Master suppression techniques
The Master suppression techniques is a framework articulated in 1945 by the Norwegian psychologist and philosopher Ingjald Nissen. These techniques identified by Nissen are ways to indirectly suppress and humiliate opponents. In the late 1970s the framework was popularized by Norwegian social psychologist Berit Ås, who reduced Nissen's original nine means to five. Master suppression techniques are defined as strategies of social manipulation by which a dominant group maintains such a position in a (established or unexposed) hierarchy. They are very prominent in Scandinavian scholarly and public debate, where the expression is also used to refer to types of social manipulation not part of Ås's framework. Master suppression techniques are sometimes called domination techniques.
- 1 Five master suppression techniques according to Ås
- 2 Later additions by Ås
- 3 Countermeasures against master suppression techniques
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Five master suppression techniques according to Ås
To silence or otherwise marginalize persons in opposition by ignoring them
In a manipulative way to portray the arguments of, or their opponents themselves, in a ridiculing fashion
To exclude a person from the decision making process, or knowingly not forwarding information so as to make the person less able to make an informed choice
To punish or otherwise belittle the actions of a person, regardless of how they act
Heap blame or put to shame
To embarrass someone, or to insinuate that they are themselves to blame for their position
Later additions by Ås
Berit Ås has since added two supplementary master suppression techniques.
To discuss the appearance of one or several persons in a situation where it is irrelevant
Force or threat of force
To threaten with or use one's physical strength towards one or several persons
Countermeasures against master suppression techniques
A group of PhD students at Stockholm University has formulated five counter strategies:
- Take place
- The cards on the table
- Break the pattern
They have also formulated five confirmation techniques:
- Double reward
- Confirm reasonable standards
- Ingjald Nissen, Psykopatenes diktatur 1945.
- Ås, Berit. "Hersketeknikker". Kjerringråd. Oslo (1978:3): 17–21. ISSN 0800-0565.
- Andrén, Maria (2008-03-11). "Så hanterar du skitsnacket". Chef. Ledarna. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- "Domination techniques: what they are and how to combat them" (PDF). The Centre for Gender Equality, Norway. April 2001. p. 12. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Ås, Berit (2004). "The Five Master Suppression Techniques". In Evengård, Birgitta. Women In White: The European Outlook. Stockholm: Stockholm City Council. pp. 78–83. ISBN 91-631-5716-0.
- ENSU, Empowerment-Nätverket vid Stockholms Universitet (2004) ”Bekräftartekniker och motstrategier - sätt att bemöta maktstrukturer och förändra sociala klimat.”, 2010-07-01
- Domination techniques: what they are and how to combat them