Mass in the Catholic Church
The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated. The church describes the mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life". The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Catholic Church practises closed communion, with only baptised members in a state of grace ordinarily permitted to receive the Eucharist.
Many of the Catholic Church's other sacraments are celebrated in the framework of the Eucharist. The term "Mass" is generally used within the Latin Church's celebrations of the Eucharist, while the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and the various Eastern Catholic Churches use terms such as "Divine Liturgy", "Holy Qurbana", and "Badarak", in accordance with each one's tradition.
The term "Mass" is derived from the concluding words of the Roman Rite mass in Latin: "Ite, missa est" ("Go; it is the dismissal"). The Late Latin word missa substantively corresponds to the classical Latin word missio. In antiquity, missa simply meant "dismissal". In Christian usage, however, it gradually took on a deeper meaning. The word "dismissal" has come to imply a mission.
The Roman Rite Mass is the predominant form used in the Catholic Church and the focus of this article. For information on the theology of the Eucharist and on the Eucharistic liturgy of other Christian denominations, see "Mass (liturgy)", "Eucharist" and "Eucharistic theology". For information on the history and of development of the Mass see Eucharist and Origin of the Eucharist.
- 1 Roman Rite Mass
- 2 Structure of Mass
- 3 Time of celebration of Mass
- 4 Duration of the celebration
- 5 Ritual Masses
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
Roman Rite Mass
The following description of the celebration of Mass is limited to the current Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, conducted using the local vernacular language and customs. This version was introduced in 1969 following calls for liturgical reforms by the bishops participating in the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) based on new historical perspectives and biblical studies, and has been the most common form used. This version was introduced to succeed the Tridentine Mass, celebrated in Latin and dating to the liturgical reforms of the Council of Trent (1545–46). The Tridentine mass, as revised in 1962, is still permitted for use as an Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite. Other historical and minor contemporary Latin Rite masses have been used in different regions of the world, as well the Eastern Christian forms known as the Divine Liturgy.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC or Catechism) produced in 1994 discusses the importance of the Mass in the Catholic tradition based on the whole history of the Mass and the understanding of it to that time. The United States Catholic Conference edition of the Catechism prefers to call the Mass the “Eucharistic Celebration.” Under this topic in the Subject Index it lists as principal subtopics: commanded by Christ; center of the Church’s life; memorial celebration; in the Church from the beginning; participation as Church precept; structure and movement.
The Roman Missal contains the prayers, antiphons and rubrics of the Mass. Earlier editions also contained the Scripture readings, which were then fewer in number. The latest edition of the Roman Missal contains the normal ("ordinary") form of Mass in the Roman Rite and the 1962 edition the Tridentine Mass which, according to the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, may be celebrated as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite.
The Lectionary presents passages from the Bible arranged in the order for reading at each day's Mass. Compared with the scripture readings in the pre-1970 Missal, the modern Lectionary contains a much wider variety of passages, too many to include in the Missal. A Book of the Gospels, also called the Evangeliary, is recommended for the reading from the Gospels, but where this book is not available the Lectionary is used in its place.
Structure of Mass
Part of a series on
|Roman Rite Mass
of the Catholic Church
|A. Introductory rites|
|B. Liturgy of the Word|
|C. Liturgy of the Eucharist|
|D. Concluding rites|
|"Ite, missa est!"|
The Eucharistic celebration is "one single act of worship", but consists of different elements, which always include "the proclamation of the Word of God; thanksgiving to God the Father for all his benefits, above all the gift of his Son; the consecration of bread and wine, which signifies also our own transformation into the body of Christ; and participation in the liturgical banquet by receiving the Lord's body and blood".
Within the fixed structure of the Roman-Rite Mass outlined below, the "proper" or daily-varying parts are the Scripture readings, the antiphons at the entrance and communion processions, and the texts of the three prayers known as the collect, the prayer over the gifts, and the post-communion prayer. These convey themes from the liturgical season, the feast days of titles or events in the life of Christ, the feast days and commemorations of the saints, or for Masses for particular circumstances (e.g., funeral Masses, Masses for the celebration of Confirmation, Masses for peace, to begin the academic year, etc.).
The priest enters with altar servers, and with a deacon if there is one. The deacon may carry the Book of the Gospels, which he will place on the altar, and the servers may carry a processional cross, candles, and incense. During this procession, ordinarily, the entrance chant or hymn is sung. If there is no singing at the entrance, the entrance antiphon is recited either by some or all of the people or by a lector; otherwise it is said by the priest himself. When the priest arrives at his chair, he leads the assembly in making the sign of the cross, saying: "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," to which the people answer: "Amen." Then the priest "signifies the presence of the Lord to the community gathered there by means of the Greeting. By this Greeting and the people’s response, the mystery of the Church gathered together is made manifest."  The greetings are derived from the Pauline epistles.
Then the priest invites those present to take part in the Act of Penitence, of which the Missal proposes three forms, the first of which is the Confiteor. One form includes tropes acclaiming God's deeds on our behalf, and the priest has some freedom in formulating these. This is concluded with the priest's prayer of absolution, "which, however, lacks the efficacy of the Sacrament of Penance."  "From time to time on Sundays, especially in Easter Time, instead of the customary Penitential Act, the blessing and sprinkling of water may take place as a reminder of Baptism." 
"After the Penitential Act, the Kyrie, eleison (Lord, have mercy), is always begun, unless it has already been part of the Penitential Act. Since it is a chant by which the faithful acclaim the Lord and implore his mercy, it is usually executed by everyone, that is to say, with the people and the choir or cantor taking part in it."  The Kyrie may be sung or recited in the vernacular language or in the original Greek.
"The Gloria in excelsis (Glory to God in the highest) is a most ancient and venerable hymn by which the Church, gathered in the Holy Spirit, glorifies and entreats God the Father and the Lamb... It is sung or said on Sundays outside Advent and Lent, and also on Solemnities and Feasts, and at particular celebrations of a more solemn character."  In accordance with that rule, the Gloria is omitted at funerals. It is also omitted for ordinary feast-days of saints, weekdays, and Votive Masses. It is also optional, in line with the perceived degree of solemnity of the occasion, at Ritual Masses such as those celebrated for Marriage ("Nuptial Mass"), Confirmation or Religious Profession, at Masses on the Anniversary of Marriage or Religious Profession, and at Masses for Various Needs and Occasions.
"Next the Priest calls upon the people to pray and everybody, together with the Priest, observes a brief silence so that they may become aware of being in God’s presence and may call to mind their intentions. Then the Priest pronounces the prayer usually called the “Collect” and through which the character of the celebration finds expression." 
Liturgy of the Word
On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament (a term wider than Hebrew Scriptures, since it includes the Deuterocanonical Books), or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide. The first reading is followed by a Responsorial Psalm, a complete Psalm or a sizeable portion of one. A cantor, choir or lector leads, and the congregation sings or recites a refrain. "That the people may be able to sing the Psalm response more readily, texts of some responses and Psalms have been chosen for the various seasons of the year or for the various categories of Saints. These may be used in place of the text corresponding to the reading whenever the Psalm is sung." The second reading is from the New Testament, typically from one of the Pauline epistles. The reader typically begins each reading with the introductory statement "a reading from the Book of..." or "a reading from the Letter to...," and concludes each reading by proclaiming that the reading is "the word of the Lord,"; the congregation responds by saying "Thanks be to God." The lector will usually be a scheduled volunteer from among the congregation; when two non-Gospel readings are given, they may be given by two different lectors or by one, according to local preference.
The final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel. This is preceded by the singing of the Gospel Acclamation, typically an Alleluia with a verse of Scripture, which may be omitted if not sung. Alleluia is replaced during Lent by a different acclamation of praise. All stand while the Gospel is chanted or read by a deacon or, if none is available, by a priest. The reading is traditionally introduced with the phrase "a reading from the Holy Gospel according to" followed by the evangelist's name. To conclude the Gospel reading, the priest or deacon proclaims: "The Gospel of the Lord" and the people respond, "Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ." The priest or deacon then kisses the book. If a deacon participates, he reads the Gospel. If a deacon is not present, the celebrating priest or a concelebrant, if there is one, proclaims it.
At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, a sermon that draws upon some aspect of the readings or of the liturgy, is then given. Ordinarily the priest celebrant himself gives the homily, but he may entrust it to a concelebrating priest or, occasionally, to the deacon, but never to a lay person. In particular cases and for a just cause, a bishop or priest who is present but cannot concelebrate may give the homily. On days other than Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, the homily, though not obligatory, is recommended.
On Sundays and solemnities, all then profess their Christian faith by reciting or singing the Nicene Creed or, especially from Easter to Pentecost, the Apostles' Creed, which is particularly associated with baptism and is often used in Masses for children.
The Liturgy of the Word concludes with the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful. The priest begins it with a brief introduction, then a deacon, a cantor, or another lay person announces some intentions for prayer, to which the congregation responds with a short invocation such as "Lord hear our prayer." The priest concludes with a longer prayer.
Liturgy of the Eucharist
The linen corporal is spread over the center of the altar, and the Liturgy of the Eucharist begins with the ceremonial placing on it of bread and wine. These may be brought to the altar in a procession, especially if Mass is celebrated with a large congregation. The unleavened, wheat bread (in the tradition of the Latin Church) is placed on a paten, and the wine (from grapes) is put in a chalice and mixed with a little water, As the priest places each on the corporal, he says a silent prayer over each individually, which, if this rite is unaccompanied by singing, he is permitted to say aloud, in which case the congregation responds to each prayer with: "Blessed be God forever." Then the priest washes his hands, "a rite in which the desire for interior purification finds expression."
The congregation, which has been seated during this preparatory rite, rises, and the priest gives an exhortation to pray: "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the almighty Father." The congregation responds: "May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, and the good of all his holy Church." The priest then pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts.
The Eucharistic Prayer, "the centre and high point of the entire celebration", then begins with a dialogue between priest and people. This dialogue opens with the normal liturgical greeting, "The Lord be with you", but in view of the special solemnity of the rite now beginning, the priest then exhorts the people: "Lift up your hearts." The people respond with: "We lift them up to the Lord." The priest then introduces the great theme of "Eucharist", a word originating in the Greek word for giving thanks: "Let us give thanks to the Lord, our God." The congregation joins in this sentiment, saying: "It is right and just."
The priest continues with one of many, thematic Eucharistic Prayer prefaces, which lead to the Sanctus acclamation: "Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest."
In some countries, including the United States, the people kneel immediately after the singing or recitation of the Sanctus. Where the people do not kneel they make a profound bow after the Consecration – the Institution Narrative that recalls Jesus' words and actions at his Last Supper: "Take this, all of you, and eat of it: for this is my body which will be given up for you.... Take this, all of you, and drink from it: for this is the chalice of my blood, the blood of the new and eternal covenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this in memory of me." Raising the bread and wine high after the Consecrationit began when the priest celebrated with his back to the people. The priest says: "The mystery of faith" and the people respond with an acclamation, using one of three prescribed formulae.
The Eucharistic Prayer includes the Epiclesis (which since early Christian times the Eastern churches have seen as the climax of the Consecration), praying that the Holy Spirit might transform the gifts, and thereby the people into one body in Christ. The whole remembrance part of the Eucharistic Prayer, recalling Jesus' passion, death, and resurrection, is called the Anamnesis.
Intercessions for the living and dead follow. When there are priests concelebrating the Mass they join the main celebrant in the central prayers, up to the intercessions which they may divide among themselves.
The Eucharistic Prayer ends with an emphatic doxology for which the priest lifts high the paten with the host and the deacon (if there is one) the chalice, and the priest(s) proclaim of Christ that "through him, with him, in him, in the unity of the Holy spirit, all glory and honor is yours, almighty Father, for ever and ever," to which the people add their great Amen. The priest has spoken in the name of the entire congregation ("we" not "I") throughout the Eucharistic Prayer, and this Amen is the people's assent to all that has been said in their name.
Both the doxology and Amen are preferably sung. This is in line with the Instruction on Music in the Liturgy which says: "One cannot find anything more religious and more joyful in sacred celebrations than a whole congregation expressing its faith and devotion in song. Therefore the active participation of the whole people, which is shown in singing, is to be carefully promoted.... It should first of all include acclamations, responses to the greetings of the priest and ministers and to the prayers of litany form, and also antiphons and psalms, refrains or repeated responses, hymns and canticles."
|Part of a series on the|
All together recite or sing the "Lord's Prayer" ("Pater Noster" or "Our Father"). The priest introduces it with a short phrase and follows it up with the embolism: "Deliver us, Lord, we pray, from every evil, graciously grant peace in our days, that, by the help of your mercy, we may be always free from sin and safe from all distress, as we await the blessed hope and the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ." The people then add the doxology: "For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and forever."
Next comes the rite of peace (pax). After praying: "Lord Jesus Christ, who said to your Apostles: Peace I leave you, my peace I give you; look not on our sins, but on the faith of your Church, and graciously grant her peace and unity in accordance with your will. Who live and reign for ever and ever," the priest wishes the people the peace of Christ: "The peace of the Lord be with you always." The deacon or, in his absence, the priest may then invite those present to offer each other the sign of peace. The form of the sign of peace varies according to local custom for a respectful greeting (for instance, a handshake or a bow between strangers, or a kiss/hug between family members).
The priest breaks the host and places a piece in the main chalice; this is known as the rite of fraction and commingling. Covering this action the "Lamb of God" ("Agnus Dei" in Latin) is sung or recited,
If extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion are required, they may come forward at this time, and approach the altar itself after the priest has received Communion. The priest then presents the Eucharistic Bread to the congregation, saying: "Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those who are called to the supper of the Lamb." Then all repeat: "Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed," which is a reference in the Gospel of Matthew to where a Roman centurion manifests exemplary faith in Jesus to heal his servant, saying he was not worthy to have Jesus, and that Jesus's word alone was enough to do what was needed. The priest then receives Communion and, with the help of the deacon and concelebrants and, if necessary, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, distributes Communion to the people.
"The faithful communicate either kneeling or standing, as has been determined by the norms of the Conference of Bishops. However, when they communicate standing, it is recommended that before receiving the Sacrament they make an appropriate sign of reverence, to be determined by in the same norms." (In the United States, Communion is to be received standing, though no one can be denied the Eucharist for failing to observe a liturgical norm. The sign of reverence specified is a bow of the head before approaching the minister.)
Then the distributing minister says: "The body of Christ" or "The blood of Christ", according as the element distributed is the consecrated bread or the consecrated wine, or: "The body and blood of Christ", if both are distributed together (by intinction). The communicant responds: "Amen." In most countries the communicant may receive the consecrated host either on the tongue or in the hand, at the communicant's own discretion. If in the hand they should step aside then "eat" the bread as Jesus says.
While Communion is distributed, singing by all of an appropriate approved chant or hymn is recommended, to emphasize the essentially "communitarian" nature of the body of Christ. If there is no singing, a short antiphon may be recited either by the faithful, by some of them or by a lector. Otherwise, the priest himself recites it after he himself receives communion and before he distributes it to others.
"The sacred vessels are purified by the priest, the deacon, or an instituted acolyte after Communion or after Mass, insofar as possible at the credence table." Then the priest concludes the Liturgy of the Eucharist with the Prayer after Communion, for which the people are invited to stand.
After the Prayer after Communion, announcements may be made. The Missal says these should be brief. The priest then gives the usual liturgical greeting and imparts his blessing. The liturgy concludes with a dialogue between the priest and congregation. The deacon, or in his absence, the priest himself then dismisses the people. The latest edition of the Missal adds new versions of the dismissal, particularly written to remind us that we are sent forth to live out the mission of Christ. The congregation responds: "Thanks be to God." The priest and other ministers then leave, preferably to the recessional hymn sung by all.
The people then depart. In some countries the priest customarily stands outside the church door to greet them individually.
Time of celebration of Mass
Since the Second Vatican Council, the time for fulfilling the obligation to attend Mass on Sunday or a Holy Day of Obligation now begins on the evening of the day before, and most parish churches do celebrate the Sunday Mass also on Saturday evening. By long tradition and liturgical law, Mass is not celebrated at any time on Good Friday (but Holy Communion is distributed, with hosts consecrated at the evening Mass of the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday, to those participating in the Celebration of the Passion of the Lord) or on Holy Saturday before the Easter Vigil (the beginning of the celebration of Easter Sunday), in other words, between the annual celebrations of the Lord's Supper and the Resurrection of Jesus (see Easter Triduum).
Priests are required to celebrate Mass frequently and are earnestly recommended to do so daily. However, "apart from those cases in which the law allows him to celebrate or concelebrate the Eucharist a number of times on the same day, a priest may not celebrate more than once a day," and "a priest may not celebrate the Eucharistic Sacrifice without the participation of at least one of the faithful, unless there is a good and reasonable cause for doing so."
Priests may be required by their posts to celebrate Mass daily, or at least on Sundays, for the faithful in their pastoral care. The bishop of a diocese and the pastor of a parish are required to celebrate or arrange for another priest to celebrate on every Sunday or Holy Day of Obligation, a Mass "pro populo" – that is, for the faithful entrusted to his care.
For Latin Rite priests, there are a few general exceptions to the limitation to celebrate only one Mass a day. By tradition, they may celebrate Mass three times on Christmas Day (the Midnight Mass or "Mass of the Angels", the Dawn Mass or "Shepherd's Mass", and the Day Mass or "Mass of the Divine Word", each of which has its own readings and chants).
On All Souls' Day they may also, on the basis of a privilege to all priests by Pope Benedict XV in August 1915, celebrate Mass three times; only one of the three Masses may be for the personal intentions of the priest, while the other two Masses must be for all the faithful departed and for the intentions of the Pope. A priest who has concelebrated the Chrism Mass, which may be held on the morning of Holy Thursday, may also celebrate or concelebrate the Mass of the Lord's Supper that evening. A priest may celebrate or concelebrate both the Mass of the Easter Vigil and Mass during Easter day (the Easter Vigil "should not begin before nightfall; it should end before daybreak on Sunday"; and may therefore take place at midnight or in the early hours of Easter morning). Finally, a priest who has concelebrated Mass at a meeting of priests or during a pastoral visitation by a bishop or a bishop's delegate, may celebrate a second Mass for the benefit of the laity.
In addition to these general permissions, the Local Ordinary may, for a good reason, permit priests to celebrate twice (they are then said to "binate") on weekdays, and three times ("trinate" or "trination") on Sundays and Holy Days (canon 905 §2). Examples would be if a parish priest were to need to celebrate the usual, scheduled daily Mass of a parish and a funeral later in the morning, or three Masses to accommodate all of the parishioners in a very populous parish on Sundays. In particularly difficult circumstances, the Pope can grant the diocesan bishop permission to give his priests faculties to trinate on weekdays and quadrinate on Sundays.
In many countries, the bishop's power to permit priests to celebrate two or three Masses on one day is widely used, and it is common for priests assigned to parish ministry to celebrate at least two Masses on any given Sunday, and two Masses on several other days of the week. Permission for four Masses on one day has been obtained in order to cope with large numbers of Catholics either in mission lands or where the ranks of priests are diminishing. This sometimes also happens in the case of historic churches which are unusually small compared to their number of parishioners, but which have not been replaced due to their historic character.
Summary table regarding priests with pastoral responsibilities
|Situation||Masses permitted||Masses required*|
|All Souls' Day||3||1|
|Weekday with permission of Local Ordinary||2||0|
|Sunday or Holy Day with permission of Local Ordinary||3||1|
|Weekday with permission of the Pope through Local Ordinary||3||0|
|Sunday or Holy Day with permission of the Pope through Local Ordinary||4||1|
* By any priest of a parish for the people; that is to say, individual priests are not required to say Masses on these days per se, but a Mass in each parish or oratory must be available for the people.
Duration of the celebration
The length of time that it takes to celebrate Mass varies considerably. While the Roman Rite liturgy is shorter than other liturgical rites, it may on solemn occasions – even apart from exceptional circumstances such as the Easter Vigil or an event such as ordinations – take over an hour and a half. The length of the homily is an obvious factor that contributes to the overall length. Other factors are the number of people receiving Communion and the number and length of the chants and other singing.
For most of the second millennium, before the twentieth century brought changes beginning with Pope Pius X's encouragement of frequent Communion, the usual Mass was said exactly the same way whether people other than a server were present or not. No homily was given, and most often only the priest himself received Communion. Moral theologians gave their opinions on how much time the priest should dedicate to celebrating a Mass, a matter on which canon law and the Roman Missal were silent. One said that an hour should not be considered too long. Several others that, in order to avoid tedium, Mass should last no more than half an hour; and in order to be said with due reverence, it should last no less than twenty minutes. Another theologian, who gave half an hour as the minimum time, considered that Mass could not be said in less than a quarter of an hour, an opinion supported by others, including Saint Alphonsus Liguori who said that any priest who finished Mass in less than that time could scarcely be excused from mortal sin.
A Mass celebrated in connection with a particular rite, such as an ordination, a wedding, or a profession of religious vows, may use texts provided in the "Ritual Masses" section of the Roman Missal. The rite in question is, most often, a sacrament, but the section has special texts not only for Masses within which Baptism, Confirmation, Anointing of the Sick (Extreme Unction), Holy Orders, and Holy Matrimony are celebrated, but also for Masses with religious profession, the dedication of a church, and several other rites. Confession (Penance or Reconciliation) is the only sacrament not celebrated within a Eucharistic framework and for which therefore no Ritual Mass is provided.
The Ritual Mass texts may not be used, except perhaps partially, when the rite is celebrated during especially important liturgical seasons or on high ranking feasts.
A Nuptial Mass is a Ritual Mass within which the sacrament of Holy Matrimony is celebrated. If one of a couple being married in a Catholic church is not a Catholic, the rite of Holy Matrimony outside Mass is to be followed. However, if the non-Catholic has been baptized in the name of all three Persons of the Trinity (and not only in the name of, say, Jesus, as is the baptismal practice in some branches of Christianity), then, in exceptional cases and provided the bishop of the diocese gives permission, it may be considered suitable to celebrate the marriage within Mass, except that, according to the general law, Communion is not given to the non-Catholic (Rite of Marriage, 8).
Jubilee Indulgence to the faithful celebrating the Holy Eucharist
Pope Francis granted the Jubilee Indulgence to the faithful celebrating the Holy Eucharist:
"My thought first of all goes to all the faithful who, whether in individual Dioceses or as pilgrims to Rome, will experience the grace of the Jubilee. I wish that the Jubilee Indulgence may reach each one as a genuine experience of God’s mercy, which comes to meet each person in the Face of the Father who welcomes and forgives, forgetting completely the sin committed. To experience and obtain the Indulgence, the faithful are called to make a brief pilgrimage to the Holy Door, open in every Cathedral or in the churches designated by the Diocesan Bishop, and in the four Papal Basilicas in Rome, as a sign of the deep desire for true conversion. Likewise, I dispose that the Indulgence may be obtained in the Shrines in which the Door of Mercy is open and in the churches which traditionally are identified as Jubilee Churches. It is important that this moment be linked, first and foremost, to the Sacrament of Reconciliation and to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist with a reflection on mercy. It will be necessary to accompany these celebrations with the profession of faith and with prayer for me and for the intentions that I bear in my heart for the good of the Church and of the entire world." (...) "Additionally, I am thinking of those for whom, for various reasons, it will be impossible to enter the Holy Door, particularly the sick and people who are elderly and alone, often confined to the home. For them it will be of great help to live their sickness and suffering as an experience of closeness to the Lord who in the mystery of his Passion, death and Resurrection indicates the royal road which gives meaning to pain and loneliness. Living with faith and joyful hope this moment of trial, receiving communion or attending Holy Mass and community prayer, even through the various means of communication, will be for them the means of obtaining the Jubilee Indulgence."
- John Hardon, Modern Catholic Dictionary
- Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1324
- "CCC, 'The Paschal Mystery'". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Hovhanessian, Vahan (2011). "Badarak (Patarag)". The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. doi:10.1002/9780470670606.wbecc0112.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Liturgy of the Mass". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Pope Benedict XVI, Sacramentum caritatis, 51
- Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1994, ISBN 1-55586-513-5.
- "The Missal published by Paul VI and then republished in two subsequent editions by John Paul II, obviously is and continues to be the normal Form – the Forma ordinaria – of the Eucharistic Liturgy" Letter of Pope Benedict to the Bishops, 7 July 2007, paragraph 5
- General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM), paragraph 44
- 1 Corinthians 10:17
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
- "The antiphon with its Psalm from the Graduale Romanum or the Graduale Simplex, or another chant ... whose text has been approved by the Conference of Bishops". GIRM, paragraph 48
- GIRM, paragraph 256
- "THE ORDER OF MASS" (PDF). International Committee on English in the Liturgy, Inc. 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- "The Holy Mass". Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- GIRM, paragraph 50
- GIRM, paragraph 51
- GIRM, paragraph 52
- Roman Missal, "The Order of Mass", 7
- GIRM, paragraph 53
- GIRM, paragraph 54
- GIRM, paragraph 61
- Roman Missal, "The Order of Mass", 16
- Roman Missal, "The Order of Mass", 14
- GIRM, paragraph 66
- "It is a praiseworthy practice for the bread and wine to be presented by the faithful." GIRM, paragraph 73
- GIRM, paragraph 320
- GIRM, paragraph 76
- GIRM, paragraph 78
- "The faithful [...] should kneel [...] at the Consecration, except when prevented on occasion by ill health, or for reasons of lack of space, of the large number of people present, or for another reasonable cause. However, those who do not kneel ought to make a profound bow when the Priest genuflects after the Consecration." GIRM, paragraph 43
- Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25
- GIRM, paragraph 151
- GIRM, paragraph 79c,f
- "Musicam sacram". www.vatican.va. 16. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
- John 14:27
- GIRM, paragraph 83
- GIRM, paragraph 162
- [Rev 19:9]
- Mat 8:8
- GIRM, paragraph 160
- Mat 26:26-28
- GIRM, paragraph 287
- Jn 6:50-56
- GIRM, paragraph 86
- GIRM, paragraph 87
- GIRM, paragraph 279
- "The Mass | The Concluding Rites - Liturgy | Our Lady of Mount Carmel Wentworthville". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
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- Letter De Missa vespere sabbati of the Congregation of Rites dated Sept 25 1965, in Enchiridion Documentorum Instaurationis Liturgicae, vol I, n. 35
- "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
- "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
- "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
- GIRM, paragraph 204
- Preaching was generally done outside Mass. The Ritus servandus in celebratione Missae of the Tridentine Missal mentions preaching at Mass only in connection with Solemn Mass (in section VI, 60) and only as a possibility.
- Ellard, Gerald. "Chapter XI: Sacrificial-Mindedness Largely Lost - and Found". CHRISTIAN LIFE AND WORSHIP. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Liguori, Alphonsus (1846). Jones, James, ed. Sacerdos Sanctificatus; or, Discourses on the Mass and Office. pp. 30–33. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nuptial Mass". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Letter of His Holiness Pope Francis According to which an Indulgence Is Granted to the Faithful on the Occasion of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy
- A Biblical Walk Through the Mass: Understanding What We Say and Do in the Liturgy by Edward Sri (2011; Ascension Press) ISBN 9781935940005
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