|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Fur, other Nilotic peoples|
The Masalit are also known as the Kana Masaraka, Mesalit, and Massalit. They are primarily subsistence agriculturalists, cultivating peanuts and millet. Further south in their territory, they grow various other crops, including sorghum. The typical Masalit house is constructed of conical wood and thatch.
Most Masalit today adhere to Islam, which they first adopted in the 17th century through contact with traveling clerics. Some vestiges of their earlier faith still exist in their traditional culture.
Masalit is divided into several dialects, with the variety spoken in South Darfur differing from that of West Darfur. The northern Masalit dialect is spoken to the east and north of Geneina.
According to Hassan et al. (2008), around 71.9% of Masalit are carriers of the E1b1b paternal haplogroup. Of these, 73.9% bear the V32 subclade. Approximately 6.3% also belong to the haplogroup J1. This points to significant patrilineal gene flow from neighbouring Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations. The remaining Masalit individuals are primarily carriers of the A3b2 lineage (18.8%), which is instead common among Nilotes.
Maternally, the Masalit entirely belong to African-based derivatives of the macrohaplogroup L according to Hassan (2010). Of these mtDNA clades, the L0a1 (14.6%) and L1c (12.2%) lineages are most frequent. This altogether suggests that the genetic introgression into the Masalit's ancestral population was asymmetrical, occurring primarily through Afro-Asiatic-speaking males rather than females.
- "Masalit language". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Olson, James Stuart (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 375. ISBN 0313279187. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Hassan, Hisham Y. et al. (November 2008). "Y‐chromosome variation among Sudanese: Restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history" (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (3): 316–323. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Mohamed, Hisham Yousif Hassan. "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan" (PDF). University of Khartoum. Retrieved 21 September 2016.