its ranks in Jazira Canton. In March 2015, Ivana Hoffmann, a MLKP member and German national and daughter of a German mother and a Togolese father, was reported to be killed in clashes with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. In June 2015, the formation of the International Freedom Battalion was announced, a collection of leftists groups fighting as part of the YPG.
- TÜRKİYE'DE HALEN FAALİYETLERİNE DEVAM EDEN BAŞLICA TERÖR ÖRGÜTLERİ: http://www.egm.gov.tr/temuh/terorgrup1.html
- Bombs explode in Turkey before Bush, NATO summit, China Daily, 24 June 2004
- MLKP komutanı Can: 'Gerilla tarzı yaşam bizim geleceğimizdir'
- Attempted bomb attack on Turkey's Star Media Group a sequel to HDP leader Demirtaş's speech: Media Association, Daily Sabah, 24 July 2015
- "Leftist Parties of Turkey". Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Teoride Doğrultu http://www.teoridedogrultu.org/
- Zaman. 25 December 2007. "Dikkat: Hangi yasadışı örgüte kimler üye olur?". http://www.iyibilgi.com/haber.php?haber_id=47595
- Demir, Arzu (28 January 2015). "Preparations for international brigade in Rojava". Firat News Agency. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Enternasyonal devrimciler: Her dilden devrimi savunuyoruz" (in Turkish). Etkin Haber Ajansı. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Vater der getöteten Duisburger Kämpferin Ivana ist fassungslos derwesten.de (German)
- "German woman fighting ISIL killed in Syria". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "New Leftist 'Freedom Brigade' to Join Kurdish Forces in Rojava". TeleSUR. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "MLKP fighter: We will be at the front until Sinjar is liberated". Firat News Agency. 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
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