List of mass spectrometry software

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Mass spectrometry software is software used for data acquisition, analysis, or representation in mass spectrometry.

Proteomics software[edit]

In protein mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry (also known as MS/MS or MS2) experiments are used for protein/peptide identification. Peptide identification algorithms fall into two broad classes: database search and de novo search. The former search takes place against a database containing all amino acid sequences assumed to be present in the analyzed sample, whereas the latter infers peptide sequences without knowledge of genomic data.

Database search algorithms[edit]

Name Type Description Link
Andromeda (part of MaxQuant) freeware Andromeda is a peptide search engine based on probabilistic scoring. On proteome data, Andromeda performs as well as Mascot, a widely used commercial search engine, as judged by sensitivity and specificity analysis based on target decoy searches. It can handle data with arbitrarily high fragment mass accuracy, it is able to assign and score complex patterns of post-translational modifications, such as highly phosphorylated peptides, and accommodates extremely large databases. Andromeda can function independently or integrated into MaxQuant. This combination enables analysis of large datasets on a desktop computer. Identification of co-fragmented peptides improves the number of identified peptides. Developed by Jürgen Cox and others at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry [1] download
Byonic proprietary Database search algorithm released in 2011 by Protein Metrics Inc. with original developments at PARC[1] that searches MS/MS data from all types of instruments and internally employs the program Combyne,[2] which combines peptide identifications to produce protein scores and identification probabilities. server
Comet open source Database search algorithm developed at the University of Washington available for Windows and Linux. Note that Comet is just a single command line binary that does MS/MS database search. It takes in spectra in some supported input format and writes out .pep.xml, .pin.xml, .sqt and/or .out files. You will need some other support tool(s) to actually make use of Comet results (A GUI for Windows only is available [2]). [3] download
Tide (rewrite of Crux) open source Tide is a tool for identifying peptides from tandem mass spectra. It is an independent reimplementation of the SEQUEST algorithm, which identifies peptides by comparing the observed spectra to a catalog of theoretical spectra derived in silico from a database of known proteins. The immediate ancestor of Tide is Crux, but Tide has been completely re-engineered to achieve a thousandfold improvement in speed while exactly replicating SEQUEST XCorr scores. Developed at the University of Washington. [4] download
Greylag open source Database search algorithm developed at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research designed to perform large searches on computational clusters having hundreds of nodes. server
InsPecT open source A MS-alignment search algorithm available at the Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry at the University of California, San Diego[3] download
Mascot proprietary Performs mass spectrometry data analysis through a statistical evaluation of matches between observed and projected peptide fragments.[4]
MassMatrix freeware MassMatrix is a database search algorithm for tandem mass spectrometric data. It uses a mass accuracy sensitive probabilistic scoring model to rank peptide and protein matches. download
MassWiz open source Search algorithm developed at Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology available as a windows commandline tool. download, server
MS Amanda freeware Search algorithm developed at Institute of molecular biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA) available for Windows, Linux and MacOS. download
MS-GF + open source MS-GF+ (aka MSGF+ or MSGFPlus) performs peptide identification by scoring MS/MS spectra against peptides derived from a protein sequence database. It supports the HUPO PSI standard input file (mzML) and saves results in the mzIdentML format, though results can easily be transformed to TSV. ProteomeXchange supports Complete data submissions using MS-GF+ search results. Developed at Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry at the University of California, San Diego, with later work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) source, download
MyriMatch open source Database search program developed at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center designed to run in a single-computer environment or across an entire cluster of processing nodes.[5] download (select BumberShoot)
OMSSA freeware The Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA) is an efficient search engine for identifying MS/MS peptide spectra by searching libraries of known protein sequences. OMSSA scores significant hits with a probability score developed using classical hypothesis testing, the same statistical method used in BLAST. It is developed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.[6][7] download
PEAKS DB proprietary Database search engine, run in parallel with de novo sequencing to automatically validate search results, allowing for a higher number of found sequences for a given false discovery rate. In addition to providing an independent database search, results can be incorporated as part of the software’s multi-engine (Sequest, Mascot, X!Tandem, OMSSA, PEAKS DB) consensus reporting tool, inChorus.[8] The tool also provides a list of sequences identified exclusively by de novo sequencing.


pFind freeware pFind Studio is a computational solution for mass spectrometry-based proteomics, it germinated in 2002 in Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. download
Phenyx proprietary Developed by Geneva Bioinformatics (GeneBio) in collaboration with the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB). Phenyx incorporates OLAV, a family of statistical scoring models, to generate and optimize scoring schemes that can be tailored for all kinds of instruments, instrumental set-ups and general sample treatments.[9]
ProbID open source PI is a powerful suite on analysis of tandem mass spectrum. ProbID seeks to fill the need for the deep analysis of tandem mass spectrum, including the fragmentation rules, preference of cleavage, neutral losses, etc. Developed at the Bioinformatics Group, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. [5] download
ProteinPilot Software proprietary Uses Paragon database search algorithm that combines the generation of short sequence tags (‘taglets’) for computation of sequence temperature values and estimates of feature probabilities to enable the peptide identification considering hundreds of modifications, non-tryptic cleavages and amino acid substitutions. Uses the Pro Group Algorithm for protein inference analysis to report the minimal set of proteins justified based on the peptide evidence. Supports quantification for label-based workflows (iTRAQ reagents, mTRAQ reagents and SILAC labeling). A translation layer translates user interface controls in the language of the proteomics experimental scientist to underlying complex informatics parameters.[10] pate/content/6/9/1638.short


Protein Prospector open source Protein Prospector is a package of about twenty proteomic analysis tools developed at the University of California San Francisco. The tandem mass spectrometry searching software is Batch-Tag / Batch-Tag Web, with the results processed and displayed using Search Compare. It uses scoring systems tailored to instrument and fragmentation mode to optimize analysis of different types of fragmentation data. server, source
RAId lost Developed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Robust Accurate Identification (RAId)[11] is a suite of proteomics tools for analyzing tandem mass spectrometry data with accurate statistics.[12]
SEQUEST proprietary Identifies collections of tandem mass spectra to peptide sequences that have been generated from databases of protein sequences.[13]
SIMS open source SIMS (Sequential Interval Motif Search) is a software tool design to perform unrestrictive PTM search over tandem mass spectra; users do not have to characterize the potential PTMs. Instead, users only need to specify the range of modification mass for each individual amino acid. [6] server
SimTandem freeware A database search engine for identification of peptide sequences from LC/MS/MS data; the engine can be used as an external tool in OpenMS/TOPP.[14] download
SQID open source SeQuence IDentification (SQID) is an intensity-incorporated protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry. download
X!Tandem open source Matches tandem mass spectra with peptide sequences. server

De novo sequencing algorithms[edit]

De novo peptide sequencing algorithms are based, in general, on the approach proposed in Bartels et al. (1990).[15]

Name Type Description Link
CycloBranch open source A stand-alone, cross-platform and open-source de novo engine for identification of nonribosomal peptides (linear, cyclic, branched and branch-cyclic) from accurate product ion spectra.[16] download
DeNovoX proprietary De novo sequencing on CID spectra acquired with ion trap mass spectrometers delivering complete and/or partial peptide sequences (sequence tags).[17] buy
DeNoS Sequencing of peptides using all information from CAD and ECD spectra; part of the software tool Proteinmatching Analysis Software (PAS) which in turn is part of the software package Medicwave Bioinformatics Suite (MBS).[18] server[dead link]
Lutefisk open source Software for the de novo interpretation of peptide CID spectra. server
Novor proprietary, free for academic research Real-time de novo peptide sequencing engine that is fast, accurate and easy to be integrated into research pipelines. Novor can de novo sequence more than 300 MS/MS spectra per second on a Macbook Pro laptop computer.[19] download
PEAKS proprietary De novo sequencing for each peptide, confidence scores on individual amino acid assignments with manually assisted modeand automated de novo sequencing on an entire LC run processed data faster than 1 spectrum per second.[20][21] Free trial
Supernovo proprietary A unique, hands-free solution for end-to-end de novo sequencing of monoclonal antibodies server

Homology searching algorithms[edit]

Name Type Description Link
MS-Homology open source MS-Homology is a database search program within the Protein Prospector package that permits searching with strings that combine masses and amino acid stretches, where one can specify the number of amino acid mismatches allowed. server
SPIDER proprietary The SPIDER algorithm matches sequence tags with errors to database sequences for the purpose of protein and peptide identification and can be used in conjunction with PEAKS mass spectrometry data analysis software. server

MS/MS peptide quantification[edit]

Name Type Description Link
MarkerView Software proprietary Commercial software for statistical analysis for quantitative mass spec data sets from metabolomics and proteomic profiling applications. download
MassChroQ open source Peptide quantification analysis of label free or various isotopic labeling methods (SILAC, ICAT, N-15, C-13 …), works with high and low resolution spectrometer systems, supports complex data treatments as peptide or protein fractionation prior to LC-MS analysis (SCX, SDS-PAGE, etc.). server, download
MaxQuant freeware Quantitative proteomics software developed by Jürgen Cox and others at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany written in C# that allows the analysis of label free and SILAC based proteomics experiments. download
MultiQuant Software proprietary Can process quantitative data sets from TripleTOF or QTRAP systems, including MRM and SWATH Acquisition. download
OpenMS / TOPP open source Software C++ library for LC-MS/MS data management and analysis that offers an infrastructure for the development of mass spectrometry related software. Allows peptide and metabolite quantification, supporting label-free and isotopic-label based quantification (such as iTRAQ and TMT and SILAC) as well as targeted SWATH-MS quantification.[22] server, download
ProtMax freeware ProtMAX[23] is a software tool for analyzing shotgun proteomics mass spectrometry data sets, developed by Volker Egelhofer at the University of Vienna. download
Spectronaut proprietary Commercial software for quantitative proteomics developed by Biognosys AG (Schlieren, Switzerland) based on the mProphet algorithm[24] that allows the targeted analysis of data independent acquisition (DIA) data sets for label-free peptide quantitation, also called SWATH acquisition.[25] website
Skyline open source Open source (Apache 2.0) Windows client software developed in the MacCoss lab at University of Washington[26] that supports building Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) / Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM - Targeted MS/MS), Data Independent Acquisition (DIA/SWATH) and targeted DDA with MS1 quantitative methods and analyzing the resulting mass spectrometer data. download, source
SWATH Software 2.0 proprietary Commercial software processing tool within PeakView that allows targeted data processing of SWATH acquisition data. Using a protein/peptide ion library, fragment ion extracted ion chromatograms (XICs) are generated, scored and quantified for peptides from the library. After false discovery rate analysis (FDR), results are filtered and quantitative peptide/protein data can be exported for statistical analysis. website
BACIQ open source BACIQ is a mathematically rigorous approach that integrates peptide intensities and peptide-measurement agreement into confidence intervals for protein ratios (BACIQ). The main advantages of BACIQ are: 1) it removes the need to threshold reported peptide signal based on an arbitrary cut-off, thereby reporting more measurements from a given experiment; 2) confidence can be assigned without replicates; 3) for repeated experiments BACIQ provides confidence intervals for the union, not the intersection, of quantified proteins; 4) for repeated experiments, BACIQ confidence intervals are more predictive than confidence intervals based on protein measurement agreement. website

Other software[edit]

Name Type Description Link
Advanced Chemistry Development proprietary Commercial solutions for the interpretation of MS and xC/MS data with spectrum/structure matching, identification of known and unknown metabolites, as well as for the identification of compounds through spectral comparison.
Analyst proprietary Software by AB Sciex, a division of The Danaher Corporation.
AnalyzerPro proprietary A vendor independent software application for processing mass spectrometry data that can analyze both GC-MS and LC-MS data using both qualitative and quantitative data processing and is used for metabolomics data processing using MatrixAnalyzer for the comparison of multiple data sets.
Chromeleon proprietary Software by Thermo Fisher Scientific used with mass spectrometry instruments, as well as chromatography instruments.
DeNovoGUI open source Software with a graphical user interface for running parallelized versions of the freely available de novo sequencing software tools Novor and PepNovo+. [7] website
Easotope open source Software for archiving, organizing, and analyzing mass spectrometer data. Currently oriented toward clumped CO2 analysis but also useful for bulk CO2 work and expandable to other isotopic systems. website
ESIprot Enables the charge state determination and molecular weight calculation for low resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) data of proteins.[27] server, online
KnowItAll Spectroscopy Software & Mass Spectral Library proprietary Software from Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. with solutions for mass spectrometry including: spectral analysis, database searching (spectrum, structure, peak, property, etc.), processing, database building (MS or multiple techniques including IR, Raman, NMR, UV, Chromatograms), spectral subtraction, plus tools for reporting and ChemWindow structure drawing. website
LabSolutions LCMS proprietary Software by Shimadzu Corporation used with mass spectrometry and HPLC instruments.
Mass++ open source Analysis software for mass spectrometry that can import and export files with open-formats (mzXML, mzML) and load some instrument vendor formats; users can develop and add original functions as Mass++ plug-ins. website website website hosted by the Institute for Advanced Biosciences, in Keio University, Tsuruoka City, Yamagata, Japan with mass spectrometric data for organic compounds. website website European MassBank server with mirrored mass spectral data from and special mass spectral data related to environmental organic compounds and pollutants. The website is provided by the NORMAN Network and hosted by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (Leipzig, Germany) website
MassBank open source MassBank and RMassBank development website provided by the MassBank consortium github
MassCenter proprietary Software by JEOL used with mass spectrometry instruments.
Mass Frontier proprietary Software by HighChem used for interpretation and management of mass spectra of small molecules. website
MassLynx proprietary Software by Waters Corporation.
Mass-Up open-source Utility for proteomics designed to support the preprocessing and analysis of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry data that loads data from mzML, mzXML and CSV files and allows users to apply baseline correction, normalization, smoothing, peak detection and peak matching.[28] download
massXpert open source GPL Graphical user interface-based (GUI) software for simulating and analyzing mass spectrometric data obtained on known bio-polymer sequences.[29] Successor to polyxmass. manual

source and executables

METLIN Database and Technology Platform proprietary Created in 2003, METLIN now includes over a million molecules ranging from lipids, steroids, plant & bacteria metabolites, small peptides, carbohydrates, exogenous drugs/metabolites, central carbon metabolites and toxicants. The metabolites and other small molecules have been individually analyzed to provide both empirical and in silico MS/MS data. website
mMass open source Multi-platform package of tools for mass spectrometric data analysis and interpretation written in Python. website
MolAna MolAna was developed by Phenomenome Discoveries Inc, (PDI) for use in IONICS Mass Spectrometry Group's 3Q Molecular Analyzer, Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer
ms2mz freeware Utility for converting between mass spectrometer file formats, e.g. to convert proprietary binary files to MGF peak list files to prepare files for upload to Proteome Cluster. website
MSGraph open source sourceforge
MSight freeware Software for mass spectrometry imaging developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.[30]
MSiReader freeware Vendor-neutral interface built on the Matlab platform designed to view and perform data analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data.[31] Matlab is not required to use MSiReader. download
mspire open-source Mass spectrometry informatics developers toolbox written in ruby that includes an mzML reader/writer, in-silico digestion and isotopic pattern calculation etc.; submodules such as mspire-lipidomics, mspire-sequest, and mspire-simulator extend the functionality.[32]
Multimaging Software for mass spectrometry imaging designed to normalize, validate and interpret MS images. website
multiMS-toolbox open source ms-alone and multiMS-toolbox is a tool chain for mass spectrometry data peak extraction and statistical analysis. website
mzCloud website Web-based mass spectral database that comprises a collection of high and low resolution tandem mass spectrometry data acquired under a number of experimental conditions. website
MZmine 2 open source An open-source software for mass-spectrometry data processing, with the main focus on LC-MS data. website
OmicsHub Proteomics OmicsHub Proteomics combines a LIMS for mass spec information management with data analysis functionalities on one platform.
OpenChrom open source Chromatography and mass spectrometry software that can be extended using plug-ins and is available for several operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X) and processor architectures (x86, x86_64, ppc). with converters for the native access of various data files, e.g. converters for mzXML, netCDF, Agilent, Finnigan and Varian file formats. website, sourceforge
PatternLab freeware Software for post-analysis of SEQUEST, ProLuCID or Comet database search results filtered by DTASelect or Census.[33] website
PeptideShaker open source PeptideShaker is a search engine independent platform for interpretation of proteomics identification results from multiple search engines, currently supporting X!Tandem, MS-GF+, MS Amanda, OMSSA, MyriMatch, Comet, Tide, Mascot, Andromeda and mzIdentML. By combining the results from multiple search engines, while re-calculating PTM localization scores and redoing the protein inference, PeptideShaker attempts to give you the best possible understanding of your proteomics data! [8] download
SIM-XL freeware Spectrum Identification Machine for Cross-linked Peptides (SIM-XL) is a fast and sensitive XL search engine which is part of the PatternLab for proteomics environment, to analyze tandem mass spectrometry data derived from cross-linked peptides.[34] website
Peacock open source Mac OS X application developed by Johan Kool that can be used to interpret gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) data files. Google Code
PeakInvestigator proprietary 3-4X effective resolution improvement in post-processing of raw profile data output from mass specs. Veritomyx advanced signal processing software for peak detection, deconvolution, and centroiding of raw profile mass spec data reveals multiple peaks hidden in overlapped data. Notable features: order-of-magnitude improvements in mass and abundance precision for deconvolved peaks; local dynamic baselining; advanced thresholding algorithm increases sensitivity across wide dynamic range; statistically-driven and completely automated (no user-to-user variation). More complete and precise resulting mass lists facilitate faster and cost-efficient subsequent determination of correct biomolecular identifications. website
Pinnacle Proprietary From comprehensive quantitation of 10,000s of proteins across of 100s of samples using DDA, DIA, PRM or SRM with fully integrated statistics and biological interpretation, to complete N-linked glycoprotein identification routine, to a very in-depth analysis in protein characterization, including peptide mapping, error tolerant search and disulfide analysis, all of this is available in a single software. Analyzing 100s of samples brings big challenges of LC and MS variation when run over months of acquisition, and the software can automatically correct for this. The visualization, editing and annotation capabilities can be tailored to be at the high level of proteins or at a much lower level of transitions or isotopes. website
PIQMIe web Proteomics Identifications/quantitations data management and integration service is a web-based tool that aids in reliable and scalable data management, analysis and visualization of semi-quantitative (SILAC) proteomics experiments.[35] websitedownload
POTAMOS open source Web application that provides calculated mass spectrometry data independently of instrumentation focused on a well known protein family of histones whose PTMs are believed to play a crucial role in gene regulation; calculates the kind, the number and the combinations of the possible PTMs corresponding to a given peptide sequence and a given mass. download
PROTRAWLER LC/MS data reduction application that reads raw mass spectrometry vendor data (from a variety of well-known instrument companies) and creates lists of {mass, retention time, integrated signal intensity} triplets summarizing the LC/MS chromatogram.
ProteoIQ proprietary Software for the post-analysis of Mascot, SEQUEST, or X!Tandem database search results.[36][37][38]
Proteomatic Freeware Data processing pipeline created for the purpose of evaluating mass spectrometric proteomics experiments.[39]
ProteomicsTools open source Software for the post-analysis of MASCOT, SEQUEST, Comet, XTandem, PFind, PeptidePhophet, MyriMatch, MSGF, OMSSA, MSAmanda or Percolator database search result.[40] GitHub
ProteoWizard open source Link library and tools that are a set of modular and extensible open-source, cross-platform tools and software libraries that facilitate proteomics data analysis. sourceforge
pymzML open source Python module to interface mzML data in Python based on cElementTree with additional tools for MS-informatics.[41] download
Pyteomics open source A Python framework for proteomics data analysis.[42] package, documentation
Quantinetix Software for mass spectrometry imaging designed to quantify and normalize MS images in various study types that is compatible with a variety of MSI instruments, including Bruker, Sciex, Thermo and with iMZML. server; website
Rational Numbers Excel Add-In proprietary De novo identification tool that works with Microsoft Excel 2010, Excel 2013, and Excel 2016.


Rational Numbers Search proprietary Identification of small molecules by comparison of accurate-mass fragmentation data to a database of 250000 molecules represented as mathematical partitions


REGATTA LC/MS list comparison application that works with ProTrawler (but accepts input in Excel/CSV form) to provide an environment for LC/MS results list filtering and normalization {mass, retention time, integrated intensity} lists.
RemoteAnalyzer proprietary Software by SpectralWorks Limited for vendor independent 'Open Access' client/server based solutions to provide a walk-up and use LC-MS and GC-MS data system; instrument control and data processing support for multiple vendors' hardware is provided.
Scaffold proprietary Suite of proteomics tools for analyzing spectra, peptides and proteins across multiple samples. server
SCiLS Lab Statistical analysis of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry data that integrates with Bruker MALDI imaging. server
SimGlycan proprietary Predicts the structure of glycans and glycopeptides using mass spectrometry MS/MS data. server
SIMION proprietary Ion optics simulation program server
Spectrolyzer Spectrolyzer is a Microsoft Windows-based software package that provides bioinformatics data analysis tools for different mass spectrometers that focuses on finding protein biomarkers and detecting protein deviations. server[dead link]
Spectromania proprietary Software for analysis and visualization of mass spectrometric data.[43]
StavroX proprietary Software to identify cross-linked peptides from mass spectrometric data written in Java that can be used for a wide variety of cross linkers and proteases used in the cross linking MS experiment; it compares theoretical peptide-peptide cross link combinations for the analyzed proteins to MS/MS data.[44]
Swiss Mass Abacus open source Swiss Mass Abacus is a calculator of peptide and glycopeptide masses. It is purposefully kept as simple as a basic calculator executing arithmetic operations. website
TOF-DS proprietary Software by Markes International used with BenchTOF time-of-flight mass spectrometers
TurboMass proprietary GC/MS software by PerkinElmer.
Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) open source The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) is a collection of integrated tools for MS/MS proteomics that includes PeptideProphet for the Statistical validation of PSMs using search engine results, iProphet for distinct peptide sequence validation, using PeptideProphet results (can also combine the results of multiple search engines) and ProteinProphet for Protein identification and validation, using PeptideProphet OR iProphet results. TPP does also Protein Quantification with XPRESS (Calculation of relative abundances of peptides and proteins from isotopically labeled MS/MS samples), ASAPRatio (Automated Statistical Analysis on Protein Ratio; an alternative to XPRESS) and Libra (Quantification of isobarically-labeled samples (e.g. iTraq, TMT, etc.) for any number of channels). The TPP currently supports Sequest, Mascot, ProbID, X!Tandem, Comet, SpectraST, MSGF+, Inspect, MyriMatch, and Phenyx. Developed at the Seattle Proteomic Centre (SPC). [9] [10] download
Universal Mass Calculator Universal Mass Calculator (UMC) for Windows written in C++ is a proprietary toolbox for calculating relevant information from sum formulae, e.g. isotope distribution, mass differences, mass deviations and mass/isotope information of the elements, degree of deuteration. server
VIPER Analysis of accurate mass and chromatography retention time analysis of LC-MS features (accurate mass and time tag approach).[45]
Xcalibur proprietary Software by Thermo Fisher Scientific used with mass spectrometry instruments.
XCMS Online (Cloud-Based) proprietary Freely available and the most widely used metabolomic and lipidomic data processing platform with over 21,000 users as of 2017. website

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ Bern, Marshall; Goldberg, David (2008). "Improved Ranking Functions for Protein and Modification-Site Identifications". Journal of Computational Biology. 15 (7): 705–719. doi:10.1089/cmb.2007.0119. PMID 18651800. 
  3. ^ "Inspect and MS-Alignment". 
  4. ^ Perkins, David N.; Pappin, Darryl J. C.; Creasy, David M.; Cottrell, John S. (1999). "Probability-based protein identification by searching sequence databases using mass spectrometry data". Electrophoresis. 20 (18): 3551–67. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19991201)20:18<3551::AID-ELPS3551>3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 10612281. 
  5. ^ Tabb, David L.; Fernando, Christopher G.; Chambers, Matthew C. (2007). "MyriMatch:  Highly Accurate Tandem Mass Spectral Peptide Identification by Multivariate Hypergeometric Analysis". Journal of Proteome Research. 6 (2): 654–61. doi:10.1021/pr0604054. PMC 2525619Freely accessible. PMID 17269722. 
  6. ^ "OMSSA ms/ms search engine". Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  7. ^ Geer, Lewis Y.; Markey, Sanford P.; Kowalak, Jeffrey A.; Wagner, Lukas; Xu, Ming; Maynard, Dawn M.; Yang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Wenyao; Bryant, Stephen H. (2004). "Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm". Journal of Proteome Research. 3 (5): 958–64. doi:10.1021/pr0499491. PMID 15473683. 
  8. ^ Liang, C; Smith, JC; Hendrie, Christopher (2003). "A Comparative Study of Peptide Sequencing Software Tools for MS/MS". 
  9. ^ Colinge, Jacques; Masselot, Alexandre; Giron, Marc; Dessingy, Thierry; Magnin, Jérôme (2003). "OLAV: Towards high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry data identification". Proteomics. 3 (8): 1454–63. doi:10.1002/pmic.200300485. PMID 12923771. 
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  15. ^ Bartels, Christian (31 May 1990). "Fast algorithm for peptide sequencing by mass spectroscopy". Biological Mass Spectrometry. 19 (6): 363–368. doi:10.1002/bms.1200190607. 
  16. ^ Novak, Jiri; Lemr, Karel; Schug, Kevin A.; Havlicek, Vladimir (2015). "CycloBranch: De Novo Sequencing of Nonribosomal Peptides from Accurate Product Ion Mass Spectra". J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 26 (10): 1780–1786. Bibcode:2015JASMS.tmp..155N. doi:10.1007/s13361-015-1211-1. PMID 26195308. 
  17. ^ thermo finnigan introduces denovox – Search results from HighBeam Business[dead link]
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