|Ficus deltoidea at Olbrich Botanical Gardens, Madison, WI|
Ficus deltoidea, commonly known as mistletoe fig (Mas Cotek in Malaysian, Tabat Barito in Indonesia, or สาลิกาลิ้นทอง in Thai) is a large shrub or small tree species native to Southeast Asia, and widely naturalized in other parts of the world.
F. deltoidea is a small perennial herb, growing up to about 2 m tall, with thick leaves that are deltoid in shape, rounded at the apex and tapering at the base. The upper surface of the plants' leaves are dark, shining green, while the lower surface is golden yellow with black spots. Male and female plants are physically distinctive, with the leaves of female plants being big and round, while the leaves of male plants are small, round and long. F. deltoidea can grow on the land (terrestrial plant), on the stone (Lithophyte) or attach to other plants as epiphyte. The plant grows wild in eastern peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Terengganu), Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan), Celebes, Palawan and in Mindanao and is used by the traditional medical practitioners in these regions.
C.C. Berg in his publication in Blumea classified F. deltoidea into two sub species based on difference of the leaf shape, subsp. deltoidea and subsp. motleyana (Miq.) C.C. Berg. F. deltoidea subsp. deltoidea has board leaf shape variation from obtriangular to linear-oblanceolate, include apex and based of lamina variation in the common deltoid shape with furcate midrib. F. deltoidea subsp. motleyana has oblong to lanceolate lamina shape with pinnately vein. The first subspecies with deltoid leaf shape is a common taxa to be used as medicinal plant. Lee et al. (2016) success to conduct molecular analysis with cpDNA and nSSR marker system for F. deltoidea from Peninsular Malaysia and the result support taxonomy classification based on morphological traits.
The plant is used in the traditional medicine in eastern Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, where its leaves, fruits, stems and roots are believed to have healing properties. Among the traditional uses attributed to this plant include menstrual cycle regulation; the treatment of post-partum depression, lung diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and skin problems; as well as an aphrodisiac for both men and women.
F. deltoidea has been commercialized in the region of its origin, where it is used as an ingredient in herbal drinks, coffee drinks, supplements, and massage oils.
F. deltoidea has been reported to possess triterpenoids, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and natural phenols (flavonoids and proanthocyanins, a type of condensed tannins). Leaf extract treatment to mice indicated decrease of blood sugar level into 32.54% compare to mice without treatment
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- Agustina, A.; Zuhud, E.A.M.; Darusman, L.K. (April 2015). "Characteristics of Tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) Microhabitat on Their Host Plants". Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. Bogor: P3HKA. 12 (1): 89–104. doi:10.20886/jphka.2015.12.1.89-104.
- Corner, E.J.H. (November 20, 1969). "The Complex of Ficus deltoidea; A Recent Invasion of the Sunda Shelf". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Royal Society. 256 (808): 281–317. doi:10.1098/rstb.1969.0043. JSTOR 2416885.
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- Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Soon Leong; Tan, Ai Lee; Lee, Chai Ting; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Ng, Chin Hong (2016). "Intraspecific classification of Ficus deltoidea Jack subsp. deltoidea (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia based on morphological and molecular variations". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 67: 119–128. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2016.06.001.
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- Abdullah, Z.; Hussain, K.; Zhari, I.; Rasadah, M.A. (December 2009). "Anti-inflammatory Activity of Standardised Extracts of Leaves of Three Varieties of Ficus deltoidea" (PDF). International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 1 (3): 100–105 – via Impact Factor.
- Choo, C.Y.; Sulong, N.Y.; Man, F.; Wong, T.W. (2012). "Vitexin and isovitexin from the Leaves of Ficus deltoidea with in-vivo α-glucosidase inhibition". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 142 (3): 776–781. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.062.
- Cahyanto, H.A.; Supriyatna, N. (2013). "Anti-diabetic Activity of Tabat Barito Leafs (Ficus deltoidea, Jack) Extract in Rats". Biopropal. Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak. 4 (1): 17–21 – via Neliti.