Master (software)

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Master is a version of DeepMind's Go software AlphaGo, named after the account name (originally Magister/Magist) used online, which won 60 straight online games against human professional Go players from 29 December 2016 to 4 January 2017. This version was also used in the Future of Go Summit in May 2017.[1][2] It used four TPUs on a single machine with Elo rating 4,858.[3] DeepMind claimed that AlphaGo Master was 3-stone stronger than the version used in AlphaGo v. Lee Sedol.[4]

The version of AlphaGo Master is used in a teaching tool, released by DeepMind on 11 December 2017, to analyze winning rates of different Go openings, unable to play real games.[5][6] The teaching tool collects 6,000 Go openings from 230,000 human games.[6]

Matches[edit]

Online games[edit]

The software was first used to play games against professional players on 29 December 2016 on the Tygem Go server, under the account name 'Magister' (shown as 'Magist' at the server's Chinese version). The account name was changed to 'Master' on 30 December. After playing 30 games on Tygem, it was moved to the FoxGo server on 1 January 2017.

Master played at the pace of 10 games per day. Many quickly suspected it to be an AI player due to little or no resting between games. After winning its 59th game it was revealed in the chatroom that Master was controlled by Dr. Aja Huang of the DeepMind team.[7] On 4 January 2017, after these games were completed, Demis Hassabis, the co-founder of DeepMind, confirmed that Magister and Master both played using an updated version of AlphaGo[8][9] and said, "We're looking forward to playing some official, full-length games later [in 2017] in collaboration with Go organizations and experts".[8][9]

Gu Li, a 9-dan player and co-founder of FoxGo, offered a bounty of 100,000 RMB (14,400 USD) to the first human player who could defeat Master.[9] However, no one took the bounty since Master's final online record was 60 wins and 0 losses,[10] including three victories over Go's top ranked player, Ke Jie,[11] who had been quietly briefed in advance that Master was a version of AlphaGo.[10]

Master's adversaries included many world champions such as Ke Jie, Park Jeong-hwan, Yuta Iyama, Tuo Jiaxi, Mi Yuting, Shi Yue, Chen Yaoye, Li Qincheng, Gu Li, Chang Hao, Tang Weixing, Fan Tingyu, Zhou Ruiyang, Jiang Weijie, Chou Chun-hsun, Kim Ji-seok, Kang Dong-yun, Park Yeong-hun, and Won Seong-jin, and also included national champions or world championship runners-up such as Lian Xiao, Tan Xiao, Meng Tailing, Dang Yifei, Huang Yunsong, Yang Dingxin, Gu Zihao, Shin Jinseo, Cho Han-seung, and An Sungjoon.[12] All 60 games except one were fast-paced games with three 20 or 30 seconds byo-yomi. Master offered to extend the byo-yomi to one minute when playing with Nie Weiping due to his old age.

No. Date Player (dan during the game) Time control Moves Master color and result
1 29 December 2016 China Pan Tingyu (1 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 146 White won by resignation
2 29 December 2016 China Zhang Ziliang (1 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 174 White won by resignation
3 29 December 2016 China Ding Shixiong (3 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 151 Black won by resignation
4 29 December 2016 China Xie Erhao (4 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 222 White won by resignation
5 29 December 2016 China Yu Zhiying (5 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 113 Black won by resignation
6 29 December 2016 China Li Xiangyu (3 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 131 Black won by resignation
7 29 December 2016 China Qiao Zhijian (4 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 163 Black won by resignation
8 29 December 2016 China Han Yizhou (5 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 104 White won by resignation
9 29 December 2016 China Meng Tailing (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 275 Black won by 4.5 points
10 29 December 2016 China Meng Tailing (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 148 White won by resignation
11 30 December 2016 China Chen Hao (5 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 170 White won by resignation
12 30 December 2016 South Korea Ryu Suhang (5 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 144 White won by resignation
13 30 December 2016 China Wang Haoyang (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 136 White won by resignation
14 30 December 2016 China Yan Zaiming (3 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 129 Black won by resignation
15 30 December 2016 South Korea Park Junghwan (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 150 White won by time
16 30 December 2016 China Lian Xiao (7 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 122 White won by resignation
17 30 December 2016 China Lian Xiao (7 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 164 White won by resignation
18 30 December 2016 China Ke Jie (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 228 Black won by 5.5 points
19 30 December 2016 China Ke Jie (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 128 White won by resignation
20 30 December 2016 South Korea Park Junghwan (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 255 Black won by 5.5 points
21 31 December 2016 China Chen Yaoye (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 270 White won by 5.5 points
22 31 December 2016 China Chen Yaoye (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 277 White won by 4.5 points
23 31 December 2016 South Korea Kim Jung-hyun (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 135 Black won by resignation
24 31 December 2016 South Korea Park Junghwan (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 223 Black won by resignation
25 31 December 2016 South Korea Park Junghwan (9 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 261 White won by 0.5 points
26 31 December 2016 South Korea Yun Chanhee (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 217 Black won by resignation
27 31 December 2016 China Fan Tingyu (9 dan) three 30-second byo-yomi 215 Black won by resignation
28 31 December 2016 China Meng Tailing (6 dan) three 20-second byo-yomi 163 Black won by resignation
29 31 December 2016 China Mi Yuting (9 dan) three 30-second byo-yomi 311 White won by 0.5 points
30 31 December 2016 China Tang Weixing (9 dan) three 30-second byo-yomi 186 White won by resignation
31 1 January 2017 China Li Qincheng (9 dan) 1 minute + three 20-second byo-yomi 179 Black won by resignation
32 2 January 2017 China Gu Li (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 154 White won by resignation
33 2 January 2017 China Gu Li (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 191 Black won by resignation
34 2 January 2017 China Dang Yifei (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 149 Black won by resignation
35 2 January 2017 China Jiang Weijie (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 280 White won by 1.5 points
36 2 January 2017 China Gu Zihao (5 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 209 Black won by resignation
37 2 January 2017 South Korea Park Yeong-hun (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 173 Black won by resignation
38 2 January 2017 China Tuo Jiaxi (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 239 Black won by resignation
39 2 January 2017 Japan Yuta Iyama (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 135 Black won by resignation
40 2 January 2017 China Meng Tailing (6 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 274 White won by 2.5 points
41 2 January 2017 South Korea Kim Ji-seok (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 170 White won by resignation
42 3 January 2017 China Yang Dingxin (4 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 125 Black won by resignation
43 3 January 2017 South Korea Kang Dong-yun (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 165 Black won by resignation
44 3 January 2017 South Korea An Sung-joon (7 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 260 White won by 2.5 points
45 3 January 2017 China Shi Yue (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 167 Black won by resignation
46 3 January 2017 China Lian Xiao (7 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 144 White won by resignation
47 3 January 2017 China Tan Xiao (7 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 191 Black won by resignation
48 3 January 2017 South Korea Park Junghwan (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 270 White won by 1.5 points
49 3 January 2017 South Korea Won Seong-jin (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 222 White won by resignation
50 3 January 2017 China Ke Jie (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 178 White won by resignation
51 4 January 2017 Taiwan Chou Chun-hsun (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 118 White won by resignation
52 4 January 2017 China Fan Tingyu (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 202 White won by resignation
53 4 January 2017 China Huang Yunsong (5 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 133 Black won by resignation
54 4 January 2017 China Nie Weiping (9 dan) 1 minute + three 60-second byo-yomi 254 Black won by 7.5 points
55 4 January 2017 China Chen Yaoye (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 267 White won by 1.5 points
56 4 January 2017 South Korea Cho Han-seung (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 171 Black won by resignation
57 4 January 2017 South Korea Shin Jin-seo (6 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 139 Black won by resignation
58 4 January 2017 China Chang Hao (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 178 White won by resignation
59 4 January 2017 China Zhou Ruiyang (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 161 Black won by resignation
60 4 January 2017 China Gu Li (9 dan) 1 minute + three 30-second byo-yomi 235 White won by 2.5 points

Future of Go Summit[edit]

The Master version also participated in the Future of Go summit in May 2017.[1] It defeated Ke Jie in a three-game match by three to zero and beat a human team with five top Go professionals.

Innovative moves[edit]

Go experts were extremely impressed by Master's performance and by its non-human play style in its online games. Ke Jie stated, "After humanity spent thousands of years improving our tactics, computers tell us that humans are completely wrong... I would go as far as to say not a single human has touched the edge of the truth of Go".[10]

Master played many innovative moves and inspired professional players.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

In the 23rd online game Master invaded the 3-3 point at a very early stage.[20]

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Online game 23, Master (black) v. Kim Jung-hyun

In the 24th online game Master played six stones along the second line.[20]

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Online game 24 Master (black) v Park Junghwan

Operator errors[edit]

On 20 January 2017, DeepMind team members Fan Hui[21] and Aja Huang[22] disclosed that Master's operator accidentally entered a move other than AlphaGo's choice in two situations during the online games.

In the 9th online game, Master recommended point a for Move 107.

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Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go A.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go -.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go dl.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go dr.svg
Online game 9, Master (black) vs. Meng Tailing.

In the 39th online game, Master recommended point a for Move 99.

Go ul.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go ur.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 99.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go A.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go -.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go -.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go dl.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go dr.svg
Online game 39, Master (black) vs Yuta Iyama

Example game[edit]

Online game 30: Master (white) v. Tang Weixing (31 December 2016), Master won by resignation. White 36 was widely praised.[23]

Go ul.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go ur.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 69.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 83.svg Go 68.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w2.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b1.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 73.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 71.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 72.svg Go 70.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 58.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 76.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 56.svg Go 57.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 82.svg Go 78.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 74.svg Go 75.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 54.svg Go 15.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 80.svg Go 79.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 77.svg Go 67.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 52.svg Go 53.svg Go 36.svg Go 37.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 47.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 81.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 48.svg Go 39.svg Go 27.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 46.svg Go 41.svg Go 40.svg Go 51.svg Go 92.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 84.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 42.svg Go 38.svg Go b9.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 44.svg Go 45.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 26.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 91.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 98.svg Go 93.svg Go r.svg
Go 64.svg Go 43.svg Go b7.svg Go w8.svg Go 10.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 25.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 90.svg Go 89.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 85.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 87.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 13.svg Go 22.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 28.svg Go 29.svg Go 19.svg Go 24.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 66.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 86.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 88.svg Go w6.svg Go 99.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 62.svg Go 11.svg Go w4.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 21.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 17.svg Go 18.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 30.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 34.svg Go 97.svg Go 96.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 49.svg Go 12.svg Go 14.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b5.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 20.svg Go 16.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 23.svg Go 31.svg Go 35.svg Go b3.svg Go 32.svg Go 95.svg Go r.svg
Go 55.svg Go 50.svg Go 59.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 65.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 33.svg Go 94.svg Go r.svg
Go 63.svg Go 60.svg Go 61.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go dr.svg
First 99 moves
Go ul.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go u.svg Go ur.svg
Go l.svg Go 48.svg Go 46.svg Go 47.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 36.svg Go 54.svg Go 53.svg Go 51.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 27.svg Go 14.svg Go 13.svg Go 17.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 85.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 34.svg Go 29.svg Go 33.svg Go 35.svg Go w8.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 52.svg Go 26.svg Go b9.svg Go 23.svg Go 12.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 83.svg Go 84.svg Go r.svg
Go 42.svg Go 31.svg Go 30.svg Go w.svg Go 37.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 22.svg Go 18.svg Go 15.svg Go 10.svg Go 11.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 80.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go 32.svg Go 41.svg Go 43.svg Go 68.svg Go 40.svg Go 38.svg Go 70.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 24.svg Go 21.svg Go 19.svg Go 16.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go 81.svg Go 82.svg
Go l.svg Go 45.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 44.svg Go 39.svg Go 64.svg Go 63.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 69.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 20.svg Go 71.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go 78.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 65.svg Go 66.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 75.svg Go 25.svg Go 72.svg Go 73.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go 28.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 67.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 74.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 86.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go -.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 76.svg Go 55.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b3.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go 77.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 62.svg Go w6.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w4.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 79.svg Go w2.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go 56.svg Go b5.svg Go 57.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b7.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go 00.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go l.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go -.svg Go 60.svg Go 58.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go b1.svg
Go l.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go w.svg Go w.svg Go 61.svg Go 59.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go r.svg
Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go board diagram image.svg Go b.svg Go w.svg Go r.svg
Go b.svg Go d.svg Go b.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go d.svg Go dr.svg
Moves 100-186 (149 at 131, 150 at 130)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "AlphaGo官方解读让三子 对人类高手没这种优势" (in Chinese). Sina. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "各版alphago实力对比 master能让李世石版3子" (in Chinese). Sina. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  3. ^ Silver, David; Schrittwieser, Julian; Simonyan, Karen; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Huang, Aja; Guez, Arthur; Hubert, Thomas; Baker, Lucas; Lai, Matthew; Bolton, Adrian; Chen, Yutian; Lillicrap, Timothy; Fan, Hui; Sifre, Laurent; Driessche, George van den; Graepel, Thore; Hassabis, Demis (19 October 2017). "Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge". Nature. 550 (7676): 354–359. doi:10.1038/nature24270. ISSN 0028-0836. Retrieved 11 December 2017. closed access publication – behind paywall
  4. ^ "AlphaGo棋力比去年涨三子 柯洁想赢它可能只剩一招" (in Chinese). Sina. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  5. ^ "AlphaGo teaching tool". DeepMind. 
  6. ^ a b "AlphaGo教学工具上线 樊麾:使用Master版本" (in Chinese). Sina.com.cn. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "横扫中日韩棋手斩获59胜的Master发话:我是阿尔法狗". 澎湃新闻. 2017-01-04. 
  8. ^ a b Demis Hassabis (4 January 2017). "Demis Hassabis on Twitter: "Excited to share an update on #AlphaGo!"". Demis Hassabis's Twitter account. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Elizabeth Gibney (4 January 2017). "Google reveals secret test of AI bot to beat top Go players". Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c "Humans Mourn Loss After Google Is Unmasked as China's Go Master". Wall Street Journal. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "The world's best Go player says he still has "one last move" to defeat Google's AlphaGo AI". Quartz. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Full list of human players participating in the 60 games" (in Chinese). Sohu. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017. 
  13. ^ Nie Weiping (3 January 2017). "神秘高手Master颠覆了围棋传统,这更证明了藤泽秀行那句话" (in Chinese). Toutiao. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  14. ^ "韩国研究新版AlphaGo:穿越而来展示未来围棋" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  15. ^ "金成龙分析AlphaGo:愿你为人类划开围棋的新天地" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "韩国家队分析AlphaGo60局1 很强但不"完美"" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  17. ^ "韩国家队分析AlphaGo60局2 井山一局最有机会" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  18. ^ "阿法狗最令人感动一手 王铭琬:推波助澜" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  19. ^ Nie Weiping (19 January 2017). "李昌镐学习"阿法狗流",日本棋手放下包袱仍有一战" (in Chinese). Toutiao. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Innovations of AlphaGo". DeepMind. Retrieved 23 April 2017. 
  21. ^ "Clarification". Fan Hui's Sina Weibo. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 
  22. ^ "Clarification". Aja Huang's Facebook. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 
  23. ^ "高手战Master技术分析:人类仍有机会赢AI?" (in Chinese). QQ.com. 2 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.