Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Difference between revisions

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[[Image:Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.svg|thumb|right|450px|An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom.<ref>[http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs]</ref>]]
 
[[Image:Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.svg|thumb|right|450px|An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom.<ref>[http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs]</ref>]]
   
'''Maslow's hierarchy of needs''' is a theory in [[psychology]], proposed by [[Abraham Maslow]] in his 1943 paper ''A Theory of Human Motivation'',<ref name="multiple">A.H. Maslow, ''[http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm A Theory of Human Motivation]'', Psychological Review 50(4) (1943):370-96.</ref> which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.
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'''Maslow's hierarchy of needs''' is a theory in [[psychology]], proposed by [[Abraham Maslow]] in his 1943 paper ''A Theory of Human Motivation'',<ref name="multiple">A.H. Maslow, ''[http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm A Theory of Human Motivation]'', into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.<ref>[http://successcircuit.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs/ Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - Success Circuit]</ref>
 
Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as [[Albert Einstein]], [[Jane Addams]], [[Eleanor Roosevelt]], and [[Frederick Douglass]] rather than [[mentally ill]] or [[neurotic]] people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy."<ref>{{cite book|last=Maslow|first=Abraham|title=Motivation and Personality|date=1954}}New York:. Harper. p. 236.</ref> Maslow also studied the healthiest one percent of the college student population. In his book, ''The Farther Reaches of Human Nature'', Maslow writes, "By ordinary standards of this kind of laboratory research... this simply was not research at all. My generalizations grew out of my selection of certain kinds of people. Obviously, other judges are needed."<ref>Maslow, A.H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: Penguin Compass. Chpt 3, "Self-actualizing and beyond", p. 41.</ref>
 
 
== Representations ==
 
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance.<ref>Clark, Timmy J. Success Through Quality. Milwaukee: ASQ Quality Press, 1999.</ref> It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the lowest level is associated with physiological needs, while the uppermost level is associated with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to identity and purpose. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.<ref>[http://successcircuit.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs/ Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - Success Circuit]</ref>
 
   
 
== Deficiency needs ==
 
== Deficiency needs ==

Revision as of 13:44, 9 November 2009

An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom.[1]

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation,Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page).

Deficiency needs

The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological (including sexuality), security of position, friendship and love, and esteem. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.

Physiological needs

For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing and shelter), the human body simply cannot continue to function.

Physiological needs include:

Lack of air and food will kill an individual. A lack of sexual activity would mean the extinction of humanity, probably explaining the strength of the sexual instinct in individuals.

Safety needs

With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take over and dominate their behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like.

These have been lacking for most of human history, but at this point are mostly satisfied in the "First World" -- although the poor, both those who are poor as a class and those who are temporarily poor (university students would be an example), must often still address these needs.

Safety and Security needs include:

  • Personal security
  • Financial security
  • Health and well-being
  • Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts

Social needs

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as:

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs ("Safety in numbers"), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

Esteem

All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-esteem, strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The last one is higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness.

Maslow stresses the dangers associated with self-esteem based on fame and outer recognition instead of inner competence. Healthy self-respect is based on earned respect.

Self-actualization

The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for self-actualization is the final need that manifests when lower level needs have been satisfied. Classical Adlerian psychotherapy promotes this level of psychological development, utilizing the foundation of a 12-stage therapeutic model to realistically satisfy the basic needs, leading to an advanced stage of "meta-therapy," creative living, and self/other/task-actualization. Maslow's writings are used as inspirational resources.

Self-transcendence

Near the end of his life Maslow proposed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence[2]. "[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living at the level of Being… to have unitive consciousness and “plateau experience” (serene and contemplative B-cognitions rather than climactic ones) … and to have or to have had peak experience (mystic, sacral, ecstatic) with illuminations or insights. Analysis of reality or cognitions which changed their view of the world and of themselves, perhaps occasionally, perhaps as a usual thing."[3] Maslow later did a study on 12 people he believed possessed the qualities of Self-transcendence. Many of the qualities were guilt for the misfortune of someone, creativity, humility, intelligence, and divergent thinking. They were mainly loners, had deep relationships, and were very normal on the outside. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in their lifetime, and that it was absolutely impossible for a child to possess these traits.

Marketing

Maslow's hierarchy is one of the first theories taught to marketing students as a basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. Marketers have historically looked towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the market. If producers design products meeting consumer needs, consumers will more often choose those products over those of competitors. Whichever product better fulfills this void will be chosen more frequently, thus increasing sales. This makes the model relevant to Transpersonal business studies.

Criticisms

While Maslow's theory was regarded as an improvement over previous theories of personality and motivation, it had its detractors. For example, in their extensive review of research which is dependent on Maslow's theory, Wahba and Bridgewell[4] found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. Chilean economist and philosopher Manfred Max-Neef has also argued fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical, and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature - part of the condition of being human; poverty, he argues, is the result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled.

See also

References

  1. ^ Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  2. ^ “Theory Z” The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, NY: Viking, 1972
  3. ^ Abraham Maslow, Transpersonal Psychology, and self-Transcendence
  4. ^ Wahba, A (1976). "Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory". Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (15): 212–240.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)

External links