Master of Engineering
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A Master of Engineering degree (abbreviated MEng. or M.Eng.) or Master of Technology degree (abbreviated M.Tech. or MTech) can be either an academic or professional master's degree in the field of engineering.
- 1 International variations
- 1.1 Australia
- 1.2 Brazil
- 1.3 Canada
- 1.4 Colombia
- 1.5 Croatia
- 1.6 Finland
- 1.7 France
- 1.8 Germany
- 1.9 India
- 1.10 Italy
- 1.11 New Zealand
- 1.12 Nepal
- 1.13 Japan
- 1.14 Korea
- 1.15 Poland
- 1.16 Slovakia
- 1.17 Spain
- 1.18 Sweden
- 1.19 United Kingdom
- 1.20 United States and Canada
- 2 See also
- 3 References
In Australia, the Master of Engineering degree is a research degree requiring completion of a thesis. Like the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), it is considered a lesser degree than Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and a higher degree than coursework master. It is not to be confused with Master of Engineering Science, Master of Engineering Studies or Master of Professional Engineering which are coursework master's degrees. Exceptions are Monash University which awards a Master of Engineering Science by either research or coursework, the University of Melbourne which offers a Master of Engineering by coursework, and the University of Tasmania which offer a Master of Engineering Science by research.
The University of Melbourne accepted the first intake of Master of Engineering students in February 2010. The coursework Master of Engineering is offered in 11 specialisations, and accepts graduates with three-year degrees in Science and Maths.
The entry requirement is completion of a bachelor's degree at or above the second class honours level. Some universities do not offer direct enrollment into Doctor of Philosophy degree and students must first enroll in a lesser research degree before "upgrading".
In Brazil, the rough equivalent of a Master of Engineering degree is a professional master's degree of typically two years length that involves mostly coursework and a thesis or research paper in applied engineering. Entrance to a Master of Engineering degree is a 5-year bachelor engineering degree. Another variant (academic master) is equivalent to a Master of Science, such degree is tied to extensive research and is valid for a Ph.D. entry. Both can be stricto sensu classified and it depends of the course provider institution.
In Canada, the Master of Engineering degree is a professional degree of typically two years length that involves coursework and a thesis or research paper of significant depth. Entrance to a M.Eng. degree is a 4-year bachelor engineering degree. Some Canadian universities offer a Master of Engineering, or either a Master of Science or Master of Applied Science in engineering, or both. Master of Engineering degrees usually require more coursework and examination and less research, whereas Master of Applied Science degrees require less coursework and more research. However, this is not absolute since some universities only offer a Master of Engineering and some only offer a Master of Science or Master of Applied Science. Some universities differentiate only by the requirement to be resident and therefore assist in teaching/tutoring for a Master of Science Degree.
In Colombia, the Master of Engineering, which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of five years. Depending upon the emphasis is called Ms.Eng. with emphasis in Energy, Chemistry, Environment, and so on. At the end, it is required to make a publication of the developed work in a recognized journal of scientific spreading as a requirement for the degree.
Introduced with the Bologna process, the Croatian Master of Engineering is typically a two-year program and a direct continuation of a three-year Bachelor course. The degree is abbreviated mag. ing. and followed by the field of study (for example: mag. ing. računarstva – Master of Computer Engineering)
There are two distinct degrees in Finland, a taught university degree (diplomi-insinööri) and a polytechnic master's degree's (insinööri (ylempi AMK)). While the former is translated as "Master of Science in Technology", the term "Master of Engineering" is predominantly used by Universities of Applied Sciences, which offer master's degree programmes to holders of polytechnic bachelor's degrees (insinööri (amk)). As European Bologna process directs, in order to get a M.Eng. degree, B.Sc. engineers have to additionally study full-time one or two years and finalize a Master's thesis. Most of the M.Eng. degree programs are taught in Finnish, but some Swedish and English language programs also exist.
In France, two diploma exist for 5 years of study in the field of engineering: the Master's diploma in engineering (diplôme de master en sciences de l'ingénieur) which is usually delivered by Universities, and the Engineer's degree ("diplôme d'ingénieur") which can only be delivered by some Engineering schools called grandes écoles—very selective schools that are generally smaller than universities—and provides "a level of education comparable to a master's degree in engineering in the United States" (AACRAO).
The Engineer's degree usually prepare students for professional careers. Courses always include management, economy or more generally transverse courses. Training periods in industry or in laboratories are also required. The Master's diploma in engineering offers a more focused approach on a field of engineering. A Ph.D. program can be joined by acquiring a Master's diploma in engineering or an Engineer's degree.
In Germany, the local engineer's degrees (Diplomingenieur (Dipl.-Ing.), a first degree after 5 years of study at a university and Dipl.-Ing. (FH), the engineering degree offered by Fachhochschulen after 4 years of study) were abolished in most universities in 2010, and were replaced by postgraduate master's degrees (M.Sc. and M.Eng.).
The first Master of Engineering courses were introduced in Germany in 2000 as result of the Bologna process. This type of master's degree is offered by German Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Sciences) universities and is typically a two-year program with application-oriented coursework and an applied research thesis. The entry requirement is the successful completion of a bachelor's degree, or an equivalent from before the Bologna process, with good marks.
In India, a Master of Engineering or Master of Technology or Master of Science in Technology or Master of Science in Engineering degree is a postgraduate program in engineering or technology field. This is generally a 2-year (2.5 years for M.Sc.Eng.) specialization program in a specific branch of engineering or a technical field. Students typically enter the M.Eng./M.Tech./M.Sc.Eng./M.Sc.Tech. programs after completing a 4-year undergraduate program in engineering resulting in the award of a Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Technology degree, or a 5-year program in Science or Applied Sciences resulting in the award of a Master of Science degree.
The M.Eng./M.Tech./M.Sc.Eng./M.Sc.Tech. programs in India are usually structured as an Engineering Research degree, lesser than Ph.D. and considered to be parallel to M.Phil. and M.Sc. degrees in Humanities and Science respectively. M.Eng. and M.Sc.Eng. programs in India were started by some well known institutions with the aim of producing Research Engineers who can also get the position of "Technologist" in the Industries and Research Institutes. In electrical engineering, for example, areas of specialization might include: power systems, energy engineering, electrical machines, instrumentation and control, high voltage or power electronics, telecommunications, communication networks, signal processing, microelectronics...
In Italy, the local engineer's degrees (Laurea in Ingegneria), a first degree after 5 years of study at a university were abolished in most universities in 2008. The equivalent of a Master of Engineering degree is a professional master's degree (Laurea Magistrale) of two years length that involves mostly coursework and a thesis paper in applied engineering. Entrance to a Master of Engineering degree is a 3-year bachelor engineering degree (Laurea).
In New Zealand, the Master of Engineering degree is a research based degree requiring completion of a thesis or a thesis (mainly) plus related taught courses in almost universities. Similar to the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) in engineering or technology, it is considered a lesser degree than Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and a higher degree than a coursework master. It is not to be confused with Master of Engineering Studies which is coursework master's degree.
However, in Auckland University of Technology (AUT), this degree can be achieved only by coursework, which can be a coursework master's degree.
In Nepal, Master of Engineering or Master of Technology degree is a postgraduate program in engineering or technology. This is generally a 2-year specialization program in a specific branch of engineering or a technical field. Students typically enter the ME/MTech programs after completing a 4-year undergraduate program in engineering resulting in the award of a Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Technology degree. Kathmandu University, Tribhuwan University, Pokhara University and Purwanchal University provides these engineering courses. IOE (Institute Of Engineering) provides M.Sc. cources in engineering at Pulchowk campus (central campus of IOE) under the affiliation of Tribhuwan University. For more detail www.ioe.edu.np
In Japan, the master of engineering (工学修士 Kogaku Shushi?), which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of four years. It is a research degree between the bachelor's degree and the doctor's degree, and requires completion of a thesis.
In South Korea, the master of engineering, which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of four years. It is commonly awarded for specializations in the field of engineering rather than the science. For example, the degree "master of science in computer science" differs from the degree "master of engineering in computer science" in that the latter one is mainly concentrated on the applicability of the design with strong relation with the hardware rather than the software. Generally, the master of engineering program includes both coursework and research.
Magister inżynier (mgr inż., literally: master engineer) academic degree that can be obtained after 2 years post-graduate education (for students having already B.Eng.—inż.), or formerly (until full adaptation of Bologna process by university) through integrated 5 years B.Eng.–M.Eng. (or B.Sc.–M.Sc) programme, giving double degree mgr inż.
Before the introduction of the Bologna Process, there were two different Spanish Engineering degrees: "Ingeniería Superior", which took 5 or in some cases 6 full-time yearly courses; and "Ingeniería Técnica", of a shorter duration: 3 years with standard credit payload or 2 years and a half including a bridge course that gave access to the higher engineering studies.
In the wake of the Bologna Process, the Spanish Educational System implanted the "Máster Habilitante en Ingeniería" and the "Máster Universitario en Ingeniería" degrees (Postgraduate Studies), which use the ECTS system designed by the European Union. They are approximately equivalent to the second half of the former Superior Engineering ("Ingeniería Superior") academic degree, whereas the Technical Engineering Degree is approximately similar to the Bachelor's Degree within the Bologna system.
Education in Engineering in Spain had traditionally not too many specialities (Naval, Aerospatial, Industrial, Civil, Telecommunications, Informatics, among others) but after Bologna the Degrees and Masters branched out numerously, giving birth to hundreds of different combinations, aggravated by the possibility to do a bachelor's degree in one university and specialty, and then to take a Master´s degree on another specialty, perhaps at a different university, having usually passed an individual interview by the Dean and/or a "Propedeutics" exam or test of some sort, designed to guarantee a solid basis upon which to build further knowledge, that must take into consideration the relationship between the two branches of knowledge and among the subjects being taught at both degrees at the origin and the destination.
Engineering studies in Spain are among the hardest university studies in Spain, as shown by official statistics, which, at a priori equal level of competence from students, or even slightly higher (due to cutoff scores from the selective tests "Selectividad" used in admissions) reveal very high rates for dropout when compared to other studies, particularly, but not only those among the Humanities, as well as increased, sometimes doubled number of years to complete the degrees, overall much lower average scores when compared to other careers such as Medicine or Magistery and a consequent much lower rated of Honour Badges ("Matrícula de Honor") being awarded per 100 students. From 1990 to 2010, the number of students taking Informatics Engineering studies (including Computer Science, Software Engineering and IT Project Management subjects) increased steadily, outnumbering other Engineering egresates, and slightly declined after that due mainly to the worldwide deceipts of Y2K bug and the dot-com bubble, followed by the Global Financial Crisis. However, this collective was one of the most numerous among Engineers in Spain during the second decade.
During the first decades of the 21st century, Spain greatly boosted its rate of university degrees per 1000 people, which now ranks among the highest in Europe. Furthermore, students proceeded into longer study and research careers, and the rates of postgraduates, Master holders, Multi-Master holders, Ph.D. and Postdocs increased noticeably. Nonetheless, due to the severe and prolonged 2008 economic crisis, the average salary these people perceive is not in line with their skills and qualification. This circumstance fostered a strong migratory movement or "brain drain" from the country outwards. Currently there exists a very low cost of opportunity in hiring Spanish Engineers and the Return of Investment of such a recruiting is very high when compared to hiring in other European, American or Western nations, adding an unparalleled factor of technical skills acquired through struggling through adverse economic downturns.
The "Master of Engineering" title was introduced in some Swedish universities proceeding the Bologna process. The title "civilingenjör" (literally translated "Civil engineer", but the English term "Civil engineer" is not equivalent to "civilingenjör") is the equivalent of a M.Eng. as well as the "Master of Science in Engineering" title. A Master of Science in Engineering is awarded after a minimum of 5 years of studies. Before 2007-07-01, it was awarded after a minimum of 4½ year of studies. Students starting with their studies before 2007-07-01, but finishing them before 2015-06-30 and after 2007-07-01, may choose to obtain the title either after 4½ year or after 5 years.
In the United Kingdom the M.Eng. degree is the normative university-level qualification taken by people wishing to become chartered engineers registered with the Engineering Council (EngC). The M.Eng. degree represents the minimum educational standard required to become a chartered engineer, but there are other equally satisfactory ways to demonstrate this standard such as the completion of a B.Eng. Honours and a subsequent postgraduate diploma or M.Sc., or by completion of the Engineering Council Postgraduate Diploma. The UK M.Eng. (undergraduate degree) is typically equivalent to the European Diplom Ingenieur (Dipl.-Ing.) and Civilingenjör degrees.
EngC's minimum requirement for entry to a recognised M.Eng. course is BBB at A-level, compared to CCC for a B.Eng. Honours course. Universities are free to set higher entry requirements if they wish. Some universities, such as Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial only admit students to study for the M.Eng. degree. (Their courses usually allow a student to leave with a bachelor's degree after three years, but these shortened degrees are not ECUK-recognised and therefore do not count towards the educational requirements for becoming a chartered engineer.) Other universities, such as the University of Greenwich, University of Surrey, Coventry University and Brunel University, admit students to read for B.Eng. Honours and M.Eng. courses and allow students to change between the two during the early years of the course. The Open University offers the M.Eng. degree as a postgraduate qualification but requires students to complete its course within four years of completing a B.Eng. Honours degree.
The Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) is the highest award for undergraduate studies in engineering. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales this is a four-year course or a 'sandwich' five-year course (with one year spent working in industry). In Scotland, it is a five-year course. The Bachelor of Engineering degree (B.Eng.) is usually a three-year course (four in Scotland), or can also include a year in industry. Many universities offer the B.Eng., and may then allow a transfer onto the M.Eng. The Graduateship in engineering, awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute (Institution Established in 1878 recognized by Royal Charter n.117 year 1900), is mapped to a British Bachelor of Engineering (Honours)—B.Eng. (Honours)—degree. The Post Graduate Diploma is mapped to a British Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) degree. The Membership in Engineering (MCGI)(NQF at Level 7) is a strategic Management/Chartered professional level and a Post Graduate Diploma, mapped to a British master's degree, awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute. This will be supported by a minimum of ten years of seasoned experience (peer reviewed) in areas as the Engineering + a British bachelor/graduateship (or by CEng).
Engineers who have been awarded a B.Eng.(Ordinary) or B.Eng.(Honours) and have appropriate training and experience in the work place are able to apply to become an Incorporated Engineer (IEng). If an engineer has studied beyond the B.Eng. for an M.Sc. or has an M.Eng., they may apply to become a Chartered Engineer (CEng), once they have completed the required amount of post graduate work-based competency training and experience. Competency and training requirements are met over a period of 4–8 years in practice for a total of 8–12 years education, training and professional responsibility. Formal structured post graduate training schemes such as the monitored professional development IMechE enable the Engineer in training to satisfy the requirements for Chartered Engineer faster.
Chartered Engineer and Incorporated Engineer titles awarded by the Engineering Council UK, are very broadly equivalent to (but not the same as) North American Professional Engineer (PEng / PE) and Professional Technologist (PTech) designations, but with often a far greater geographical recognition. However, P.Eng/PE serve a very different purpose than the CEng qualification. PE/P.Eng are licenses to practice engineering in the public domain with legal liability at the state or provincial level. Unlike C.Eng they are not qualifications or titles. Under government legislations they allow one to engage in professional practice in a defined geographic region. For example, in Ontario the P.Eng license is issued within the Professional Engineers Act (established in 1922). Despite the Washington accord PE/PEng does not equal C.Eng. The ability of a C.Eng to practice engineering in the public domain in North America is determined on a case by case basis usually by state or province. Agreements to recognize qualifications between EngC or Engineers Ireland and Engineers Canada or the USA ABET are not recognized by individual states or provinces.
In terms of course structure, M.Eng. degrees usually follow the pattern familiar from bachelor's degrees with lectures, laboratory work, coursework and exams each year. There is usually a substantial project to be completed in the fourth year which may have a research element to it, and a more teaching-based project to be completed in the third year. At the end of the third year, there is usually a threshold of academic performance in examinations to allow progression to the final year. At some universities, the structure of the final year is rather different from that of the first three, for example, at the University of York, the final year for the Computer Systems and Software programme consists entirely of project work and intensive advanced seminar courses rather than traditional lectures and problem classes. Final results are, in most cases, awarded on the standard British undergraduate degree classification scale, although some universities award something structurally similar to 'Distinction', 'Merit', 'Pass' or 'Fail' as this is often the way that taught postgraduate master's degrees are classified.
At some universities in the UK in the early 1980s, the M.Eng. was awarded as a taught postgraduate degree after 12 months of study. Its entry requirements would typically be like those for other taught postgraduate courses, including holding an undergraduate degree, and its format would be similar to the modern M.Eng. although, as with many postgraduate master's degrees, the project would extend over a longer period. M.Eng. courses in their modern, undergraduate form were introduced in the mid-1980s in response to growing competition from technical-degree graduates from continental Europe, where undergraduate bachelor's degree courses are often longer than the usual three years in the UK. There was a feeling among recent graduates, the engineering institutions, employers and universities, that the longer and more in-depth study offered on the continent needed to be made available to UK students as well. Since to obtain a taught master's degree in the UK typically took an additional year beyond a bachelor's degree, it was decided that this extra year would be integrated into the undergraduate program and, instead of pursuing both a bachelor's and master's degree, students would proceed directly to a master's degree.
Since its introduction, the M.Eng. has become the degree of choice for most undergraduate engineers, as was intended. The most common exception to this is international students who, because of the substantially higher fees they are charged, sometimes opt to take the tradition B.Eng./B.Sc. route where that is available. Most of the engineering institutions have now made an M.Eng. the minimum academic standard necessary to become a Chartered Engineer. Students who graduated before the changes in the rules will still be allowed to use their bachelor's degree for this purpose and those who have earned a bachelor's degree since the changes can usually take some additional courses (known as 'further learning') over time to reach an equivalent standard to the M.Eng. Some older universities such as Durham[not in citation given] and Cambridge allow students to obtain the B.Eng. degree after the third year before continuing on to the fourth year.
Other undergraduate masters
The M.Eng. is one of a number of Integrated master's degrees introduced in the UK since the late 20th century; they are also commonly available in mathematics (MMath), computer science (MCompSci), physics (MPhys), chemistry (MChem) and biology (MBiol).
United States and Canada
In the United States, and Canada the Master of Engineering degree is generally a professional degree offered as a coursework-based alternative to the traditional research-based Master of Science. It is typically a two-year program, entered after the completion of a 4-year bachelor's degree and many universities allow students to choose between the Master of Engineering and the Master of Science. The Master of Engineering degree is offered at many leading universities in the United States, and Canada on either a full-time and part-time (weekends or evenings) basis and is considered a terminal degree in the field of engineering.
Some M.Eng. degree programs require a scholarly project in addition to coursework. Some Master of Engineering programs require additional courses beyond those required for Master of Science students in order to better prepare students for professional careers. Some Master of Engineering programs highly encourage students to participate in collaborative consulting projects. These courses may include topics such as business fundamentals, management and leadership.
- ABET, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (United States)
- Bachelor's degree
- Bachelor of Engineering
- British degree abbreviations
- Engineer's degree
- Engineering Doctorate
- Master's degree
- Master of Science
- University of Tasmania Engineering Course Guide Accessed 16 September 2009
- Finnish legislation 423/2005 on degrees at Universities of Applied Sciences Accessed: 21 June 2009
- Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Master's degrees Accessed: 21 June 2009
- Durham University, Undergraduate, Engineering
- Master of Engineering, Duke University, http://meng.pratt.duke.edu/