Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)
|Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)|
The entrance of Raffles Place MRT station
One of SMRT Trains' C751Bs in the system
Sistem Pengangkutan Gerak Cepat Singapura (Malay)|
சிங்கப்பூர் துரிதக் கடவு ரயில் (Tamil)
|Owner||Land Transport Authority|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||8 (5 in operation, 1 under construction and 2 under planning)|
|Number of stations||176 (119 in operation, 52 more under construction or planning, 5 reserved)|
|Daily ridership||3.1 million (2016), excluding the LRT|
|Began operation||7 November 1987|
SMRT Trains (SMRT Corporation)|
SBS Transit (ComfortDelGro)
|System length||199.6 km (124.0 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The Mass Rapid Transit, or MRT, is a rapid transit system forming the major component of the railway system in Singapore, spanning most of the city-state. The earliest section of the MRT, between Toa Payoh and Yio Chu Kang, opened on 7 November 1987. The network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Singapore's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the public transport system in Singapore, with an average daily ridership of 3.031 million in 2015 (including the Light Rail Transit (LRT)), approximately 78% of the bus network's 3.891 million in the same period.
The MRT network encompasses 199.6 kilometres (124.0 mi) of route, with 119 stations in operation, on standard gauge. The fully automated Circle, Downtown, and North East lines form the longest fully automated metro network in the world. The lines are built by the Land Transport Authority, a statutory board of the Government of Singapore, which allocates operating concessions to the profit-based corporations, SMRT Corporation, and SBS Transit. These operators also run bus and taxi services, thus facilitating full integration of public transport services. The MRT is complemented by a small number of local LRT networks in Bukit Panjang, Sengkang, and Punggol that link MRT stations with HDB public housing estates.
- 1 History
- 2 Infrastructure
- 3 Expansion
- 4 Fares and ticketing
- 5 Safety
- 6 Performance
- 7 Security
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The origins of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) are derived from a forecast by city planners in 1967 which stated the need for a rail-based urban transport system by 1992. Following a debate on whether a bus-only system would be more cost-effective, then Minister for Communications Ong Teng Cheong, came to the conclusion that an all-bus system would be inadequate, as it would have to compete for road space in a land-scarce country.
The network was built in stages, with the North South line given priority because it passed through the Central Area that has a high demand for public transport. The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC)—later renamed SMRT Corporation—was established on 14 October 1983; it took over the roles and responsibilities (which was the construction and operation the MRT system) of the former provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority. On 7 November 1987, the first section of the North South Line started operations, consisting of five stations over six kilometres. Fifteen more stations were opened later, and the MRT system was officially launched on 12 March 1988 by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Another 21 stations have been added to the system; the opening of Boon Lay on the East West Line on 6 July 1990 marked the completion of the system two years ahead of schedule.
The MRT has since been expanded. The first expansion was in 1996, a S$1.2 billion expansion of the North South Line into Woodlands, merging the Branch line into the North South line and joining Yishun and Choa Chu Kang stations. The concept of having rail lines that bring people almost directly to their homes led to the introduction of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) lines connecting with the MRT network. On 6 November 1999, the first LRT trains on the Bukit Panjang LRT went into operation. In 2002, the Changi Airport and Expo stations were added to the MRT network. The North East line, the first line operated by SBS Transit, opened on 20 June 2003, one of the first fully automated heavy rail lines in the world. On 15 January 2006, after intense two-and-a-half years lobbying by the public, Buangkok station was opened. On 20 June 2011, Woodleigh station was opened. The Boon Lay Extension of the East West line, consisting of Pioneer and Joo Koon stations, opened on 28 February 2009. The Circle line opened in four stages from 28 May 2009 to 14 January 2012. Stage 1 of Downtown line opened on 22 December 2013 with its official opening made on 21 December 2013 by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Stage 2 opened on 27 December 2015, after being officially opened on 26 December by Prime Minister Lee. The Tuas West Extension of the East West line, consisting of Gul Circle, Tuas Crescent, Tuas West Road, and Tuas Link stations, opened on 18 June 2017. Stage 3, the final stage of Downtown line, opened on 21 October 2017 with its official opening made on 20 October 2017 by Coordinating Minister for Infrastructure and Minister for Transport Khaw Boon Wan.
The following table lists the Mass Rapid Transit lines that are currently operational:
|Name and color||Commencement||Next extension||Terminus||Stations||Length||Depot||Operator||Control Center|
|North South line||7 November 1987||2019||Jurong East
Marina South Pier
|26||45 kilometres (28 mi)||Bishan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot
|SMRT Trains||City Hall
|East West line||12 December 1987||-||Pasir Ris
Joo Koon[note 1]
|35||57.2 kilometres (35.5 mi)|
|Circle line||28 May 2009||2025||Dhoby Ghaut
|30[note 2]||35.5 kilometres (22.1 mi)||Kim Chuan Depot||Kim Chuan Depot|
|Subtotal (lines under SMRT Trains):||92||137.7 kilometres (85.6 mi)|
|North East line||20 June 2003||2023||HarbourFront
|16||20 kilometres (12 mi)||Sengkang Depot||SBS Transit||Sengkang Depot|
|Downtown line||22 December 2013||2024||Bukit Panjang
|34||41.9 kilometres (26.0 mi)||Tai Seng Facility Building
Gali Batu Depot
|Gali Batu Depot|
|Subtotal (Lines under SBS Transit):||50||61.9 kilometres (38.5 mi)|
|Total:||117[note 3]||199.6 kilometres (124.0 mi)|
Facilities and services
Except for the partly at-grade Bishan MRT station (North South line), the entirety of the MRT is elevated or underground. Most below-ground stations are deep and hardened enough to withstand conventional aerial bomb attacks and to serve as bomb shelters. Mobile phone, 3G and 4G service are available in every part of the network. Underground stations and trains are air-conditioned, while above-ground stations have ceiling fans installed.
Every station is equipped with General Ticketing Machines (GTMs), a Passenger Service Centre and LED or plasma displays that show train service information and announcements. All stations are equipped with restrooms and payphones; some restrooms are located at street level. Some stations, especially the major ones, have additional amenities and services, such as retail shops and kiosks, supermarkets, convenience stores, automatic teller machines, and self-service automated kiosks for a variety of services. Heavy-duty escalators at stations carry passengers up or down at a rate of 0.75 m/s, 50% faster than conventional escalators.
All stations on the North South Line (NSL) & stations constructed before 2001 on the East West Line (EWL) initially did not have barrier-free facilities and wider AFC faregates such as lifts, ramps & tactile guidance systems for the elderly and disabled, thus preventing disabled persons from entering the buses or trains, and they rely on their cars, taxicabs or vans. Their stations undergone their retrofitting programme between 2002 and completed in 2008. All stations are now barrier-free, although works are still ongoing to provide stations with additional barrier-free facilities. The installation of lifts at pedestrian overhead bridges next to six MRT stations and additional bicycle racks at 20 stations is slated to be completed by the end of 2013.[needs update]
Hours of operation
MRT lines operate from 5:30am to before 1:00am daily, with the exception of selected periods such as New Year's Eve, Chinese New Year, Deepavali, Hari Raya, Christmas, eves of public holidays, and special occasions such as the state funeral of Lee Kuan Yew (2015), when most of the lines stay open throughout the night or extended till later.
The following table lists the rolling stock of the network:
|Name||Supplier||Line||Cars (per train)||Total no. of cars||Service commencement||Power supply||Speed Limit||Price|
|C151||Kawasaki Heavy Industries||North South line
East West line
|6||400||7 November 1987||750 V DC
|80 km/h||S$581.5 million|
|C651||Siemens||114||2 May 1995||S$259 million|
|C751B||Kawasaki Heavy Industries & Nippon Sharyo||126[a]||8 May 2000||S$231 million|
|C151A||Kawasaki Heavy Industries &||210||27 May 2011||S$368 million|
|C151B||270||16 April 2017||S$281.5 million|
|C151C||72||September 2018||$136.8 million|
|C751A||Alstom||North East line||150||20 June 2003||1500 V DC
|90 km/h||$260 million|
|C751C||108||1 October 2015||S$234.9 million|
|C830||Circle line||3||120||28 May 2009||750 V DC
|78 km/h||S$282 million|
|C830C||72||26 June 2015||S$134 million|
|North East line||6||36||2020s||1500 V DC
|C951/C951A||Bombardier||Downtown line||3||276||22 December 2013||750 V DC
|80 km/h||S$689.9 million[b]|
|CT251||Kawasaki Heavy Industries &||Thomson-
East Coast line
|4||364||2019||90 km/h||S$749 million|
At present, all lines run with fixed-length trains between three and six cars, with the future Thomson-East Coast line using four cars. Since the system's conception in 1987, all train lines have been powered by the 750 volt DC third rail, with the exception of the North East Line which is powered by 1500 volt DC overhead lines. The North South and East West lines use an automatic train operation system similar to London Underground's Victoria line.
No rolling stock has been completely scrapped since service began, with the oldest C151 trains operating since the inauguration of the MRT System in 1987. Older trains have been renewed over the years under refurbishment schemes to enhance their lifespan as well as to adhere to updated safety and usability codes. Refurbished and new trains sport sleeker designs, improved passenger information systems, more grab poles, wider seats, more space near the doors, spaces for wheelchairs, and CCTV cameras. As a trial run, luggage racks were installed on the C751B trains to serve travellers on the Changi Airport branch line. The scheme was withdrawn in June 2002 and the luggage racks removed.
All trains are contracted by open tender, with their contract numbers forming the most recognised name of the stock. Official sources occasionally refer to the trains of the North South and East West lines as numbered generation trains, with the C151 train being the first and the newest C151C train being the sixth.
All Mass Rapid Transit lines are capable of automatic train operation without operator intervention.
The oldest lines, the North South line and East West line, were the only lines running with fixed block signalling. The North South line was upgraded to moving block CBTC in 2017, and the East West line upgraded in 2018. As of 27 May 2018, all MRT lines use the CBTC Moving Block system in normal daily operations.
All new MRT lines built since the North East line in 2003 were equipped with CBTC from the outset, and have the capability to be completely driverless and automated, requiring no onboard staffing. Operations are monitored remotely from the operations control centre of the respective lines. Trains are equipped with intercoms to allow passengers to communicate with staff during emergencies.
|Line||Supplier||Solution||Type [note 4]||Commission Date||Level of Automation[note 5]||Remarks|
|North South line||Thales||SelTrac||Moving Block CBTC||2017||DTO||BrownField|
|East West Line||Thales||SelTrac||Moving Block CBTC||2018||DTO||BrownField|
|North East line||Alstom||Urbalis 300||Moving Block CBTC||2003||UTO|
|Circle line||Alstom||Urbalis 300||Moving Block CBTC||2009||UTO|
|Downtown line||Siemens, formally Invensys Westinghouse||Sirius CBTC||Moving Block CBTC||2013||UTO|
East Coast line
|Alstom, formally GE||Urbalis 400||Moving Block CBTC||2019||UTO||Under Construction|
SMRT Corporation has four train depots: Bishan Depot is the central maintenance depot with train overhaul facilities, while Changi Depot and Ulu Pandan Depot inspect and house trains overnight. In March 2012, it was announced the new Tuas Depot would be ready in 2016 for the East West MRT line. The underground Kim Chuan Depot houses trains for the Circle line and Downtown line, now jointly managed by the two operators.
SBS Transit has three depots: Sengkang Depot houses trains for the North East Line, the Sengkang LRT line, and the Punggol LRT line. Kim Chuan Depot is currently jointly operated with SMRT for the Downtown Line. Major operations were shifted to the main Gali Batu Depot in 2015, although the Kim Chuan Depot will continue to operate on a minor capacity.
In August 2014, plans for the East Coast Integrated Depot, the world's first four-in-one train and bus depot were announced. It will be built at Tanah Merah beside the original Changi Depot site to serve the East West, Downtown, and Thomson-East Coast lines. The new 36ha depot can house about 220 trains and 550 buses and integrating the depot for both buses and trains will help save close to 66.12 acres (26.76 ha), or 60 football fields', of land.
The Main Depot for the Jurong Region Line will be situated at the western perimeter of Tengah and an additional stabling facility near Peng Kang Hill station to support the operations of the JRL. Rolling stock for the Jurong Region Line will be stabled at both facilities. The Tengah depot, which will house the JRL Operations Control Centre and will have a bus depot integrated with it to optimise land use.
Architecture and art
Early stages of the MRT's construction paid scant attention to station design, with an emphasis on functionality over aesthetics. This is particularly evident in the first few stages of the North South and East West lines that opened between 1987 and 1988 from Yio Chu Kang to Clementi. An exception to this was Orchard, chosen by its designers to be a "showpiece" of the system and built initially with a domed roof. Architectural themes became more important only in subsequent stages, and resulted in such designs as the cylindrical station shapes on all stations between Kallang and Pasir Ris except Eunos, and west of Boon Lay, and the perched roofs at Boon Lay, Lakeside, Chinese Garden, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak, Choa Chu Kang, Khatib, Yishun, and Eunos stations.
Art pieces, where present, are seldom highlighted; they primarily consist of a few paintings or sculptures representing the recent past of Singapore, mounted in major stations. The opening of the Woodlands Extension introduced bolder pieces of artwork, such as a 4,000 kg sculpture in Woodlands. With the opening of the North East MRT line, more series of artworks created under a programme called "The Art In Transit" were commissioned by the Land Transport Authority. Created by 19 local artists and integrated into the stations' interior architecture, these works aim to promote the appreciation of public art in high-traffic environments. The artwork for each station is designed to suit the station's identity. All stations on the North East, Circle and Downtown lines come under this programme. An art contest was held to implement a similar scheme for the Circle line.
The Expo MRT station, located on the Changi Airport Branch Line (CAL) of the East West Line, is adjacent to the 100,000-square-metre Singapore Expo exhibition facility. Designed by Foster and Partners and completed in January 2001, the station features a large, pillarless, titanium-clad roof in an elliptical shape that sheathes the length of the station platform. This complements a smaller 40-metre reflective stainless-steel disc overlapping the titanium ellipse and visually floats over a glass elevator shaft and the main entrance. The other station with similar architecture is Dover.
Changi Airport, the easternmost station on the MRT network, has the widest platform in any underground MRT station in Singapore. In 2011, it was rated 10 out of 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.
Two Circle line stations—Bras Basah and Stadium—were commissioned through the Marina line Architectural Design Competition, which was jointly organised by the Land Transport Authority and the Singapore Institute of Architects. The competition did not require any architectural experience from competitors, and is acknowledged by the industry as one of the most impartial competitions held in Singapore to date. The winner of both stations was WOHA. In 2009, "Best Transport Building" was awarded to the designers at WOHA Architects at the World Architecture Festival.
The MRT system relied on its two main lines, the North South and East West lines, for more than a decade until the opening of the North East line in 2003. While plans for these lines as well as those currently under construction were formulated long before, the Land Transport Authority's publication of a White Paper titled "A World Class Land Transport System" in 1996 galvanised the government's intentions to greatly expand the system. It called for the expansion of the 67 kilometres of track in 1995 to 360 in 2030. It was expected that daily ridership in 2030 would grow to 6.0 million from the 1.4 million passengers at that time.
The following table lists Mass Rapid Transit lines and stations that are currently under testing, construction, or that are in the planning stages:
Canberra MRT station
On 17 January 2013, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) announced that feasibility studies were being conducted to build a station between Sembawang and Yishun stations. The feasibility studies was completed in 2014 and Canberra station will be built. Shortly later on 1 August 2014, LTA announced that construction will commence in mid-2015 and is expected to be completed in 2019. Construction works for Canberra station commenced on 26 March 2016. This station, which is an infill station and will have side platforms, will be built along an operational section of the line between Sembawang and Yishun stations. The construction costs S$90 million and will be completed by 2019 to serve upcoming developments near the station. It was then confirmed that the station will open in December 2019.
The 44-kilometre, 36 station fully underground Downtown line, connects the northwestern and eastern regions of Singapore to the new downtown at Marina Bay in the south and to the CBD. Similar to the Circle line, three-car trainsets run on the Downtown line with line capacity projected for 500,000 commuters daily. The Downtown line commenced operations across 3 stages. Stage 1 from Bugis to Chinatown began operations on 22 December 2013. Stage 2 from Bukit Panjang to Rochor began operations on 27 December 2015. Stage 3 from Fort Canning to Expo began operations on 21 October 2017, and Stage 3e from Expo to Sungei Bedok will begin operations in 2024.
Thomson-East Coast line
The 43-kilometre, 31 station fully underground Thomson-East Coast line will connect the northern region of Singapore to the south, running parallel to the existing North South Line passing through Woodlands, Sin Ming, Upper Thomson, and Marina Bay before turning east and running through Tanjong Rhu, Siglap, Marine Parade, and Bedok. The line will commence operation in five stages, with the first three stages starting from Woodlands North to Gardens by the Bay commencing operations between 2019 and 2021 respectively, Stage 4 from Tanjong Rhu to Bayshore in 2023 and Stage 5 from Bedok South to Sungei Bedok in 2024. The northern terminus of Woodlands North is also expected to interchange with the Johor Bahru–Singapore Rapid Transit System to provide access to Johor Bahru and the future Iskandar Malaysia Bus Rapid Transit. The Land Transport Authority announced on 11 August 2017 that the line will be the first new cashless line after the existing lines were converted by 12 December 2018.
Proposed Extension to Changi Airport
In addition to the previously announced alignment of the Thomson-East Coast line, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) is studying whether to extend the TEL from Sungei Bedok station to the future Changi Airport Terminal 5, and then connecting to the existing Changi Airport MRT station on the East-West Line. With such an extension, there will be a direct connection between Changi Airport and the city. Its length is still being decided. If feasible, this extension will start operating together with the opening of the new Terminal 5.
Jurong Region line
First proposed as a LRT line when originally announced in 2001, the 20-kilometre Jurong Region Line has since been upgraded to be a medium capacity line after the project was revived in 2013. The new configuration will serve West Coast, Tengah and Choa Chu Kang and Jurong. Details will be announced once Tengah New Town development is up, and the completion was estimated to be by 2025.
On 9 May 2018, LTA announced the line to be 24-kilometre long and with 24 stations. It will open in three phases starting from 2026 to 2028.
West Coast extension
Besides the original announced alignment of the line, a West Coast Extension to the Circle Line from the Jurong Region Line is currently under study. It links the West Coast region directly to Pasir Panjang, allowing commuters on the Jurong Region Line access to the central area of the city easily. If feasible, the extension would be ready by 2030.
Cross Island line
The 50-kilometre Cross Island line will span the island of Singapore, passing through Tuas, Jurong, Sin Ming, Ang Mo Kio, Hougang, Punggol, Pasir Ris, and Changi. The addition of the new line brings commuters with another alternative for East-West travel to the current East West line and Downtown line, and will play an important role in Singapore's rail network. It will connect to all the other major lines to serve as a key transfer line, complementing the role currently fulfilled by the orbital Circle line. This line will even have a longer timeframe due to the environmental study aspects, with the completion by 2030. The Land Transport Authority (LTA) has also expressed interest in the implementation of possible express services on the CRL in future, apart from having just normal services. This express service would benefit commuters during the morning peak hours as trains would stop at only the interchanges and skip the remaining stations, hence, reducing travel time greatly.
Circle line stage 6
To be completed by 2025, the 4-kilometre extension will run from Marina Bay through Keppel, ending at HarbourFront, effectively 'completing the circle'  On 29 October 2015, the LTA announced the 3 station locations for the 'Circle line stage 6'. The stations are Keppel, Cantonment, and Prince Edward.
North East line extension
To be completed by 2030, the 1.6-kilometre extension will run from Punggol through Punggol North including the new Punggol Downtown. The extension is for future residents in Punggol North to have train access to the city centre as well as other parts of Singapore. On 7 June 2017, it was announced by Second Minister for Transport Ng Chee Meng that the North East line extension will open in 2023 instead, a few years ahead of the expected opening date. The single station extension will span 1.6 km and will serve the future Punggol North area. The station is tentatively called Punggol Coast. Construction on the extension has commenced on the first half of 2018.
Fares and ticketing
Stations are divided into two areas, paid and unpaid, which allow the rail operators to collect fares by restricting entry only through the fare gates, also known as access control gates. These gates, connected to a computer network, can read and update electronic tickets capable of storing data, and can store information such as the initial and destination stations and the duration for each trip. General Ticketing Machines sell tickets for single trips or allow the customer to buy additional value for stored-value tickets. Tickets for single trips, coloured green, are valid only on the day of purchase, and have a time allowance of 30 minutes beyond the estimated travel time. Tickets that can be used repeatedly until their expiry date require a minimum amount of stored credit.
As the fare system has been integrated by TransitLink, commuters need to pay only one fare and pass through two fare gates (once on entry, once on exit) for an entire journey for most interchange stations, even when transferring between lines operated by different companies. Commuters can choose to extend a trip mid-journey, and pay the difference when they exit their destination station.
Because the rail operators are government-assisted, profit-based corporations, fares on the MRT system are pitched to at least break-even level. The operators collect these fares by selling electronic data-storing tickets, the prices of which are calculated based on the distance between the start and destination stations. These prices increase in fixed stages for standard non-discounted travel. Fares are calculated in increments based on approximate distances between stations, in contrast to the use of fare zones in other subway systems, such as the London Underground.
Although operated by private companies, the system's fare structure is regulated by the Public Transport Council (PTC), to which the operators submit requests for changes in fares. Fares are kept affordable by pegging them approximately to distance-related bus fares, thus encouraging commuters to use the network and reduce heavy reliance on the bus system. Fare increases have caused public concern.There were similar expressions of disapproval over the slightly higher fares charged on SBS Transit's North East line, a disparity that SBS Transit justified by citing higher costs of operation and maintenance on a completely underground line, as well as lower patronage.
After the opening on Downtown line, Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan announced that public transport fare rules will be reviewed to allow for transfers across MRT lines at different stations as the rail network is getting denser. Currently, commuters are charged a second time when they make such transfers. He added that the Public Transport Council (PTC) will review distance-based fare transfer rules to ensure they continue to facilitate "fast, seamless" public transport journeys. The review of distance-based fare rules on MRT lines is expected to be completed in the first quarter in 2018.[needs update]
The ticketing system uses the EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay contactless smart cards based upon the Symphony for e-Payment (SeP) system for public transit built on the Singapore Standard for Contactless ePurse Application (CEPAS) system. This system allows for up to 4 card issuers in the market. The EZ-Link card was introduced on 13 April 2002 as a replacement for the original TransitLink farecard, while its competitor the NETS FlashPay card entered the smartcard market on 9 October 2009.
A stored value adult EZ-Link or NETS FlashPay branded CEPAS card may be purchased at any TransitLink Ticket Office or Passenger Service Centre. The CEPAS card may be used for the payment of MRT, LRT and bus fares. The CEPAS card may also be used for payment for goods and services at selected merchants, Electronic Road Pricing tolls, and Electronic Parking System carparks. Additional credit may be purchased via cash, NETS and credit card at various places -
- General Ticketing Machines (GTM) (gradually phasing out cash)
Additional credit may be purchased via cashless payments at various places -
- Add Value Machine
- DBS/POSB/OCBC/UOB Automatic Teller Machines
Additional credit may be purchased via cash at various places -
- TransitLink Ticket Office
- Convenience stores
Additional credit of a predetermined value may also be automatically credited into the card when the card value runs low via an automatic recharge service provided by Interbank GIRO or credit card. An Adult Monthly Travel Card for unlimited travel on MRT, LRT, and buses may also be purchased and is non-transferable.
A Standard Ticket contactless smart card for single or return journeys may also be purchased at the GTM for the payment of MRT and LRT fares. A S$0.10 deposit is levied on top of the fare to be paid. The deposit will be automatically refunded through an offset of the fare to be paid for the third journey on the same ticket while an additional discount of S$0.10 will be given for the sixth journey on the same ticket. No refund of the deposit is provided if the card is used for fewer than 3 journeys. The ticket can be used for the purchase of single or return journeys to and from pre-selected stations up to a maximum of six journeys over 30 days. Fares for the Standard Ticket are always higher than those charged for the stored-valued CEPAS (EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay) cards for the same distance traveled. The ticket is retained by the user after each journey and does not need to be returned to any GTM or Passenger Service Centre. Identical to the usage of CEPAS cards, the ticket is tapped onto the faregate reader upon entry and exit.
For tourists, a Singapore Tourist Pass contactless smartcard may be purchased. The card may be bought at selected TransitLink Ticket Offices and Singapore Visitors Centres. The tourists may retrieve their deposit by returning the card to the ticket offices or visitors centres within 5 days from the date of issue.
Operators and authorities state that numerous measures had been taken to ensure the safety of passengers, and SBS Transit publicised the safety precautions on the driverless North East line before and after its opening. Safety campaign posters are highly visible in trains and stations, and the operators frequently broadcast safety announcements to passengers and to commuters waiting for trains. Fire safety standards are consistent with the strict guidelines of the US National Fire Protection Association.
There were calls for platform screen doors to be installed at above-ground stations after several incidents in which passengers were killed by oncoming trains when they fell onto the railway tracks at above-ground stations. Underground stations already featured platform screen doors since 1987. The authorities initially rejected the proposal by casting doubts over functionality and concerns about the high installation costs, but made an about-turn when the government announced plans to install half-height platform screen doors on the above-ground stations in January 2008, citing lower costs due to it becoming a more common feature worldwide. They were first installed at Jurong East, Pasir Ris, and Yishun stations in 2009 under trials to test their feasibility.
By 14 March 2012, all elevated stations have been retrofitted with the doors and are operational. These doors prevent suicides and unauthorised access to restricted areas. Under the Rapid Transit Systems Act, acts such as smoking, eating or drinking in stations and trains, the misuse of emergency equipment and trespassing on the railway tracks are illegal, with penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment.
There were a few major accidents in the history of the MRT that raised safety concerns among the public. On 5 August 1993, two trains collided at Clementi station because of an oil spillage on the track, which resulted in 132 injuries. During the construction of the Circle line on 20 April 2004, a tunnel being constructed under Nicoll Highway collapsed and led to the deaths of four people. On 15 November 2017, at 8:20 a.m., two trains collided at Joo Koon MRT station, injuring 36 passengers and 2 SMRT staff. disruptions to the system of late, the cause of which often being cited by a lack of maintenance coupled with increased ridership due to population growth, have also raised concerns among the public.
Beginning with the major train disruptions on the North South Line in 2011, this incident led to a Committee of Inquiry, which uncovered serious shortcomings in SMRT Corporation's maintenance regime. For the December 2011 disruptions, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) imposed a maximum punishment of S$2 million on SMRT (approximately US$1.526 million) for the two train disruptions along the North South line (NSL) on December 15 and 17, 2011. A Committee of Inquiry discovered shortcomings in the maintenance regime and checks, prompting then-CEO Saw Phaik Hwa to resign. Since then, every MRT line had since been plagued with disruptions of various degrees of severity.
A much larger power-related incident than the December 2011 event occurred on 7 July 2015, when train services on both the North South and East West lines were shut down in both directions following a major power trip. The disruption lasted for more than 3 hours, affecting 250,000 commuters. This was considered the worst disruption to the MRT network since it first began operations in 1987 – surpassing the December 2011 event. Independent experts from Sweden and Japan were hired to conduct investigation into the cause of the disruption. The cause was identified as damage to a third rail insulator due to a water leak at Tanjong Pagar station. Consequently, a program was implemented to replace insulators liable to similar failure. For the July 2015 disruption, LTA imposed a higher penalty of S$5.4 million on SMRT.
On 22 March 2016, a fatal accident occurred off Pasir Ris MRT station. Two of SMRT's track-maintenance trainee staff were lethally run over by an approaching C151 at a signalling box of the station. They were part of a technical team of 15 staff led by a supervisor and were asked to go down to the tracks to investigate an alarm triggered by a possible signalling equipment fault close by Pasir Ris station. The operator said the team had permission to access the tracks, but did not coordinate with a signal unit in the Pasir Ris station control to ensure train captains in the area where the team was exercised caution while pulling into Pasir Ris station. This incident resulted in a 2.5 hour service delay between Tanah Merah and Pasir Ris Stations, affecting at least 10,000 commuters.
Impact and criticism
While Singaporeans began to notice some issues with the MRT system in terms of overcrowding, the December 2011 disruptions brought the state of public transportation as a whole to national and international prominence. LTA also noted a marked increase in dissatisfaction with public transport with the release of the 2012 Public Transport Customer Satisfaction Survey, and promised government action to deal with issues relating to MRT and LRT disruptions.
The government reviewed the penalties for train disruptions, and made travel free available for all bus services passing MRT stations affected during any train disruptions. Exits were also made free.
To increase satisfaction with the public transport, free morning off-peak travel was introduced while improvements are ongoing.
Despite efforts to step up maintenance efforts, on 7 October 2017, a poorly maintained float and pump system at Bishan station caused a tunnel flood from a torrential rainstorm. It was the worst train disruption since 2011 and the first ever flooding incident in MRT history that lasted almost a day, disrupting services underground. This also resulted in further loss of public confidence and a huge debate among netizens and Singaporeans about the “high rankings” that manage the system, with calls being made for the resignation of Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan. Urban transport expert Dr Park Byung Joon has said that the negligence displayed by SMRT in this regard is tantamount to a criminal offence, after an internal investigation found that the maintenance crew of the Bishan Station's pump system had submitted maintenance records for nearly a year without actually carrying out the works.
Security concerns related to crime and terrorism were not high on the agenda of the system's planners at its inception. After the Madrid train bombings in 2004 and the foiled plot to bomb the Yishun MRT station in 2001, the operators deployed private, unarmed guards to patrol station platforms and conduct checks on the belongings of commuters, especially those carrying bulky items.
Recorded announcements are frequently made to remind passengers to report suspicious activity and not to leave their belongings unattended. Digital closed-circuit cameras (CCTVs) have been upgraded with recording-capability at all stations and trains operated by SMRT Corporation. Trash bins and mail boxes have been removed from station platforms and concourse levels to station entrances, to eliminate the risk of bombs planted in them. Photography without permission was also banned in all MRT stations since the Madrid bombings, but it was not in the official statement in any public transport security reviews.
On 14 April 2005 the Singapore Police Force announced plans to step up rail security by establishing a specialised security unit for public transport, the unit today is known as the Public Transport Security Command or more commonly known as TRANSCOM. These armed officers began overt patrols on the MRT and LRT systems on 15 August 2005, conducting random patrols in pairs in and around rail stations and within trains. They are trained and authorised to use their firearms at their discretion, including deadly force if deemed necessary. On 8 January 2006, a major civil exercise involving over 2,000 personnel from 22 government agencies, codenamed Exercise Northstar V, simulating bombing and chemical attacks at Dhoby Ghaut, Toa Payoh, Raffles Place and Marina Bay MRT stations was conducted. Thirteen stations were closed and about 3,400 commuters were affected during the three-hour exercise.
Security concerns were brought up by the public when two incidents of vandalism at train depots occurred within two years. In both incidents, graffiti on the affected trains was discovered after they entered revenue service. The first incident, on 17 May 2010, involved a breach in the perimeter fence of Changi Depot and resulted in the imprisonment and caning of a Swiss citizen, and an Interpol arrest warrant for his accomplice. The train involved was set 047/048, a C151 train. SMRT Corporation received a S$50,000 fine by the Land Transport Authority for the first security breach. Measures were put in place by the Public Transport Security Committee to enhance depot security in light of the first incident, but works were yet to be completed by SMRT Corporation when the second incident, on 17 August 2011, occurred at Bishan Depot.
On 22 November 2012, the Land Transport Authority carried out a ground deployment exercise with SMRT to test their incident management plans in the event of a train service disruption. In total, about 135 personnel including representatives from the Singapore Police Force's Transport Command (TransCom) and SBS Transit participated in the exercise. Train service continued as per normal and commuters were not affected by the exercise. Codenamed 'Exercise Greyhound', the exercise went through the scenario of a broken rail on the East West line at Buona Vista. SMRT had also activated their Rail Incident Management Plan.
On 22 August 2013, ‘Exercise Greyhound 2013’ was carried out by the Land Transport Authority with SBS Transit to validate the procedures of SBST’s Operations Control Centre (OCC) and the workability of its contingency plans for bus bridging, free bus service and deployment of Goodwill Ambassadors (GAs) during a simulated prolonged train service disruption. About 300 personnel including representatives from LTA, SBST, SMRT, the Singapore Police Force’s Transport Command (TransCom), Traffic Police and Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) participated in the exercise. Train service continued as per normal and commuters were not affected by the exercise.
- List of Singapore MRT stations
- Light Rail Transit (Singapore)
- Transport in Singapore
- List of metro systems
- Medium-capacity rail transport system
- Rail transport in Singapore
- Joo Koon will temporarily be the western terminus of the EWL. When upgrading works are finished in 2018, the direct rail link to Tuas West of the EWL will be restored.
- Excluding Bukit Brown MRT Station, which is not in operation
- Excluding duplicating interchange stations.
- Fixed Block = Conventional Fixed Block using Line of Sight. Fixed Block-Speed Coded = Fixed Block using Coded Track Circuits. DTG-TC = Fixed Block-Distance to Go using Track Circuits. DTG-R = Fixed-Block-Distance-to-Go using Radio. Moving Block TBTC = Moving Block using Induction Loops. Moving Block CBTC = Moving Block using Radio.
- UTO = Unattended Train Operation. DTO = Driverless Train Operation. STO = Semi-automated Operation Mode
- "Bus, rail ridership soars to new high". Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "Bus and train ridership hits new high". Straits Times. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Réseau express métropolitain". CDPQ Infra. 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
- Briginshaw, David. "Automated metros set to reach 2200km by 2025". Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, p. 8.
- Seah C. M. (1981). Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 293.
- Sharp 2005, p. 66
- Fwa Tien Fang (4 September 2004). "Sustainable Urban Transportation Planning and Development — Issues and Challenges for Singapore". Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore. CiteSeerX .
- "1982 – The Year Work Began". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Lee Siew Hoon & Chandra Mohan. "In Memoriam — Ong Teng Cheong: A Profile". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Archived from the original on 2002-02-23. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Annual report 1984. Singapore: Mass Rapid Transit Corporation. 1084. p. 5.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 10.
- Sharp 2005, p. 109.
- Lim Seng Tiong (11 February 1996). "Bukit Panjang to get S'pore's first light rail train". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 1.
- Sharp 2005, p. 122.
- Karamjit Kaur (26 July 1999). "Bukit Panjang LRT to begin operating on Nov 6". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 3.
- Karamjit Kaur (9 February 2002). "Next stop: Changi Airport; New MRT station at airport opens. With wider fare gates and a futuristic design, it promises to be a hit with commuters". The Straits Times. p. 3.
- "All aboard at 'white elephant' station". The Straits Times. 16 January 2006. p. 3.
- Hasnita A Majid (28 August 2005). "Residents bring up 'white elephant' Buangkok MRT during minister's visit". Channel NewsAsia / SafeTrolley.
- Yvonne Cheong (12 November 2005). "Grassroots leaders plan celebration for Buangkok MRT station opening". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
- "SBS Transit Opens Woodleigh and Damai Stations". sbstransit.com.sg. SBS Transit. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
Woodleigh, the last unopened station along the North East Line, will begin revenue service on Monday, 20 June 2011...
- Yeo Ghim Lay; Goh Yi Han (28 February 2009). "Boon for Boon Lay". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 32.
- Cheryl Lim (21 February 2009). "Boon Lay MRT extension offers shorter journey times". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012.
- "Projects – Downtown Line – Stages". Land Transport Authority. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Downtown Line Stage 1 officially opened by PM Lee". The Straits Times. Singapore. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "DTL2 is a key step towards a car-lite Singapore, says PM Lee as he opens the new line". The Straits Times. Singapore. 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Tuas West Extension Opens On 18 June 2017". lta.gov.sg. Land Transport Authority. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
... the new 7.5km Tuas West Extension (TWE) begins operations on 18 June 2017.
- "Downtown Line 3 officially opens; Khaw Boon Wan announces review of fares incurred when switching between stationsA". The Straits Times. 20 October 2017.
- "North-South Line". Land Transport Authority. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "East-West Line". Land Transport Authority. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Our Business". SMRT Corporation. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Overview – North East Line". SBS Transit. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 14
- "Civil Defence Shelter Programme". Singapore Civil Defence Force. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
- Kwan Cheng Fai (April 1987). Architecture of Singapore MRT Underground Stations Concept Layout and Planning. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 29–33.
- Eoin Licken (1 July 1999). "New Frontier for Mobile-Phone Operators Lies Underground". The New York Times.
- Pang Kia Seng; Michael T W Grant; Tom Curley; Scott Danielson (April 1987). Architectural Aspects of Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit Elevated Stations. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 13–27.
- Geraldine Yeo (8 February 1996). "MRT shops: What works and why". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 43.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore, Trackline Volume 4 No. 5 (October 1987), "A safe railway for all", pp. 4–5.
- Ing D Herrmann (April 1987). Heavy Duty Escalators and Their Special Features for MRT. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 341–350.
- Toh Su Fen (Land Transport Authority) (2 July 1998). "Public transport can't cater to all disabled (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 49. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006.
- Sharp 2005, pp. 176–179.
- Asha Popatlal (12 March 2004). "Tactile tiles to help blind navigate Singapore's MRT stations". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 17 March 2004.
- Land Transport Authority et al., Journeys Issue 42 (Jan/Feb 2003), "Get a Lift-up!", p. 10.
- "COS 2012: Land Transport Updates" (Press release). Ministry Of Transport. 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.
- "Train, bus runs". The Straits Times. Singapore. 24 December 2007. p. 18.
- "Hyogo Works History". Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Archived from the original on 18 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 15.
- Chris Sherwell (12 April 1984). "Kawasaki wins major Singapore metro contract". Financial Times. London. p. 1.
- "References — Metro System, MRTC, Six-Car Units, Singapore". Siemens AG. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
- "Improved MRT train for a better ride arrives". The Straits Times. Singapore. 21 September 1994. p. 3.
- Singapore, National Library Board,. "Woodlands MRT line | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
- "Soon, a shorter wait for MRT trains". The Straits Times. Singapore. 9 May 2000. p. 31.
- "Both orders for Singapore Subway Train 132 LTA" (Press release). 29 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "LTA awards $368m train supply job". The Business Times. Singapore. 7 May 2009.
- "AWARD OF CONTRACT 151A; 22 NEW TRAINS FOR NORTH-SOUTH / EAST-WEST LINES". 6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- "Trains for North-South/East-West Lines and Tuas West Extension". Land Transport Authority. 28 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013.
- hermesauto (2018-08-13). "12 new MRT trains to be put into service on North-South, East-West lines; first 6 trains by September". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- "12 More Trains to Boost Capacity of North-South and East-West Lines". Land Transport Authority. 22 September 2015.
- Tan, Christopher (22 September 2015). "Kawasaki clinches contract for final batch of new MRT trains". Straits Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Land Transport Authority – We Keep Your World Moving". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- "New fleet to replace 66 oldest MRT trains from 2021". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
- "Alstom to supply 34 Metropolis trains and signaling upgrade to Singapore metro" (Press release). Paris: Alstom. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Xavier Champaud (24 October 2005). "CCL — The Longest Automatic Metro Line In The World" (PDF). IRSE Technical Convention, Singapore: Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, Singapore: 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- "Award of Electrical and Mechanical Systems Contract 830 for the Marina Line" (Press release). Land Transport Authority. 28 December 2000. Archived from the original on 11 August 2003. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "LTA and SMRT Award Contracts for New Trains and Re-Signalling Project". Land Transport Authority. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Tender information | Land Transport Authority". www.lta.gov.sg. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
- "Shorter Waiting Time With 15 More Trains For Downtown Line". Land Transport Authority. 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "First Downtown Line train lands in Singapore". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "LTA Awards 6 Downtown Line Contracts Totalling $1.13 Billion". Land Transport Authority. 7 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- "Contract T251". Land Transport Authority. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
- "Train and System Information (Trains)". SMRT Corporation. Archived from the original (Archive) on 1 April 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- I J Mortimer & M Ishizuka (April 1987). Mechanical Features of Singapore MRT Rolling Stock. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 411–419.
- Ching Li Tor (4 May 2005). "Fair grounds for fare hikes?". Today. Singapore.
- T. Rajan (5 November 2006). "MRT trains get $145m overhaul". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 1.
- Karamjit Kaur (20 November 2002). "Driverless MRT trains on new line will be safe; The North-East MRT line will have safety features like CCTVs and smoke detectors to protect commuters, says LTA". The Straits Times. p. 10.
- Land Transport Authority et al., Journeys Issue 42 (Jan/Feb 2003), "Safe, Sound and Fully Automated", pp. 8–9.
- "Commencement of revenue service at Changi Airport Station" (PDF) (Press release). SMRT Corporation. 6 February 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008.
- "Board MRT to airport from Tanah Merah". The Straits Times. 18 July 2003. p. 2.
- Karamjit Kaur; Shahida Ariff (24 April 2002). "MRT slow-down as trains are taken off for checks; SMRT pulls out 21 trains after detecting gear fault; longer wait for commuters, direct service to Changi Airport affected". The Straits Times. p. 6.
- "Joint Team on Track to Meet COI Recommendations to Improve Rail Reliability". Land Transport Authority. 14 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Live testing of East-West Line signalling system likely to take place every day in June".
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 46.
- B B Broms & J N Shirlaw (April 1987). Depot Sites. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 71–77'.
- "COS 2012: Land Transport Updates" (Press release). Ministry of Transport. 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.
- "Room to develop at new Circle MRT Line depot". The Straits Times. 28 October 2003. p. 116.
- Royston Sim & Maria Almenoar (14 August 2012). "New MRT line in east by 2020; will have 10 stops". The Straits Times. Singapore.
- "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority & Singapore Land Authority – Thomson-East Coast Links". Land Transport Authority. 15 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
- "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) & SLA - Jurong Region Line: Enhancing Connectivity in the West". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "早上尖峰时段公交乘客比率提高". 联合早报 (in Chinese). 17 June 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- "Raffles Country Club to make way for KL-Singapore high-speed rail". Channel NewsAsia. 4 January 2017.
- Audrey Teo-Loh & Patrick de Labrusse (April 1987). Orchard Station Architectural Works. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 53–63'.
- Khaw Boon Wan (6 June 2003). "Speech at Launch of Art In Transit" (Press release). Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. Archived from the original on 29 November 2007.
- Naidu Ratnala Thulaja. "Woodlands MRT Station". National Library Board Infopedia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "Art in Transit brochure" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
- Adeline Chia (21 August 2008). "Draw the Line; Stop and look before you go as the new $6.7-billion MRT line will be a charmed circle of art and design". The Straits Times. p. 50.
- Karamjit Kaur (11 February 1998). "Changi Airport MRT station designed for travellers". The Straits Times. p. 1.
- "EXPO Station, Singapore, 1997–2000". Foster and Partners. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
- "15 of the Most Beautiful Subway Stops in the World, BootsnAll Travel Guide".
- "Bras Basah Mass Rapid Transit Station". World Buildings Directory. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012.
- Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, pp. 44–47
- "Other Rail Projects". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 13 December 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
- "Land Transport Masterplan" (PDF).
- "More new MRT lines to be built by 2030". The Straits Times. January 17, 2013.
- "Canberra Station". Land Transport Authority.
- "Projects – Thomson Line". Land Transport Authority of Singapore. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Circle line 6". Land Transport Authority.
- "TWO NEW RAIL LINES AND THREE NEW EXTENSIONS TO EXPAND RAIL NETWORK BY 2030". Land Transport Authority. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.
- "Jurong Region Line, Singapore's 7th MRT line, to open in phases from 2026". Channel NewsAsia. 9 May 2018.
- "Two New Rail Lines And Three New Extensions To Expand Rail Network By 2030". Land Transport Authority. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "New MRT station for North-South Line: Canberra". The Straits Times. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "New Addition to North-South Line: Canberra Station". Land Transport Authority. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "WORK STARTS FOR CANBERRA MRT STATION ON NORTH-SOUTH LINE". LTA. 26 March 2016. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- "Work starts on Canberra MRT station". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
- "Canberra Station | Projects | Public Transport | Land Transport Authority". www.lta.gov.sg. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
- "Canberra MRT station on track to open by December next year". Channel NewsAsia. 9 May 2018.
- Asha Popatlal (5 November 2006). "MRT feasibility studies underway for Downtown Line". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008.
- Sim, Royston (7 October 2013). "Land Transport Masterplan: Downtown Line Stage 1 to open on Dec 22". The Straits Times. Singapore. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "The Rail Report: 12 Stations of Downtown Line 2 to Open on 27 December". Land Transport Authority. 6 August 2015.
- "Speech by Mr Raymond Lim, Minister for Transport, at the Visit to Kim Chuan Depot, 25 January 2008, 9.00am" (Press release). Ministry of Transport. 25 January 2008.
- Dominique Loh (27 April 2007). "Govt approves S$12b MRT Downtown Line to be built by 2018". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012.
- Christoper Tan (28 April 2007). "33-station Downtown Line gets go-ahead, will be ready by 2018". The Straits Times. p. 1.
- Imelda Saad (15 July 2008). "Downtown Line Stage 2 to have 12 stations". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.
- "Downtown Line 2 to open ahead of schedule in December: Transport Minister Lui". Channel NewsAsia. 28 June 2015.
- "Speech by Mrs Josephine Teo, Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transport, at DTL3 Tunnelling Works Ceremony". Ministry of Transport. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Speech by Mr Lui Tuck Yew, Minister for Transport, at the Inspection of Downtown Line 1 Station and Announcement of Thomson Line alignment, 29 August 2012, 10.00am at Telok Ayer Station". Ministry of Transport. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Singapore aims for fully cashless transport system by 2020: LTA". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
- "Thomson-East Coast Line, East Coast Stretch". 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "Jurong Region Line, Singapore's 7th MRT line, to open in phases from 2026". Channel NewsAsia. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Jurong line may be extended to link with Circle Line". todayonline.com. 2015-08-25. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- "New train station in Punggol North by 2023". Channel NewsAsia. 7 June 2017.
- "North-East Line extension to open in 2023 instead of 2030; to cater to developments in the Punggol area". The Straits Times. 7 June 2017.
- "North-East Line extension serving Punggol North to open in 2023 instead of 2030, to cater to developments in the Punggol North area". The Straits Times. June 7, 2017.
- R C Longden & E W Finch (April 1987). Automatic Fare Collection — Serving the Commuter. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 319–324.
- Sharp 2005, pp. 113–115.
- Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, pp. 58–59.
- "Tricky balance in fare changes". The Straits Times. 17 September 2007. p. 21.
- Yvonne Cheong (14 April 2005). "Public transport fare hike not justified as SMRT still profitable: CASE". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
- Christopher Tan (13 September 2008). "Bus and MRT fares to go up from Oct 1". The Straits Times. p. 1.
- "No Revision To Bus And Train Fares, And New NEL Fare Structure Approved" (Press release). Public Transport Council. 8 May 2003.
- "PTC to review fares incurred when switching between MRT stations, says Khaw". Channel NewsAsia. 22 October 2017.
- Koh, Valerie (20 October 2017). "Review underway to address additional fares when switching between MRT lines: Khaw". TODAY Online.
- Maria Almenoar (9 January 2009). "Free replacement exercise on till Sept 30". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
- Imelda Saad (26 August 2008). "New e-payment system and next generation card for public transport". Channel NewsAsia.
- Maria Almenoar (13 December 2007). "New unlimited travel pass for visitors". The Straits Times. p. 35.
- Tammy Tan (SBS Transit) (24 December 2005). "Measures in place to ensure safe ride on NEL (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. p. 12.
- Y C Siew & J P Copsey (April 1987). Singapore Mass Rapid Transit System Design for Fire and Emergency. MRTC & IES 1987, pp. 131–139.
- "Safety at MRT and LRT Stations — Respect The Yellow Line" (Press release). Land Transport Authority. 20 November 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
- "Platform screen doors for all above-ground MRT stations by 2012". The Straits Times. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 January 2008.
- Yeo Ghim Lay (3 September 2008). "Platform doors for elevated MRT stations". The Straits Times. p. 26.
- "LTA Completes Installation of Half Height Platform Screen Doors". Land Transport Authority. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Rapid Transit Systems Act (Chapter 263A, Section 42)". Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
- Teh Jen Lee (27 July 2009). "Fine for eating sweets too strict?". The New Paper. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- Matthew Pereira; Branden Pereira (6 August 1993). "MRT Trains collide at Clementi: 132 hurt". The Straits Times. pp. 1 & 25.
- A. M. Puzrin, E. E. Alonso, N. M. Pinyol (2010). "Braced Excavation Collapse: Nicoll Highway, Singapore". Geomechanics of Failures. Springer: 151–181. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3531-8_6. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "MRT train collides with stationary train at Joo Koon station; 29 people hurt". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- "Joo Koon train collision: Total number of injured rises to 38". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
- "Ex-SMRT engineer speaks out about the frequent breakdowns". 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Hetty Musfirah & Abdul Khamid (10 July 2012). "Govt shares some blame for Dec's MRT breakdowns: Lui". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "SMRT to be Fined $2 million for December 2011 Train Service Disruptions along the North South Line". Land Transport Authority. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012.
- "SMRT chief executive resigns". Asiaone. SPH. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "Singapore's subway suffers massive breakdown in rush hour". Reuters. 7 July 2015.
- "Massive SMRT disruption due to leak on rail insulator". The Star (Malaysia). 30 July 2015.
- "SMRT to be fined a record S$5.4m for July 7 MRT breakdown". Channel NewsAsia. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Seow Bei Yi; Lim, Adrian; Driscoll, Shea (23 March 2016). "SMRT accident: 2 men were part of group of 15 led by supervisor and walking facing oncoming train". The Straits Times. Singapore.
- "SMRT acknowledges safety procedure not followed before fatal accident". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 23 March 2016.
- "2 SMRT staff dead in accident near Pasir Ris station". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Sim, Royston (3 May 2014). "On track to solve pub lic transport woes?" (PDF). Straits Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Public Transport Overall Satisfaction Dips in 2012; Measures to Address Areas of Dissatisfaction will be Taken". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Free bus services during extended MRT disruption". Ministry of Transport Singapore. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Flooded tunnel causes disruption". TodayOnline. 8 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Citizens take issues with Transport Minister's statement on maintenance lapses of SMRT". The Online Citizen. Neyla Zannia. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "Negligence by SMRT crew tantamount to criminal offence, analyst says". TodayOnline. MediaCorp. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- López, M.J.J. (1996), Den Haag: RCM-advies, "Crime Prevention Guidelines for the Construction & Management of Metro Systems", pp. 35–39.
- "The Link of the Yishun Videotape" (Press release). Minister for Home Affairs (Singapore). 24 January 2002. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- Goh Chin Lian (1 June 2004). "Security guards start MRT patrols". The Straits Times. p. 4.
- Johnson Choo (7 August 2004). "CCTVs at 35 elevated MRT stations to have recording capability by Oct 2004". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 13 November 2004.
- Goh Chin Lian (6 June 2006). "Buses, trains get security cameras". The Straits Times. p. 5.
- Goh Chin Lian (13 May 2005). "Postboxes moved out of MRT, LRT stations". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 5.
- Karen Chow (SMRT Corporation) (4 September 2007). "Why no photos at MRT stations... (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. p. 29.
- Dominique Loh (2 May 2005). "MRT stations to have armed police officers on patrol". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
- Khushwant Singh; Asad Latif (16 August 2005). "Armed police patrol trains". The Straits Times. p. 1.
- Johnson Choo (15 August 2005). "Special armed police unit begins MRT patrols". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
- "Singapore holds largest-ever terror attack response drill". Channel NewsAsia. 8 January 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2006.
- Joy Fang (19 August 2011). "MRT graffiti read: 'Jet Setter's'". my paper. Singapore.
- "MRT train vandalised at Bishan depot". AsiaOne. Singapore. 17 August 2011.
- Imelda Saad (8 June 2010). "SMRT says staff mistook graffiti on train for advert". Channel NewsAsia.
- Evelyn Choo (14 February 2011). "SMRT given maximum fine". Channel NewsAsia.
- "GROUND DEPLOYMENT EXERCISE TO IMPROVE MRT INCIDENT MANAGEMENT". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014.
- "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority & SBST – Ground Deployment Exercise to Improve Incident Management". Land Transport Authority. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Sock, Y.P. & Walder, Jay H. (1999). Singapore's Public Transport.
Corporate and governmental sources
- Sharp, Ilsa (2005). The Journey — Singapore's Land Transport Story. SNP:Editions. ISBN 981-248-101-X.
- Land Transport Authority, Singapore (2 January 1996). A World Class Land Transport System — White Paper presented to Parliament. ISBN 9971-88-488-7.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1993). Stored Value — A Decade of the MRTC. ISBN 981-00-5034-8.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1988). The MRT Story. ISBN 981-00-0251-3.
- Singapore MRT Limited (1987). MRT Guide Book. ISBN 981-00-0150-9.
- Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC) and Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES) (1987). Mass Rapid Transit System : Proceedings of the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Conference, Singapore 6–9 April 1987. ISBN 9971-84-636-5.
|Library resources about |
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)