Master of Puppets
|Master of Puppets|
|Studio album by|
|Released||March 3, 1986|
|Studio||Sweet Silence, Copenhagen|
|Metallica studio album chronology|
|Singles from Master of Puppets|
Master of Puppets is the third studio album by the American heavy metal band Metallica, released on March 3, 1986, by Elektra Records. Recorded in Denmark at Sweet Silence Studios with producer Flemming Rasmussen, it was the band's last album to feature bassist Cliff Burton, who died in a bus accident in Sweden during the album's promotional tour.
The album's artwork, designed by Metallica and Peter Mensch and painted by Don Brautigam, depicts a cemetery field of white crosses tethered to strings, manipulated by a pair of hands in a clouded, blood-red sky, with a fiery orange glow on the horizon. Instead of releasing a single or video in advance of the album's release, Metallica embarked on a five-month American tour in support of Ozzy Osbourne. The European leg was canceled after Burton's death in September 1986, and the band returned home to audition a new bassist.
Master of Puppets peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200 and received widespread acclaim from critics, who praised its music and political lyrics. It is widely considered to be one of the greatest and most influential thrash metal albums of all time, and is credited with consolidating the American thrash metal scene. It was certified six times platinum by the RIAA in 2003 for shipping six million copies in the United States, and was later certified six times platinum by Music Canada and platinum by the BPI. In 2015, Master of Puppets became the first metal recording to be selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Recording Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."
Background and recording
Metallica's 1983 debut Kill 'Em All laid the foundation for thrash metal with its aggressive musicianship and vitriolic lyrics. The album revitalized the American underground scene, and inspired similar records by contemporaries. The band's second album Ride the Lightning extended the limits of the genre with its more sophisticated songwriting and improved production. The album caught the attention of Elektra Records representative Michael Alago, who signed the group to an eight-album deal in the fall of 1984, halfway through the album's promotional tour. Elektra reissued Ride the Lightning on November 19, and the band began touring larger venues and festivals throughout 1985. After parting with manager Jon Zazula, Metallica hired Q Prime executives Cliff Burnstein and Peter Mensch. During the summer, the band played the Monsters of Rock festival at Castle Donington, alongside Bon Jovi and Ratt to an audience of 70,000.
Metallica was motivated to make an album that would impress critics and fans, and began writing new material in mid-1985. Lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist James Hetfield and drummer Lars Ulrich were the main songwriters on the album, already titled Master of Puppets. The two developed ideas at a garage in El Cerrito, California, before inviting bassist Cliff Burton and guitarist Kirk Hammett for rehearsals. Hetfield and Ulrich described the songwriting process as starting with "guitar riffs, assembled and reassembled until they start to sound like a song". After that, the band came up with a song title and topic, and Hetfield wrote lyrics to match the title. Master of Puppets is Metallica's first album not to feature songwriting contributions from former lead guitarist Dave Mustaine. Mustaine claimed he had co-written "Leper Messiah", based on an old song called "The Hills Ran Red". The band denied this, but stated that one section incorporated Mustaine's ideas.
The band was not satisfied with the acoustics of the American studios they considered, and decided to record in Ulrich's native Denmark. Ulrich took drum lessons, and Hammett worked with Joe Satriani to learn how to record more efficiently. Ulrich was in talks with Rush's bassist and vocalist Geddy Lee to produce the album, but the collaboration never materialized because of uncoordinated schedules. Metallica recorded the album with producer Flemming Rasmussen at Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark, from September 1 to December 27, 1985. The writing of all the songs except "Orion" and "The Thing That Should Not Be" was completed before the band's arrival in Copenhagen. Rasmussen stated that the band brought well-prepared demos of the songs, and only slight changes were made to the compositions in the studio. The recording took longer than the previous album because Metallica had developed a sense of perfectionism and had higher ambitions. Metallica eschewed the slick production and synthesizers of contemporary hard rock and glam metal albums. With a reputation for drinking, the band stayed sober on recording days. Hammett recalled that the group was "just making another album" at the time and "had no idea that the record would have such a range of influence that it went on to have". He also said that the group was "definitely peaking" at the time and that the album had "the sound of a band really gelling, really learning how to work well together."
Rasmussen and Metallica did not manage to complete the mixtapes as planned. Instead, the multitrack recordings were sent in January 1986 to Michael Wagener, who finished the album's mixing. The cover was designed by Metallica and Peter Mensch and painted by Don Brautigam. It depicts a cemetery field of white crosses tethered to strings, manipulated by a pair of hands in a blood-red sky. Ulrich explained that the artwork summarized the lyrical content of the album—people being subconsciously manipulated. The original artwork was sold at Rockefeller Plaza, New York City for $28,000 in 2008. The band mocked the warning stickers promoted by the PMRC with a facetious Parental Advisory label on the cover: "The only track you probably won't want to play is 'Damage, Inc.' due to multiple use of the infamous 'F' word. Otherwise, there aren't any 'shits', 'fucks', 'pisses', 'cunts', 'motherfuckers', or 'cocksuckers' anywhere on this record".
The album was recorded with the following equipment: Hammett's guitars were a 1974 Gibson Flying V, a Jackson Randy Rhoads, and a Fernandes Stratocaster copy; Hetfield used a Jackson King V played through a Mesa Boogie Mark IIC+ amplifier modified as a pre-amp; Burton played an Aria Pro II SB1000 through Mesa Boogie amplifier heads and cabinets; Ulrich played Tama drum equipment, and borrowed a rare Ludwig Black Beauty snare drum from Def Leppard drummer Rick Allen.
Music and lyrics
Master of Puppets features dynamic music and thick arrangements. Metallica delivered a more refined approach and performance compared to the previous two albums, with multilayered songs and technical dexterity. This album and its predecessor Ride the Lightning follow a similar track sequencing: both open with an up-tempo song with an acoustic intro, followed by a lengthy title track, and a fourth track with ballad qualities. Although both albums are similarly structured, the musicianship on Master of Puppets is more powerful and epic in scope, with tight rhythms and delicate guitar solos. According to music writer Joel McIver, Master of Puppets introduced a new level of heaviness and complexity in thrash metal, displaying atmospheric and precisely executed songs. Hetfield's vocals had matured from the hoarse shouting of the first two albums to a deeper, in-control, yet aggressive style. The songs explore themes such as control and the abuse of power. The lyrics describe the consequences of alienation, oppression, and feelings of powerlessness. Author Ryan Moore thought the lyrics depicted "ominous yet unnamed forces of power wielding total control over helpless human subjects". The lyrics were considered perceptive and harrowing, and were praised for being honest and socially conscious by writer Brock Helander. Referring to the epic proportions of the songs, BBC Music's Eamonn Stack stated that "at this stage in their careers Metallica weren't even doing songs, they were telling stories". The compositions and arrangements benefited from bassist Cliff Burton's classical training and understanding of harmony.
"Battery" refers to angry violence, as in the term "assault and battery". Some critics contended that the title actually refers to an artillery battery, and interpreted it as "Hetfield [singing] of a war tactic as the aggressor" personifying destruction. The song begins with bass-heavy acoustic guitars that build upon multitracked layers until they are joined by a sonic wall of distorted electric guitars. It then breaks into fast, aggressive riffing, featuring off-beat rhythms and heavily distorted minor dyads where root-fifth power chords might be expected. Hetfield improvised the riff while relaxing in London. "Master of Puppets" consists of several riffs with odd meters and a cleanly picked middle section with melodic solo. The song shares a similar structure with "The Four Horsemen" from the band's first album: two verse-chorus sets lead to a lengthy interlude to another verse-chorus set. The opening and pre-verse sections feature fast downpicked chromatic riffing at around 212 beats per minute in mostly 4
4 time. Every fourth bar of each verse and the outro is cut short by more than a beat; the time signature of these bars is often idealistically analyzed as being 5
8, but it is performed with a delay after the third beat, making it closer to 21
32). A lengthy interlude follows the second chorus, beginning with a clean, arpeggiated section over which Hetfield contributes a melodic solo; the riffing becomes distorted and progressively more heavy and Hammett provides a more virtuosic solo before the song eventually returns to the main verse. The song closes with a fade-out of sinister laughter. The lyrical theme is cocaine addiction.
"The Thing That Should Not Be" was inspired by the Cthulhu Mythos created by famed horror writer H.P. Lovecraft, with notable direct references to The Shadow over Innsmouth and to Cthulhu himself, who is the subject matter of the song's chorus. It is considered the heaviest track on the album, with the main riff emulating a beast dragging itself into the sea. The Black Sabbath-influenced guitars are down-tuned, creating slow and moody ambience. "Welcome Home (Sanitarium)" was based on Ken Kesey's novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and conveys the thoughts of a patient unjustly caged in a mental institution. The song opens with a section of clean single strings and harmonics. The clean, arpeggiated main riff is played in alternating 4
4 and 6
4 time signatures. The song is structured with alternating somber clean guitars in the verses, and distorted heavy riffing in the choruses, unfolding into an aggressive finale. This structure follows a pattern of power ballads Metallica set with "Fade to Black" on Ride the Lightning, "One" on ...And Justice for All and later "The Day That Never Comes" on Death Magnetic.
"Disposable Heroes" is an anti-war song about a young soldier whose fate is controlled by his superiors. With sections performed at 220 beats per minute, it is one of the most intense tracks on the record. The guitar passage at the end of each verse was Hammett's imitation of the sort of music he found in war films. The syncopated riffing of "Leper Messiah" challenges the hypocrisy of the televangelism that emerged in the 1980s. The song describes how people are willingly turned into blind religious followers who mindlessly do whatever they are told. The 136 beats per minute mid-tempo riffing of the verses culminates in a descending chromatic riff in the chorus; it increases to a galloping 184 beats per minute for the middle section that climaxes in a distorted scream of "Lie!". The title derives from the lyrics to the David Bowie song "Ziggy Stardust". "Orion" is a multipart instrumental highlighting Burton's bass playing. It opens with a fade-in bass section, heavily processed to resemble an orchestra. It continues with mid-tempo riffing, followed by a bass riff at half-tempo. The tempo accelerates during the latter part, and ends with music fading out. Burton arranged the middle section, which features its moody bass line and multipart guitar harmonies. "Damage, Inc." rants about senseless violence and reprisal at an unspecified target. It starts with a series of reversed bass chords based on the chorale prelude of Bach's "Come, Sweet Death". The song then jumps into a rapid rhythm with a pedal-point riff in E that Hammett says was influenced by Deep Purple.
|Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s||B–|
|Collector's Guide to Heavy Metal||10/10|
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Great Rock Discography||9/10|
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
Master of Puppets was hailed as a masterpiece by critics outside of the thrash metal audience and cited by some as the genre's greatest album. In a contemporary review, Tim Holmes of Rolling Stone asserted that the band had redefined heavy metal with the technical skill and subtlety showcased on the album, which he described as "the sound of global paranoia". Kerrang! wrote that Master of Puppets "finally put Metallica into the big leagues where they belong". Editor Tom King said Metallica was at an "incredible song-writing peak" during the recording sessions, partially because Burton contributed to the songwriting. By contrast, Spin magazine's Judge I-Rankin was disappointed with the album and said, although the production is exceptional and Metallica's experimentation is commendable, it eschews the less "intellectual" approach of Kill 'Em All for a MDC-inspired direction that is inconsistent.
In a retrospective review, AllMusic's Steve Huey viewed Master of Puppets as Metallica's best album and remarked that, although it was not as unexpected as Ride the Lightning, it is a more musically and thematically consistent album. Greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune said the songs were the band's most intense at that point, and veer toward "the progressive tendency of Rush." Adrien Begrand of PopMatters praised the production as "a metal version of Phil Spector's Wall of Sound" and believed none of Metallica's subsequent albums could match its passionate and intense musical quality. BBC Music's Eamonn Stack called the album "hard, fast, rock with substance" and likened the songs to stories of "biblical proportions". Canadian journalist Martin Popoff compared the album to Ride the Lightning and found Master of Puppets not a remake, though similar in "awesome power and effect". Robert Christgau was more critical. Writing in Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s (1990), he said the band's energy and political motivations are respectable, but the music evokes clichéd images of "revolutionary heroes" who are "male chauvinists too inexperienced to know better". English philosopher Roger Scruton, who frequently criticized contemporary pop music, praised Metallica and in particular Master of Puppets, writing, "I have actually been listening to quite a bit of heavy metal lately, and Metallica, I think, is genuinely talented. Master of Puppets I think has got something genuinely both poetic – violently poetic – and musical. Every now and then something like that stands out."
Released on March 3, 1986, the album had a 72-week run on the Billboard 200 album charts and earned the band its first gold certification. The album debuted on March 29, 1986, at number 128 and peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200 chart. Billboard reported that 300,000 copies were sold in its first three weeks. More than 500,000 copies were sold in its first year, even with virtually no radio airplay and no music videos. In 2003, Master of Puppets was certified 6× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), with six million copies shipped in the United States. Between the beginning of the Nielsen SoundScan era in 1991 and 2009, 4,578,000 copies were sold. The album was less successful on an international level, despite entering the top 5 on the Finnish and the top 40 on the German and Swiss album charts in its inaugural year. In 2004, it peaked within the top 15 in Sweden. In 2008, the album reached the top 40 on the Australian and Norwegian album charts. It received 6× platinum certification from Music Canada and a golden award from the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) for shipments of 600,000 and 100,000 copies, respectively.
Accolades and legacy
Master of Puppets has appeared in several publications' best album lists. It was ranked number 167 on the list of Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, maintaining the rating in a 2012 revised list, and upgrading to number 97 in a 2020 revised list. The magazine would also later rank it second on its 2017 list of "100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time", behind Black Sabbath's Paranoid. Time included the album in its list of the 100 best albums of all time. According to the magazine's Josh Tyrangiel, Master of Puppets reinforced the velocity of playing in heavy metal and diminished some of its clichés. Slant Magazine placed the album at number 90 on its list of the best albums of the 1980s, saying Master of Puppets is Metallica's best and most sincere recording. The album is featured in Robert Dimery's book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. IGN named Master of Puppets the best heavy metal album of all time. The website stated it was Metallica's best because it "built upon and perfected everything they had experimented with prior" and that "all the pieces come together in glorious cohesion". Music journalist Martin Popoff also ranked it the best heavy metal album. The album was voted the fourth greatest guitar album of all time by Guitar World in 2006, and the title track ranked number 61 on the magazine's list of the 100 greatest guitar solos. Total Guitar ranked the main riff of the title track at number 7 among the top 20 guitar riffs. The April 2006 edition of Kerrang! was dedicated to the album and gave away to readers the cover album Master of Puppets: Remastered.
Master of Puppets became thrash metal's first platinum album and by the early 1990s thrash metal successfully challenged and redefined the mainstream of heavy metal. Metallica and a few other bands headlined arena concerts and appeared regularly on MTV, although radio play remained incommensurate with their popularity. Master of Puppets is widely accepted as the genre's most accomplished album, and paved the way for subsequent development. The album, in the words of writer Christopher Knowles, "ripped Metallica away from the underground and put them atop the metal mountain". David Hayter from Guitar Planet recognized the album as one of the most influential records ever made and a benchmark by which other metal albums should be judged. MTV's Kyle Anderson had similar thoughts, saying that 25 years after its release the album remained a "stone cold classic". Carlos Ramirez from Noisecreep believes that Master of Puppets stands as one of the most representative albums of its genre.
1986 is seen as a pinnacle year for thrash metal in which the genre broke out of the underground due to albums such as Megadeth's Peace Sells... but Who's Buying? and Slayer's Reign in Blood. Anthrax released Among the Living in 1987, and by the end of the year these bands, alongside Metallica, were being called the "Big Four" of thrash metal. Master of Puppets frequently tops critic and fan polls of favorite thrash metal albums—the most frequent rival is Slayer's Reign in Blood, also released in 1986 and also considered that band's peak. The rivalry partially stemmed from a contrast in approaches on the two albums, between the sophistication of Master of Puppets and the velocity of Reign in Blood. Histories of the band tend to position Ride the Lightning, Master of Puppets, and ...And Justice for All as a trilogy over the course of which the band's music progressively matured and became more sophisticated. In 2015, the album was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Recording Registry.
Tour and Burton's death
Metallica opted for extensive touring instead of releasing a single or video to promote the album. The Damage, Inc. Tour began in March 1986, and the band spent March to August touring as the opening act for Ozzy Osbourne in the United States, the first tour Metallica played to arena-sized audiences. During sound checks, the group played riffs from Osbourne's previous band Black Sabbath, which Osbourne perceived as mockery. Ulrich, however, stated that Metallica was honored to play with Osbourne, who treated the band well on the tour. Metallica was noted by the media for their excessive drinking habit while touring and earned the nickname "Alcoholica". The band members occasionally even wore satirical T-shirts reading "Alcoholica/Drank 'Em All".
The band usually played a 45-minute set often followed by an encore. According to Ulrich, the audiences in bigger cities were already familiar with Metallica's music, unlike in the smaller towns they've visited. "In the B-markets, people really don't know what we're all about. But after 45 or 50 minutes we can tell we've won them over. And fans who come to hear Ozzy go home liking Metallica." Metallica won over Osbourne's fans and slowly began to establish a mainstream following. Hetfield broke his wrist in a mid-tour skateboarding accident, and guitar technician John Marshall played rhythm guitar on several dates.
The European leg of the tour commenced in September, with Anthrax as the supporting band. The morning after a performance on September 26 in Stockholm, the band's bus rolled off the road, and Burton was thrown through a window and killed instantly. The driver claimed he hit a patch of black ice, but others believed he was either drunk or fell asleep at the wheel. The driver was charged with manslaughter but was not convicted. The band returned to San Francisco and hired Flotsam and Jetsam bassist Jason Newsted to replace Burton. Many of the songs that appeared on the band's next album, ...And Justice for All, were composed during Burton's career with the band.
Later live performances
All of the songs have been performed live, and some became permanent setlist features. Four tracks were featured on the nine-song set list for the album's promotional tour: "Battery" as opener, "Master of Puppets", "Welcome Home (Sanitarium)", and "Damage, Inc." The title track, which was issued as a single in France, became a live staple and the most-played Metallica song. Loudwire's Chad Childers characterized the band's performance as "furious" and the song as the set's highlight. Rolling Stone described the live performance as "a classic in all its eight-minute glory". While filming its 3D movie Metallica: Through the Never (2013) at the Rogers Arena in Vancouver, crosses were rising from the stage during the song, reminiscent of the album's cover art.
"Welcome Home (Sanitarium)" is the second-most performed song from the album. The live performance is often accompanied by lasers, pyrotechnical effects and film screens. "Battery" is usually played at the beginning of the setlist or during the encore, accompanied by lasers and flame plumes. "Disposable Heroes" is featured in the video album Orgullo, Pasión, y Gloria: Tres Noches en la Ciudad de México (2009) filmed in Mexico City, in which the song was played on the second of three nights at the Foro Sol. "Orion" is the least-performed song from the album. Its first live performance was during the Escape from the Studio '06 tour, when the band performed the album in its entirety, honoring the 20th anniversary of its release. The band performed the album in the middle of the set. "Battery", "Welcome Home (Sanitarium)", "Damage, Inc." and the full-length "Master of Puppets" were revived for the band's concerts in 1997 and 1998, after having been retired for a number of years.
All lyrics written by James Hetfield. The bonus tracks on the digital re-release were recorded live at the Seattle Coliseum, Seattle, Washington, on August 29 and 30, 1989, and also appeared on the live album Live Shit: Binge & Purge (1993).
|2.||"Master of Puppets"||8:36|
|3.||"The Thing That Should Not Be"||6:36|
|4.||"Welcome Home (Sanitarium)"||6:27|
|10.||"The Thing That Should Not Be (Live)"||7:02|
2017 deluxe box set
In 2017, the album was remastered and reissued in a limited edition deluxe box set with an expanded track listing and bonus content. The deluxe edition set includes the original album on vinyl and CD, with two additional vinyl records containing a live recording from Chicago; nine CDs of interviews, rough mixes, demo recordings, outtakes, and live recordings recorded from 1985 to 1987; a cassette of a fan recording of Metallica's September 1986 live concert in Stockholm, which was Cliff Burton's final performance before his death; and two DVDs of interviews and live recordings recorded in 1986.
Credits are adapted from the album's liner notes.
- James Hetfield – vocals, rhythm guitar, 1st guitar solo on "Master of Puppets", 2nd guitar solo on "Orion", production
- Kirk Hammett – lead guitar, production
- Cliff Burton – bass, 4th solo on "Orion", intro on "Damage, Inc.", backing vocals, production
- Lars Ulrich – drums, production
* Jason Newsted – bass and backing vocals (bonus tracks only)
- Flemming Rasmussen – production, engineering
- Andy Wroblewski – assistant engineer
- Michael Wagener – mixing
- Mark Wilzcak – assistant mixing engineer
- George Marino – mastering, remastering on 1995 re-release
- Howie Weinberg, Gentry Studer – 2017 remastering
- Mike Gillies – mixing on the digital reissue bonus tracks
- Metallica, Peter Mensch – cover concept
- Don Brautigam – cover illustration
- Ross Halfin – inner sleeve photos
- Rich Likong, Ross Halfin, Rob Ellis – back cover photos
|Canada (Music Canada)||6× Platinum||600,000^|
sales since 2009
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Platinum||15,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Platinum||300,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||6× Platinum||6,000,000^|
* Sales figures based on certification alone.
- "MASTER OF PUPPETS". metallica.com. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- "National Recording Registry Recognizes "Mack the Knife," Motown and Mahler". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- "Metallica Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Brannigan, Paul; Winwood, Ian (2013). Birth School Metallica Death, Volume 1. Faber and Faber. pp. Chapter 5 & 7. ISBN 978-0-571-29416-9.
- Gulla, Bob (2008). Guitar Gods: The 25 Players Who Made Rock History. ABC-CLIO. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-313-35806-7.
- Wall, Mick (2011). Enter Night: A Biography of Metallica. St. Martin's Press. pp. Chapter 7. ISBN 978-1-4299-8703-5.
- Pareles, Jon (July 10, 1988). "Heavy Metal, Weighty Words". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Wall, Mick (January 2006). "Master Piece". Guitar World: 52–61, 104–110. ISSN 1045-6295.
- Cummings, Sue (August 1986). "Road Warriors". Spin. 2 (5): 59–61. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- McIver, Joel (2004). Justice For All – The Truth About Metallica. Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 12. ISBN 0-7119-9600-8.
- Kielty, Martin (December 11, 2015). "Metallica Wanted Geddy Lee for Master of Puppets". Metal Hammer. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Hadlan, Sem (1998). The Illustrated Collector's Guide to Metallica: Fuel & Fire. Collector's Guide Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 1-896522-09-2.
- Tarquin, Brian (2012). Recording Techniques of the Guitar Masters. Course Technology. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4354-6016-4.
- Kielty, Martin (October 3, 2012). "Ulrich bored Hammett in Metallica's Puppet sessions". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Eddy, Chuck (2011). Rock and Roll Always Forgets: A Quarter Century of Music Criticism. Duke University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8223-5010-1.
- "Original Master of Puppets Artwork Up for Auction". Guitar World. October 29, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Bowcott, Nick (January 2006). "Master Class". Guitar World: 120–128. ISSN 1045-6295.
- Hodgson, Pete (March 24, 2013). "Gear: Metallica –The Ultimate Shredhead's Guide". Australian Guitar. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- McIver, Joel (2009). To Live Is to Die: The Life and Death of Metallica's Cliff Burton. Jawbone Press. pp. 159–160, 165, 226. ISBN 978-1-906002-24-4.
- "30 Battering Master of Puppets Facts". Ultimate Classic Rock. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Huey, Steve. "Master of Puppets". AllMusic. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- Hayter, David (March 22, 2011). "Classic Album of the month: Metallica – Master of puppets". Guitar Planet. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Moore, Ryan (2010). Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis. New York University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8147-5747-5.
- Helander, Brock (1996). The Rock Who's who. Schirmer Books. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-02-871031-0.
- Stack, Eamonn (April 23, 2007). "Master of Puppets Review – Metallica". BBC Music. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Pillsbury, Glenn T. (2006). Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 34, 53–54, 61–63, 72–73. ISBN 978-0-415-97374-8.
- Metallica and the Missing 32nd Note- Master of Puppets Analyzed. August 2, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2019 – via YouTube.
- King, Tom (2011). Metallica – Uncensored On the Record. Coda Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-908538-55-0.
- Dome, Malcolm; Wall, Mick (2011). Metallica: The Music and the Mayhem. Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 11. ISBN 978-0-85712-721-1.
- Irwin, William (2009). Metallica and Philosophy: A Crash Course in Brain Surgery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4051-8208-9.
- Begrand, Adrien (September 12, 2002). "Metallica: Master of Puppets". PopMatters. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- I-Rankin', Judge (July 1986). "Spins". Spin. 2 (4): 32. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Kot, Greg (December 1, 1991). "A Guide to Metallica's Recordings". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (1990). "Metallica: Master of Puppets". Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. ISBN 067973015X. Retrieved January 26, 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- Popoff, Martin (2005). The Collector's Guide to Heavy Metal: The Eighties. 2. Collector's Guide Publishing. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-894959-31-5.
- Larkin, Colin (2006). Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 5 (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 725. ISBN 0-19-531373-9.
- Strong, Martin C. (2004). "Metallica". The Great Rock Discography (7th ed.). Canongate U.S. ISBN 1841956155.
- Graff, Gary, ed. (1996). "Metallica". MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Detroit: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0787610372.
- O'Connor, Andy (December 2, 2017). "Metallica: Master of Puppets Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
- Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian David (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. p. 538. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- Butler, Nick (June 26, 2006). "Metallica – Master of Puppets". Sputnikmusic. Scroll down to Nick Butler (staff). Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Holmes, Tim (June 5, 1986). "Master of Puppets". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
- Nielsen Business Media, Inc (March 29, 1986). "Top Pop Albums". Billboard: H-16. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Duff, S.L. (May 10, 1986). "Indies Grab Torch from Majors—And Run". Billboard: H-16. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Sheehan, Ivan J. "Master of Puppets 25th Anniversary". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- "Metallica's 'Black' LP Is Top-Selling Album Of SoundScan Era". Blabbermouth.net. December 23, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Finnish Album Charts" (in Finnish). Timo Pennanen. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
- "Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- "Canadian album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Music Canada.
- "British album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets". British Phonographic Industry.Select albums in the Format field. Type Master of Puppets in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
- "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Grow, Kory (June 21, 2017). "100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (October 13, 2006). "The All-TIME 100 Albums: Master of Puppets". Time. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
- "Best Albums of the 1980s". Slant Magazine. March 5, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- McIver, Joel (2005). Dimery, Robert (ed.). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die (1st ed.). Universe Publishing. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-7893-1371-3.
- Ed T.; Spence D. (January 19, 2007). "Top 25 Metal Albums". IGN. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Popoff, Martin (2004). The Top 500 Heavy Metal Albums of All Time. ECW Press. pp. Chapter 1. ISBN 978-1-55022-600-3.
- "50 Greatest Guitar Albums". Guitar World. February 19, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- "100 Greatest Guitar Solos: 51–100". Guitar World. October 30, 2008. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- "Guns N' Roses top rock riff poll". BBC News. May 2, 2004. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Machine Head, Trivium, Mastodon Pay Tribute to Metallica On 'Remastered' CD". Blabbermouth.net. March 21, 2006. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Walser, Robert; et al. (November 19, 1998). Nicholls, David (ed.). The Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge University Press. p. 378. ISBN 0-521-45429-8.
- Bayer, Gerd (2009). Heavy Metal Music in Britain. Ashgate Publishing Limited. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7546-6423-9.
- Knowles, Christopher (2010). The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-57344-564-1.
- Anderson, Kyle (March 3, 2011). "Metallica's Master Of Puppets Turns 25". MTV. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Ramirez, Carlos (March 31, 2011). "Metallica's 'Master of Puppets' Celebrates 25th Anniversary". Noisecreep. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Metallica First Metal Recording in US Historical Registry". AFP. March 23, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- Eddy, Chuck (2011). Rock and Roll Always Forgets: A Quarter Century of Music Criticism. Duke University Press. p. 102.
- Harrison, Thomas (2011). Music of the 1980s. ABC-CLIO. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-313-36599-7.
- Popoff, Martin (2013). Metallica: The Complete Illustrated History. Voyageur Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7603-4482-8.
- Ray, Michael (2013). Disco, Punk, New Wave, Heavy Metal, and More: Music in the 1970s and 1980s. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 53.
- "Metallica's Hetfield And Ulrich Discuss Importance Of 'Master Of Puppets'". Blabbermouth.net. August 31, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Master of Puppets release date". Metallica.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
- Childers, Chad (December 5, 2012). "Metallica Unveil 'Quebec Magnetic' Footage of 'Master of Puppets' Performance". Loudwire. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Metallica Tear Through 'Master of Puppets' in Quebec". Rolling Stone. December 5, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Harcott, Kyle (August 26, 2012). "Metallica at Rogers Arena, Vancouver". The Snipe. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Songs". Metallica.com. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Steffen, Chris (June 10, 2013). "Metallica Dig Deep for Orion Fest Setlist". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Hart, Josh (March 22, 2012). "Metallica Post 'Disposable Heroes' Video from 'Three Nights in Mexico City' DVD". Guitar World. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Rutledge, Daniel (October 15, 2010). "Metallica treat Kiwi fans to 'Orion'". 3 News. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Metallica perform Master of Puppets in its entirety". MTV. June 5, 2006. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Kaufman, Gil (June 26, 2006). "Metallica Put Catalog On iTunes — Quietly". MTV. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- "Master of Puppets (Remastered Deluxe Box Set)". Metallica.com. Metallica, Blackened Recordings. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- Master of Puppets (CD liner notes). Metallica. Elektra Records. 1986. 9-60439-2.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
- "Australiancharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Austriancharts.at – Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Ultratop.be – Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Metallica Chart History (Canadian Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Top Albums/CDs". RPM. May 10, 1986. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Metallica: Master of Puppets" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Lescharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Irish-charts.com – Discography Metallica". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Italiancharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Charts.nz – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Portuguesecharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Spanishcharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Swisscharts.com – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Hung Medien. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Metallica | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Metallica Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Metallica Chart History (Top Rock Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Oficjalna lista sprzedaży :: OLiS - Official Retail Sales Chart". OLiS. Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
- "Top Billboard 200 Albums – Year-End 1986". Billboard. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Top Billboard 200 Albums – Year-End 2015". Billboard. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Top Catalog Albums: 2015 Year-End Charts". Billboard. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Top Catalog Albums: 2016 Year-End Charts". Billboard. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Top Rock Albums – Year-End 2018". Billboard. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
- "Najpopularniejsze single radiowe i najlepiej sprzedające się płyty 2020 roku" (in Polish). Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- "Discos de oro y platino" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- "The ARIA Report: Issue 969 (Week Commencing 22 September 2008)" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association. pp. 2–5. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- "Ultratop − Goud en Platina – albums 2001". Ultratop. Hung Medien.
- "Metallica" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Metallica; 'Master of Puppets')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- "Italian album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved November 2, 2016. Select "2016" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "Master of Puppets" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Album e Compilation" under "Sezione".
- "New Zealand album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand.
- "Wyróżnienia - Platynowe płyty CD - Archiwum - Przyznane w 2020 roku" (in Polish). Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
- "British album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets". British Phonographic Industry.Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Master of Puppets in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Metallica – Master of Puppets". Recording Industry Association of America.