The Massalia family (adj. Massalian; FIN: 404) is a family of asteroids in the inner asteroid belt, named after its parent body, 20 Massalia. It consists of S-type asteroids with very low inclinations, straddling the 1:2 resonances with Mars. There are more than 6,000 known Massalian asteroids.
This is a definite cratering family consisting of 20 Massalia and a mass of small fragments excavated from Massalia's surface by an impact. Massalia is by far the largest member with a diameter of about 150 km, while the next largest body, (7760) 1990 RW3 is only about 7 km in diameter. The mass of all the small members is negligible, less than about 1%, compared to Massalia.
The family is fairly young, estimated to have been created by an impact 150 to 200 million years ago. It has a distinctly two-lobed appearance in proper a--e space, with one lobe centered at semi-major axes of 2.38 AU, the other at about 2.43 AU, with the parent body Massalia itself located in between. The bodies in the lobes tend to be smaller on average than those in the central region. It has been shown that this structure is likely caused by slow drift of the semi-major axis caused by the Yarkovsky and YORP effects. Details of the lobes were used to calculate the age of the family.
Location and size
- * The Zappalà core members only reach e=0.170 but inspection of more modern proper elements reveals that the family extends at least to e=0.175
|Name/designation||Number||Proper semimajor axis (AU)||Proper inclination (degrees)||Proper eccentricity||Diameter (km)||Group|
|Massalia||20||2.409||1.421||0.162||150 (measured)||Primary member|
|Puccini||4579||2.400||1.392||0.163||8 (estimated)||Core member|
|Rameau||4734||2.416||1.359||0.164||5 (estimated)||Core member|
|1990 RW3||7760||2.407||1.465||0.156||9 (estimated)||Core member|
A number of Interlopers have been identified, which share the same orbital elements as the true family members, but cannot have come from the same cratering event because of spectral (hence, compositional) differences. 2946 Muchachos and some other bodies were noted as interlopers during a detailed study of the family, while 2316 Jo-Ann is seen to have the wrong spectrum by inspection of the PDS asteroid taxonomy data set. Muchachos is larger than any of the true family members apart from Massalia itself.
- Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- Vokrouhlický, D.; Broz, M.; Bottke, W. F.; Nesvorný, D.; Morbidelli, A. (May 2006). "Yarkovsky/YORP chronology of asteroid families". Icarus. 182 (1): 118–142. Bibcode:2006Icar..182..118V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.12.010. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Nesvorný, David; Bottke, William F.; Levison, Harold F.; Dones, Luke (July 2003). "Recent Origin of the Solar System Dust Bands". The Astrophysical Journal. 591 (1): 486–497. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591..486N. doi:10.1086/374807. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Zappalà, V.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Farinella, P.; Froeschlé, C. (August 1995). "Asteroid families: Search of a 12,487-asteroid sample using two different clustering techniques". Icarus. 116 (2): 291–314. Bibcode:1995Icar..116..291Z. doi:10.1006/icar.1995.1127. Retrieved 27 May 2018.