Mary W. Gray

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Mary Lee Wheat Gray (born April 8, 1939) is an American mathematician. She is the author of books and papers in the fields of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, applied statistics, economic equity, discrimination law, and academic freedom.

Gray completed her undergraduate degree from Hastings College and her Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Kansas. She also completed her J.D. from Washington College of Law. She is a member of the District of Columbia and U.S. Supreme Court bars.

Gray was one of the founding members of the Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) and the first President of the AWM from 1971 to 1973. As reported in "A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents' Perspectives", by Lenore Blum, "As Judy Green remembers (and Chandler Davis, early AWM friend, concurs): 'The formal idea of women getting together and forming a caucus was first made publicly at a MAG [Mathematics Action Group] meeting in 1971 ... in Atlantic City. Joanne Darken, then an instructor at Temple University and now at the Community College of Philadelphia, stood up at the meeting and suggested that the women present remain and form a caucus. I have been able to document six women who remained: me (I was a graduate student at Maryland at the time), Joanne Darken, Mary [W.] Gray (she was already at American University), Diane Laison (then an instructor at Temple), Gloria Olive (a Senior Lecturer at the University of Otago, New Zealand who was visiting the U.S. at the time) and Annie Selden...It's not absolutely clear what happened next, except that I've personally always thought that Mary was responsible for getting the whole thing organized ....'".[1] Mary W. Gray was the early organizer, placing an advertisement in the February 1971 Notices of the AMS, and writing the first issue of the AWM Newsletter that May. Again as reported by Lenore Blum, "What I remember hearing about Mary [W.] Gray and the Atlantic City Meetings, indeed what perked my curiosity, was an entirely different event, one that was also to alter dramatically the character of the mathematics community. In those years the AMS was governed by what could only be called an "old boys network," closed to all but those in the inner circle. Mary challenged that by sitting in on the Council meeting in Atlantic City. When she was told she had to leave, she refused saying she would wait until the police came. (Mary relates the story somewhat differently: When she was told she had to leave, she responded she could find no rules in the by-laws restricting attendance at Council meetings. She was then told it was by "gentlemen's agreement." Naturally Mary replied "Well, obviously I'm no gentleman.") After that time, Council meetings were open to observers and the process of democratization of the Society had begun."[2] "A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents' Perspectives" dedicates a chapter to Mary W. Gray titled "Mary Gray (1971-1973): The mother of us all".[3]

Gray has received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Mentoring from President George W. Bush. She has also received honorary degrees from the University of Nebraska and Hastings College. In 2012 she became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[4]

Published works[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Gray, Mary W. (1970). Radical approach to algebra. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. OCLC 80899. 
  • Gray, Mary W. (1972). Calculus with finite mathematics for social sciences. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. ISBN 9780201025736. 

Journal articles[edit]

Gray has published over 80 articles.[5]

Awards[edit]

  • 1959 Fulbright Fellowship[6]
  • 1994 Mentor Award for Lifetime Achievement from the American Association for the Advancement of Science[7]
  • 1979 Georgina Smith Award from the American Association of University Professors for her work on the status of women in collective bargaining[8]
  • 2001 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Engineering and Mathematics Mentoring[9]
  • 2012 Elizabeth L. Scott Award from the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies[10]

Memberships[edit]

Experience[edit]

Professor Gray is the author of books and papers in the fields of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, applied statistics, economic equity, discrimination law, and academic freedom. She has lectured throughout the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America. Her current research interests include applications of statistics in litigation, ethical issues in statistics, intellectual property and academic freedom, and language and gender issues in mathematics. Her work has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Karim Rida Said Foundation in London.

Professor Gray has served as consultant and expert witness on issues of university governance, academic freedom and tenure, faculty personnel policies, economic equity, and technology in higher education in the United States, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. She has a visiting appointment at the King's College (London) School of Medicine.

In 2001 Gray visited the three Kurdish provinces of Iraqi (Dohuk, Erbil, and Sulemaniya) to consult on issues in higher education, human rights, technology, and the conduct of a population census. During 2003 she worked on the USAID project, Revitalization of Iraqi Schools/Stabilization of Education, focusing on an inventory of the secondary schools of Iraq and community interviews with Iraqi parents and teachers. Beginning in 2005 she is advising the Kurdistan Regional Government on information technology issues and the conduct of a census.

The first president of the Association for Women in Mathematics, past president of the Women's Equity Action League and president-elect of the Caucus for Women in Statistics, Gray has been a member of boards and committees of such organizations as Amnesty International, the American Civil Liberties Union, the American Middle East Education Foundation, the Universal Education Foundation, and the American Association of University Professors, has served as vice-president of the American Mathematical Society, is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was recently elected to membership in the International Statistical Institute. Professor Gray has been chair of the Board of Directors of Amnesty International USA, International Treasurer of Amnesty International, and chair of its international Development Committee. President Bush awarded her the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Mentoring.

Gray has previously taught at the University of Kansas, the University of California, Berkeley, and California State University, Hayward, and has worked at the National Bureau of Standards and as a consultant for a number of government agencies and private firms. She has served several terms as chair of her department and as Director of the Women's and Gender Studies Program at American University. Her undergraduate degree is from Hastings College, her Ph.D. is from the University of Kansas, and she has studied in Germany on a Fulbright grant. She also has a J.D. degree from Washington College of Law, American University and is a member of the District of Columbia and U.S. Supreme bars. She has been awarded honorary degrees by the University of Nebraska and Hastings College. [12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics (from Notices): How it was". Awm-math.org. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  2. ^ "A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics (from Notices): How it was". Awm-math.org. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  3. ^ "A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics (from Notices): How it was". Awm-math.org. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  4. ^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 2013-01-19.
  5. ^ "Mary Gray". American University. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  6. ^ "Mary Lee Wheat Gray". University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  7. ^ "Mary Gray". Agnes Scott College. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  8. ^ "Presidential Awards For Excellence In Science Mathematics And Engineering Mentoring". enGrant Scientific. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  9. ^ "Awards". PAESMEM.net. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  10. ^ Becker, Abbey (2012-04-12). "Mary Gray Receives Mentorship Award". American University. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  11. ^ "American Middle East Education". amideast.org. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "American University - Prof. Mary Gray profile". Retrieved 12 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]