Mary Elizabeth Braddon
Mary Elizabeth Braddon (4 October 1835 – 4 February 1915) was an English popular novelist of the Victorian era. She is best known for her 1862 sensation novel Lady Audley's Secret, which has also been dramatised and filmed several times.
Born in London, Mary Elizabeth Braddon was privately educated. Her mother Fanny separated from her father Henry in 1840, when Mary was five. When Mary was ten years old, her brother Edward Braddon left for India and later Australia, where he became Premier of Tasmania. Mary worked as an actress for three years when she was befriended by Clara and Adelaide Biddle. They were only playing minor roles but Braddon was able to support herself and her mother. Adelaide noted that Braddon's interest in acting waned as she took an interest in writing novels.
In 1860, Mary met John Maxwell (1824–1895), a publisher of periodicals. She started living with him in 1861. However, Maxwell was already married with five children, and his wife was living in an asylum in Ireland. Mary acted as stepmother to his children until 1874, when Maxwell's wife died and they were able to get married. She had six children by him.
The eldest daughter was Fanny Margaret Maxwell (1863-1955). Fanny married to the naturalist Edmund Selous on 13 January 1886. In the 1920s they lived in Wyke Castle. In 1923 Fanny founded the local branch of the Woman's Institute. She became the first president.
The second eldest son was the novelist William Babington Maxwell (1866-1939).
Mary Elizabeth Braddon died on 4 February 1915 in Richmond (at the time a borough in Surrey, but now part of Greater London), and is interred in Richmond Cemetery. Her home had been Lichfield House in the centre of the town, which was replaced by a block of flats in 1936, Lichfield Court, now listed. She has a plaque in Richmond parish church which calls her simply 'Miss Braddon'. A number of streets in the area are named after characters in her novels – her husband was a property developer in the area.
Braddon was a prolific writer, producing more than 80 novels with inventive plots. The most famous is Lady Audley's Secret (1862), which won her recognition, and a fortune as a bestseller. It has remained in print since its publication and been dramatised and filmed several times. R. D. Blackmore's anonymous sensation novel Clara Vaughan (1864) was wrongly attributed to her by some critics.
Braddon wrote several works of supernatural fiction, including the pact with the devil story Gerald, or the World, the Flesh and the Devil (1891), and the ghost stories "The Cold Embrace", "Eveline's Visitant" and "At Chrighton Abbey". From the 1930s onwards, these stories were often anthologised in collections such as Montague Summers's The Supernatural Omnibus (1931) and Fifty Years of Ghost Stories (1935). Braddon also wrote historical fiction. In High Places depicts the youth of Charles I.  London Pride focuses on Charles II. Mohawks is set during the reign of Queen Anne.  Ishmael is set at the time of Napoleon III's rise to power.
Braddon also founded Belgravia magazine (1866), which presented readers with serialised sensation novels, poems, travel narratives and biographies, as well as essays on fashion, history and science. The magazine was accompanied by lavish illustrations and offered readers a source of literature at an affordable cost. She also edited Temple Bar magazine.
Partial list of fiction
- The Trail of the Serpent (first published as Three Times Dead, 1860)
- The Octoroon (1861)
- The Black Band (1861)
- Lady Audley's Secret (1862). French: Le Secret de Lady Audley (1863)
- Ralph the Bailiff and Other Tales (1862)
- John Marchmont's Legacy (1862–63)
- The Captain of the Vulture (1863)
- Aurora Floyd (1863)
- Eleanor's Victory (1863)
- Henry Dunbar: the story of an outcast (1864)
- The Doctor's Wife (1864)
- Only a Clod (1865)
- The Lady's Mile (1866). French: L'Allée des Dames (1868)
- Birds of Prey (1867). French: Oiseaux de Proie (1874)
- Circe (1867)
- Rupert Godwin (1867)
- Run to Earth (1868). French: La Chanteuse des Rues (1873)
- Dead-Sea Fruit (1868). French: Un Fruit de la Mer Morte (1874)
- Charlotte's Inheritance (1868). French: L'Héritage de Charlotte (1874)
- Fenton's Quest (1871)
- To the Bitter End (1872)
- Robert Ainsleigh (1872)
- Lucius Davoren; or, Publicans and Sinners (1873). French: Lucius Davoren (1878)
- Milly Darrell, and other tales (1873)
- Griselda (1873, drama)
- Lost For Love (1874)
- Taken at the Flood (1874)
- A Strange World (1875)
- Hostages to Fortune (1875)
- Joshua Haggard's Daughter (1876). French: Joshua Haggard (1879)
- Weavers and Weft, or, In Love's Nest (1876)
- Dead Men's Shoes (1876)
- An Open Verdict (1878)
- The Cloven Foot (1879)
- Vixen (1879)
- Just as I am (1880)
- Asphodel (1881)
- Mount Royal (1882)
- Phantom Fortune (1883)
- The Golden Calf (1883)
- Ishmael. A novel (1884)
- Flower and Weed and other tales (1884)
- Wyllard's Weird (1885)
- Mohawks (1886)
- One Thing Needful (1886)
- The Good Hermione: A Story for the Jubilee Year (1886, as Aunt Belinda)
- Cut by the County (1887)
- The Fatal Three (1888)
- The Day Will Come (1889)
- One Life, One Love (1890)
- The World, the Flesh and the Devil (1891)
- The Venetians (1892)
- All Along the River (1893)
- The Christmas Hirelings (1894)
- Thou Art The Man (1894)
- Sons of Fire (1895)
- London Pride; or, When the World was Younger (1896)
- Rough Justice (1898)
- In High Places (1898)
- His Darling Sin (1899)
- The Infidel (1900)
- A Lost Eden (1904)
- The Rose of Life (1905)
- The White House (1906)
- Dead Love Has Chains (1907)
- During Her Majesty's Pleasure (1908)
- Our Adversary (1909)
- Beyond These Voices (1910)
Some of the bibliographical material in this incomplete list has been taken from the Jarndyce booksellers' catalogue Women's Writers 1795–1927. Part I: A–F (Summer 2017).
Several of Braddon's works have been dramatised, including:
- Aurora Floyd, by Colin Henry Hazlewood, first performed at Britannia Theatre Saloon, London, 1863.
- "The Cold Embrace", starring Jonathan Firth, BBC Radio 4, 2009.
- Lady Audley's Secret, by Colin Henry Hazlewood, first performed at the Victoria Theatre, London, 1863.
- Lady Audley's Secret, starring Theda Bara, Fox Film Corp., 1915.
- Lady Audley's Secret, starring Neve McIntosh, Kenneth Cranham, and Steven Mackintosh, PBS Mystery! 2000.
- "Braddon, Mary Elizabeth (Maxwell)". Who's Who. Vol. 59. 1907. pp. 201–202.
- Kay Boardman; Shirley Jones (2004). Popular Victorian Women Writers. Manchester University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-7190-6450-0.
- Victor E. Neuburg, The Popular Press Companion to Popular Literature, Popular Press, 1983. ISBN 0879722339, p. 36-37.
- "Fanny Margaret Maxwell". Sensationpress.com. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Meller, Hugh; Parsons, Brian (2011). London Cemeteries: An Illustrated Guide and Gazetteer (fifth ed.). Stroud, Gloucestershire: The History Press. pp. 290–294. ISBN 9780752461830.
- Mike Ashley "BRADDON, M(ary) E(lizabeth)" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998, ISBN 1558622063 pp. 80–83.
- Bleiler, E. F. (1983). The Guide to Supernatural Fiction. Kent, Ohio: Kent State UP. ISBN 0873382889 pp. 77–78.
- Mike Ashley and William Contento, The Supernatural Index: A Listing of Fantasy, Supernatural, Occult, Weird, and Horror Anthologies. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995. ISBN 0313240302 p. 134.
- Nield, Jonathan (1925), A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales. G. P. Putnam's Sons, pp. 60, 68, 82 and 108.
- Feminist & Women's Studies Association (UK & Ireland). Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Review of Joshua Haggard's Daughter". The Athenæum (2558): 591. 4 November 1876.
- G. C. Boase, Megan A. Stephan, "Hazlewood, Colin Henry (1823–1875)", rev. Megan A. Stephan, (quoting The Britannia diaries, 1863–1875: selections from the diaries of Frederick C. Wilton, ed. J. Davis (1992)) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (accessed 3 December 2011).
- Beller, Anne-Marie (2012). Mary Elizabeth Braddon: A Companion to the Mystery Fiction. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
- Bleiler, Everett (1948). The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. p. 58.
- Diamond, Michael. Victorian Sensation. London: Anthem (2003) ISBN 1-84331-150-X, pp. 191–192
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Mary Elizabeth Braddon.|