Mass surveillance in India
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Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population. Mass surveillance in India includes Surveillance, Telephone tapping, Open-source intelligence, Lawful interception, and surveillance under Indian Telegraph Act, 1885.
In recent years, India has seen use of facial-recognition technology by the law enforcement. Telangana is the most surveilled state in India with 36 CCTV cameras per 1,000 people, while cities Delhi and Chennai have more cameras per square mile than cities in China.
Police in colonial India developed surveillance tactics as a form of preventive policing believing that a substantial portion of crime was being committed by those who were or were suspected to be repeat offenders. Higher ranking police officials would go through criminal records to identify those who were to be surveilled by the constabulary, to this end history sheets or "bad character rolls" were maintained on such individuals. These surveillance practices also depended on local district superintendents and could be outside legislative sanction as they were allowed to develop their own policing practices by the Police Act of 1861. This reliance on surveillance was seen necessary owing to the police force being minimally staffed and relying on indirect power following the 1857 rebellion.
Indian Telegraph Act 1885
The section 5 of the Indian Telegraph Act allowed the Governor General or a Local Government to temporarily seize any licensed telegraph, and also gave them the ability block, intercept, detain, or even disclose the contents of any message transmitted during a "public emergency" or in "interest of public safety", the Secretary to the Government had a final say on whether something met those two criteria. This act is one of the principal laws allowing surveillance of electronic communication in modern India.
Indian mass surveillance projects
India has been using many mass surveillance projects for many years. These include the following:
DRDO NETRA is another mass surveillance project of India. It has been developed by the Center for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) laboratory under the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The system could detect selective words like “bomb”, “blast”, “attack” or “kill” within seconds from emails, instant messages, status updates and tweets. The system will also be capable of gauging suspicious voice traffic on Skype and Google Talk. To enhance the capacity of the DRDO NETRA Project Black Knight was initiated in late 2013 to monitor social media trends and identify source of various viral messages that posed a risk to tranquility of the global community. Not much detail is available about the project, but it is rumored that the group of engineers later founded a private organization and now conducts social media analysis on Indian and foreign subjects by tapping fiber optic cables in India and overseas, including cybertapping infrastructure on the main internet communication cable in Mongolia which links rest of the world to China.
Lawful Intercept and Monitoring project
Lawful Intercept and Monitoring, abbreviated to LIM, is a clandestine mass electronic surveillance program deployed by the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), an Indian Government owned telecommunications technology development centre. LIM systems are used by the Indian Government to intercept records of voice, SMSs, GPRS data, details of a subscriber's application and recharge history and call detail record (CDR)  and monitor Internet traffic, emails, web-browsing, Skype and any other Internet activity of Indian users. Mobile operators deploy their own LIM system which allows the government to intercept calls, after taking “due authorisation” in compliance with Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act read with Rule 419(A) of the IT Rules. The LIM system to monitor Internet traffic is deployed by the government at the international gateways of some large ISPs (between the ISPs Internet Edge Router (PE) and the core network). These surveillance systems are under complete control of the government, and their functioning is secretive and unknown to the ISPs.
National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) is a proposed cyber security and e-surveillance project of India. It aims at screening communication metadata and co-ordinate the intelligence gathering activities of other agencies. In the absence of any legal framework and parliamentary oversight, the NCCC could encroach upon Indian citizens' privacy and civil-liberties.
Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring Project
Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM), formerly known as Vigilance Telecom Monitoring (VTM), is the vigilance and monitoring wing of the Indian Department of Telecommunications (DoT). The main functions of TERM Cells are vigilance, monitoring and security of the network. Apart from this, TERM Cells also operate the Central Monitoring System and carry out other functions.
Central Monitoring System Project
Central Monitoring System is a surveillance related project of India. The project is run by Centre for Development of Telematics
National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)
NATGRID project of Home ministry is creating a centralised database of citizens and companies recording every interaction with the government, which amounts to profiling and mass surveillance of citizens and companies.
Misuse of Section 144
An analysis by lawyers Vrinda Bhandari, Abhinav Sekhri, Natasha Maheshwari and Madhav Aggarwal of orders passed by Delhi Police under Section 144 found that the law is being used to create a parallel surveillance network. Many of the orders directed private parties like ATMs, Banks, girls PG/hostels, liquor vendors, owner of parking lots etc. to install CCTV cameras for surveillance purposes. 
- Surveillance in India
- List of Indian intelligence agencies
- Multi Agency Centre (India)
- Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring
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- ^ A Collection of the Acts passed by the Governor General in Council. 1885. p. 132.
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- ^ Singh, Dalip (27 April 2023). "Close watch. NATGRID to turn lens on digital print of people, firms". Business Line. Retrieved 2023-04-30.
- ^ Bhandari, Vrinda; Sekhri, Abhinav; Maheshwari, Natasha; Aggarwal, Madhav. "The Use and Misuse of Section 144 CrPC". SSRN. SSRN. Retrieved 2023-04-24.
- ^ Bhandari, Vrinda; Sekhri, Abhinav; Maheshwari, Natasha; Aggarwal, Madhav (2023-04-24). "Section 144 CrPC: How a law was used to break law". The Times of India. Retrieved 2023-04-24.