Top: North American/European Master System
Middle: Japanese Sega Mark III
Bottom: PAL Master System II
|Type||Home video game console|
|Units sold||Worldwide: 10–13 million (not including recent Brazil figures)|
Japan: 1 million (as of 1986)
United States: 2 million (as of 1993)
Europe: 6.8 million (estimated as of December 1993)
Brazil: 8 million (as of 2016)
|Media||ROM cartridge, Sega Card|
|CPU||Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz|
|Memory||8 kB RAM, 16 kB VRAM|
|Display||256 × 192 resolution, 32 colors on-screen|
|Graphics||Yamaha YM2602B VDP|
|Sound||Yamaha VDP PSG(SN76489), Yamaha YM2413[a]|
|Related articles||Game Gear|
The Sega Master System (SMS)[c] is a third-generation 8-bit home video game console manufactured by Sega. It was originally a remodeled export version of the Sega Mark III, the third iteration of the SG-1000 series of consoles, which was released in Japan in 1985 and featured enhanced graphical capabilities over its predecessors. The Master System launched in North America in 1986, followed by Europe in 1987, and Brazil in 1989. A Japanese version of the Master System was also launched in 1987, which features a few enhancements over the export models (and by proxy the original Mark III): a built-in FM audio chip, a rapid-fire switch, and a dedicated port for the 3D glasses. A cost-reduced model known as the Master System II was released in 1990 in North America and Europe.
The original Master System models use both cartridges and a credit card-sized format known as Sega Cards. Accessories for the consoles include a light gun and 3D glasses that work with a range of specially designed games. The later Master System II redesign removed the card slot, turning it into a strictly cartridge-only system and is incompatible with the 3D glasses.
The Master System was released in competition with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Its library is smaller and with fewer well-reviewed games than the NES, due in part to Nintendo licensing policies requiring platform exclusivity. Though the Master System had newer, improved hardware, it failed to overturn Nintendo's significant market share advantage in Japan and North America. However, it attained significantly more success in Europe and Brazil.
Master System sales estimates are between 10 and 13 million units, excluding recent Brazil sales. Retrospective criticism has recognized its role in the development of the Sega Genesis, and a number of well-received games, particularly in PAL (including PAL-M) regions, but is critical of its limited library in the NTSC regions, which were mainly dominated by Nintendo's NES. As of 2015[update], the Master System was still in production in Brazil by Tectoy, making it the world's longest-lived console.
In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc., then a subsidiary of the American conglomerate Gulf and Western, was one of the largest arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, with company revenues of $214 million by mid-1982. A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 negatively impacted the company, leading Gulf and Western to sell the North American manufacturing and licensing of its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd., as well as Sega's North American research and development division. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, which was in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed. The first model to be developed was the SC-3000, a computer with a built-in keyboard, but when Sega learned of Nintendo's plans to release a games-only console, they began developing the SG-1000 alongside the SC-3000.
The SG-1000 was first released in Japan on July 15, 1983, at a price of JP¥15,000. It was launched on the same day that Nintendo released the Family Computer (Famicom) in Japan. Shortly after the launch of the SG-1000, Gulf and Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder, Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company. Nakayama was then installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Following the buyout, Sega released another console, the SG-1000 II, for ¥15,000. It features a few hardware tweaks from the original model, including detachable controllers. The SG-1000 II did not sell well, however, leading to Sega's decision to continue work on the video game hardware used for the system. This resulted in the release of the Sega Mark III in Japan in 1985.
Engineered by the same internal Sega team that had created the SG-1000, the Mark III is a redesigned iteration of the previous console. The CPUs in the SG-1000 and SG-1000 II are Zilog Z80As running at 3.58 MHz, while the Mark III, SC-3000—a computer version of the SG-1000—and Master System feature a Z80A running at 4 MHz. The Mark III and Master System also have a slot for Sega Card software without any need for the Card Catcher add-on that the SC-3000 and previous SG-1000 consoles required. According to Edge, lessons from the SG-1000's lack of commercial success were used in the hardware redesign of the Mark III, and the console was designed to be more powerful than the stock Famicom.
For the console's North America release, Sega restyled and rebranded the Mark III under the name "Master System", similar to Nintendo's own reworking of the Famicom into the Nintendo Entertainment System. The "Master System" name is one of several proposals Sega's American employees considered, and was ultimately chosen by throwing darts against a whiteboard, although plans to release a cheaper console similarly referred to as the "Base System" also influenced the decision. Sega Enterprises Chairman Isao Okawa endorsed the name after being told it was a reference to the competitive nature of both the video game industry and martial arts, in which only one competitor can be the "Master". The futuristic final design for the Master System was intended to appeal to Western tastes. As part of the marketing for the release in North America, Sega of America head Bruce Lowry stated that the console's packaging was made white only because Nintendo's NES was packaged in black, and the grid design was inspired by its use in Apple Computer products.
The Sega Mark III was released in Japan in October 1985 at a price of ¥15,000. Though featuring technically more powerful hardware than its chief competition, the Famicom, the Mark III did not prove to be successful at its launch. Difficulties arose from Nintendo's licensing practices with third-party developers at the time, whereby Nintendo required that games for the Famicom not be published on other consoles. To overcome this, Sega developed its own games and obtained the rights to port games from other developers, but they did not sell well. NEC later used the same strategy on some of Sega's games when developing games for the TurboGrafx-16. In preparation for the launch, Mark Cerny has stated that "pressure was very, very high", with a typical game being allotted only three months of development time.
After being restyled the "Master System", the console was released in North America in 1986 at a price of $200 (equivalent to $466 in 2019), including a multicart of the games Hang-On and Safari Hunt. Sega and Nintendo, which was similarly exporting the Famicom to the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), planned to spend $15 million in the fall and winter of 1986 to market their consoles; Sega hoped to sell 400,000 to 750,000 consoles in 1986. By the end of 1986, 125,000 Master System consoles had been sold, more than the Atari 7800's 100,000 but less than Nintendo's 1.1 million. As in Japan, the Master System in North America had a limited game library that was not as well received as the NES. Against Nintendo's licensing practices, Sega only had two third-party American publishers, Activision and Parker Brothers. By 1988, Nintendo commanded 83 percent of the North American video game market share. Sega claimed that "our system is the first one where the graphics on the box are actually matched by the graphics of the game", and marketing for the Master System was targeted at bringing home the arcade experience, but its marketing department was run by only two men, giving Sega a disadvantage in advertising. At this time, Sega sold the distribution rights for the Master System in the United States to Tonka, which did not have any previous experience with electronic entertainment systems. Some of Tonka's decisions with the Master System included blocking localization of several popular video games. Though the distributor of the console had changed, the Master System continued to perform poorly in the market. The console was re-released as the Master System in Japan in October 1987 for ¥16,800, but still sold poorly as did the Mark III. Neither model posed a serious challenge to Nintendo in Japan.
The European launch of the Master System occurred in 1987. It was distributed by Mastertronic in the United Kingdom, Master Games in France, and Ariolasoft in Germany. Mastertronic advertised the Master System as "an arcade in the home" and launched the system at £99 (equivalent to £281 in 2019). Advance orders from retailers were high, but Sega proved unable to deliver inventory until Boxing Day on December 26, causing many retailers to cancel their orders. As a result, Master Games and Mastertronic both entered financial crises and Ariolasoft vowed never to work with Sega again. Mastertronic had already sold a minority interest to Richard Branson and the Virgin group to enter the console business and now sold the remainder of the company to avoid bankruptcy. The newly rebranded Virgin Mastertronic then took over all European distribution in 1988. Virgin Mastertronic consequently focused marketing the Master System on ports of Sega's arcade games and positioning it as a superior video game alternative to the Commodore 64 and the ZX Spectrum home computers. As a result of this marketing and of Nintendo's less effective approaches in Europe, the Master System began to attract European-based developers. The Master System held a significant part of the video game console market in Europe through the release of Sega's succeeding console, the Mega Drive.
Brazil was also a successful market for the Master System, where the console was distributed by Tectoy. Launched officially in Brazil in September 1989, the Master System achieved success in the region. By the end of 1990, the Master System installed base in Brazil was about 280,000 units. The company also introduced a telephone service with tips for games, created a Master System club, and presented the program Master Tips during commercial breaks of the television show Sessão Aventura of Rede Globo. Sega's primary competition, Nintendo, did not officially arrive in Brazil until 1993, and were unable to compete. Tectoy claimed 80% of the Brazilian video game market.
Transition to Genesis and decline
Sega released the Mega Drive, a 16-bit video game console, in Japan on October 29, 1988. The final licensed release for the Mark III/Master System in Japan was Bomber Raid in 1989. During the same year, Sega was preparing to release the new Mega Drive, relabeled "Genesis", in North America. Displeased with Tonka's handling of the Master System, Sega reacquired the marketing and distribution rights to the Master System for the United States. In 1990, Sega released the remodeled Master System II, designed to be a lower-cost version of the console without the Sega Card slot. Sega promoted the new model itself, but the console still sold poorly in the region though Tonka was no longer involved with the Master System's marketing. In 1991, Nintendo entered into a consent agreement under United States antitrust law and was forced to abandon some of its licensing practices. By early 1992, Master System production ceased in North America. By the time of its discontinuation, between 1.5 million and 2 million units had been sold in the United States, finishing behind both Nintendo and Atari, which controlled 80 percent and 12 percent of the market, respectively. The last licensed release in North America was Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991.
Contrary to its performance in Japan and North America, the Master System was eventually a success in Europe, where it outsold the NES by a considerable margin. As late as 1993, the Master System's active installed user base in Europe was 6.25 million units, larger than that of the Mega Drive's 5.73 million base that year. Combined with the Mega Drive, Sega represented the majority of the console user base in Europe that year. The Master System's largest markets in the region were France and the United Kingdom, which had active user bases of 1.6 million and 1.35 million, respectively, in 1993. The remodeled Master System II also proved to be successful and helped Sega to sustain the Master System's significant market share in Europe. More new releases would continue into the 1990s in Europe, including Sonic the Hedgehog 2, Streets of Rage 2, and Mercs.
Continued success in Brazil
The Master System has had continued success in Brazil, where new variations have continued to be released long after the console was discontinued elsewhere. As they are from the original 1989 manufacturer, Tectoy, this has resulted in the console's unusually long production lifespan. These variations include the Master System Compact and the Master System 3, though Tectoy has also received requests to remake the original Master System. In 2015, it was reported that the Master System sells around 150,000 units per year in Brazil, a level that holds its own against modern systems such as the PlayStation 4. By 2016, the Master System had sold 8 million units in Brazil. Because Tectoy continued to produce the Master System years after its cancellation, the console is considered the longest-lived in the history of video game consoles.
Developed under the name "Project Mercury" and designed based on the Master System's hardware, the Game Gear is a handheld game console. It was first released in Japan on October 6, 1990, in North America and Europe in 1991, and in Australia and New Zealand in 1992. Originally retailing at JP¥19,800 in Japan, US$149.99 in North America, and GB£99.99 in Europe, the Game Gear was designed to compete with the Game Boy, which Nintendo had released in 1989. There are similarities between the Game Gear and the Master System hardware, but the games are not directly compatible; Master System games are only playable on Game Gear using the Master System Converter accessory. A large part of the Game Gear's game library consists of Master System ports. Because of hardware similarities including the landscape screen orientation, Master System games are easily portable to the handheld. In particular, many Master System ports of Game Gear games were done by Tectoy for the Brazilian market, as the Master System was more popular than the Game Gear in the region.
The main CPU of the Master System is a Zilog Z80A, an 8-bit processor running at 4 MHz. It has 8 kB of ROM, 8 kB of RAM and 16 kB of video RAM. Video is provided through an RF switch and displays at a resolution of 256 × 192 pixels and up to 32 colors at one time from a total palette of 64 colors. Physically, the Master System measures 365 by 170 by 70 millimetres (14.4 in × 6.7 in × 2.8 in), while the Mark III measures 318 by 145 by 52 millimetres (12.5 in × 5.7 in × 2.0 in). Both the Mark III and the Master System possess two slots for game input: one for Mega Cartridges and one for Sega Cards, along with an expansion slot and 2 controller ports. Sound is provided by the SN76489 PSG chip, which is capable of producing three square wave channels and one noise channel. The Japanese version also integrates the YM2413 FM chip, which had been an optional feature on the Mark III. With few exceptions, Master System hardware is identical to the hardware in the Mark III. Games for the console are playable on the Sega Genesis using the Power Base Converter accessory, as well as on the Game Gear using the Master System Converter. Compared to the base NES, the Master System has twice as much memory and higher CPU clock rate.
A number of accessories were created for the Mark III and Master System, which are cross-compatible with one another. The controller for each console consists of a rectangular shape with a control pad and two buttons. Sega also introduced additional controllers, such as a bike handle controller and paddle controller, for the Mark III and a special sports controller for the Master System. A pair of 3D glasses known as SegaScope 3-D were also created for games such as Space Harrier 3D, although Mark III users need an additional converter to use them. The Mark III has an optional RF transmitter accessory, allowing wireless play that broadcast the game being played on a UHF television signal. A light gun peripheral known as the Light Phaser was based on the weapon of the same name from the Japanese anime Zillion.
The Master System was produced in several variations. Released in 1990, the Master System II removed a number of components in order to reduce the cost of the console, including the Sega Card slot, reset button, power light, expansion port, and activation music and logo upon turning on the system. Several licensed variations of the console also exist in Brazil, created by Tectoy. A variation known as the Master System Super Compact was capable of functioning wirelessly with an RF transmitter, while Tectoy also sought to appeal to female gamers in Brazil with the Master System Girl, which was molded in bright pink plastic. A more recent version, released in 2006 in Brazil known as the Master System 3 Collection, contains 120 built-in games. Another Master System, built as a handheld game console, was released under several brands including Coleco in 2006.
Games for the Master System are in two formats: ROM cartridges are capable of holding up to 4 Mbit of game code, while Sega Cards (My Cards in Japan) can hold up to 256 kbit. Cards were cheaper to manufacture than the cartridges and include Spy vs. Spy and Super Tennis, but Sega Cards were eventually dropped due to small memory size. Master System cartridges were initially branded Mega Cartridges to emphasize their large ROM size compared with cards, but this label fell into disuse after Sega ceased production of new card software.
Games manufactured for the system include Psycho Fox, Golvellius, and Phantasy Star, which became a successful franchise for Sega and is considered one of the benchmark role-playing games. Sega's flagship character at the time, Alex Kidd, stars in games including Alex Kidd in Miracle World. Wonder Boy III: The Dragon's Trap has garnered recognition as "a genuine milestone in video game design" due to its innovative blend of platforming gameplay with RPG elements. Built-in games are common in Master System hardware, including Snail Maze and Hang-On, as well as Alex Kidd in Miracle World and Sonic the Hedgehog. Additional games were released in Brazil by Tectoy, including ports of Street Fighter II and Dynamite Headdy after the Master System was discontinued elsewhere.
Due in part to Nintendo's licensing practices, few third-party developers contributed games for the Master System. According to Damien McFerran, "Nintendo requested that developers keep their games 'NES exclusive', and given the unassailable position the console enjoyed, few had the will to defy this request." In addition, according to game designer Mark Cerny, most of Sega's early Master System games were developed within a strict three-month deadline, which negatively impacted game quality. Computer Gaming World compared new Sega games to "drops of water in the desert". Games for the Master System, however, do take advantage of the advanced hardware of the console in comparison to the NES; Alex Kidd in Miracle World, for example, showcases "blistering colors and more detailed sprites" than competing NES games. In addition, the Master System version of R-Type has garnered retrospective praise for its quality, with its visuals considered comparable to those found in the TurboGrafx-16 port of the same game.
Retro Gamer praised the system's PAL library, referring to it as a "superb library of interesting ports and excellent exclusives" which offered significantly greater depth than what was available in North America and provided a "drip-feed of quality titles" that continued to be released in Europe up until the mid-1990s. Such games ranged from 8-bit entries of Sega Genesis/Mega Drive franchises such as Sonic the Hedgehog and Streets of Rage to dozens of exclusive PAL releases such as Lucky Dime Caper, Asterix, Ninja Gaiden, Master of Darkness and Power Strike II.
The Sega Mark III, as well as the Japanese model of the Master System, both have full backward compatibility with SC-3000/SG-1000 game cartridges (Sega's previous family of 8-bit platforms) and both can also play Sega My Card games without the need of the Card Catcher add-on. However, educational and programming cartridges for the SC-3000 require the SK-1100 keyboard peripheral, which is compatible with the Mark III, but not with the Japanese Master System. Mark III-specific games were initially available in My Card format (labelled My Card Mark III to distinguish themselves from standard My Card games designed for the SC-3000/SG-1000), starting with Teddy Boy Blues and Hang-On, both released on October 20, 1985. Mark III-specific cartridges were eventually made starting with Fantasy Zone, released on June 15, 1986. Every Mark III/Master System cartridge in Japan (along with the SC-3000/SG-1000-compatible game Portrait of Loretta) were released under the Gold Cartridge branding, with the exception of Argus no Jūjiken (a rebranded port of Rygar) and Solomon's Key. These two exceptions were published under a "Silver Cartridge" branding, as they were released by Salio, a short-lived subsidiary of Tecmo that was also the only third party company to ever publish Mark III/Master System games in Japan. The Gold and Silver branding actually refer to the color of the packaging, and not the actual cartridges themselves, which were initially produced in white casing just like the Mark III console itself, but switched to black casing by the end of 1987 in order to match the Master System redesign (with the packaging and labeling of these later cartridges mentioning compatibility with both versions of the console). The final Mark III/Master System game published by Sega in Japan is Bomber Raid, released on February 4, 1989, just a few months after the launch of the Mega Drive.
Reception and legacy
Sales of the Master System have been estimated between 10 million and 13 million units, not including recent Brazil sales. The console saw much more continued success in Europe and Brazil than it did in Japan and North America. In 1989, the Sega Master System was listed in the top 20 products of NPD Group's Toy Retail Sales Tracking Service. However, the Electronic Gaming Monthly 1992 Buyer's Guide indicated a souring interest in the console. Four reviewers scored the console 5, 4, 5, and 5 out of a possible 10 points each, focusing on the better value of the Genesis and lack of quality games for the Master System. In 1993, reviewers scored the console 2, 2, 3, and 3 out of 10, noting its abandonment by Sega in North America and lack of new releases. By contrast, 62 million NES units were sold, outselling the Master System several times over. According to Bill Pearse of Playthings, the NES gained an advantage over the Master System through the use of better software and stronger character identification. Sega would close the market share gap between itself and Nintendo in the next generation with the release of the Genesis, which sold 30.75 million consoles compared with the 49 million Super Nintendo Entertainment System consoles sold by Nintendo.
Retrospective feedback of the console praises its support toward development of the Sega Genesis, but is generally critical of its small game library. Writing for AllGame, Dave Beuscher notes that "it was doomed by the lack of third party software support and all but disappeared from the American market by 1992." On the other hand, Retro Gamer praised the system's PAL library as a "superb library of interesting ports and excellent exclusives", noting that it was significantly larger than its North American library. Damien McFerran of Retro Gamer recognizes its value to the future success of the Genesis, stating, "Without this criminally undervalued machine, Sega would not have enjoyed the considerable success it had with the Mega Drive. The Master System allowed Sega to experiment with arcade conversions, original IP and even create a mascot in the form of the lovable monkey-boy Alex Kidd." In 2009, the Master System was named the 20th best video game console of all time by the video gaming website IGN, behind both of its main competitors, the Atari 7800 (ranked 17th best) and the Nintendo Entertainment System (1st). IGN cited the Master System's small games library in the NTSC regions, coupled with the highly uneven quality of the few games that were released, as the console's major issues, stating, "Months could go by between major releases and that made a dud on the Master System feel even more painful."
The Master System and its software still retains some popularity. According to IGN, "Despite its narrow mass audience, the Master System had—and still has—a very loyal fan base." In 2005, Sega reached a deal with Chinese company AtGames to release Master System software in the form of emulation products in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China. A number of Master System games were released for download on Nintendo's Wii Virtual Console in North America, PAL territories and Japan. The first game released for this service was Fist of the North Star, on February 26, 2008. Fantasy Zone followed on March 11. Both were released in Japan. In North America, Wonder Boy was the first Master System game released for the service on March 31, 2008. Master System games have also been released via the GameTap online service. In 2019, the Sega Master System: A Visual Compendium was published by Bitmap Books, an officially licensed book looking at the history of the console and its games.
- Computer Entertainer, February 1987, page 13 Archived November 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "Mark III" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Gamers High! Futabasha Super Mook (in Japanese). Futabasha. 2015. p. 55. ISBN 978-4-575-45554-0.
- "Master System" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Forster, Winnie (2005). The Encyclopedia of Game.Machines: Consoles, Handhelds, and Home Computers 1972–2005. Magdalena Gniatczynska. p. 139. ISBN 3-00-015359-4.
- Buchanan, Levi (March 20, 2009). "Genesis vs. SNES: By the Numbers". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Nihon Kōgyō Shinbunsha (1986). "Amusement". Business Japan. Nihon Kogyo Shimbun. 31 (7–12): 89. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Sheff, David (1993). Game Over (1st ed.). New York, New York: Random House. p. 349. ISBN 0-679-40469-4. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Sega Consoles: Active installed base estimates". Screen Digest. Screen Digest Ltd.: 60 March 1995.
- Azevedo, Théo (May 12, 2016). "Console em produção há mais tempo, Master System já vendeu 8 mi no Brasil". Universo Online (in Portuguese). Grupo Folha. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
Comercializado no Brasil desde setembro de 1989, o saudoso Master System já vendeu mais de 8 milhões de unidades no país, segundo a Tectoy.
- Fick, Matthew (January 17, 2014). "Longest-lived game consoles". IGN Africa. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
- Brandt, Richard; Gross, Neil (February 20, 1994). "Sega!". BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Pollack, Andrew (October 24, 1982). "What's New In Video Games; Taking the Zing Out of the Arcade Boom". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "The Bottom Line". The Miami Herald – via NewsBank (subscription required). August 27, 1983. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Battelle, John (December 1993). "The Next Level: Sega's Plans for World Domination". Wired. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Kohler, Chris (October 2009). "Playing the SG-1000, Sega's First Game Machine". Wired Magazine's online site. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Marley, Scott (December 2016). "SG-1000". Retro Gamer. No. 163. Future Publishing. pp. 56–61.
- "SG-1000" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- Kohler, Chris (October 2009). "Playing the SG-1000, Sega's First Game Machine". Wired. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- "G&W Wins Cheers $1 Billion Spinoff Set". The Miami Herald – via NewsBank (subscription required). August 16, 1983. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). "The Birth of Sega". The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 343. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- McFerran, Damien. "Retroinspection: Master System". Retro Gamer. London, UK: Imagine Publishing (44): 48–53. ISSN 1742-3155.
- "SG-1000 II" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- Parkin, Simon (June 2, 2014). "A history of video game hardware: Sega Master System". Edge. Future plc. Archived from the original on June 5, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Plunkett, Luke (February 27, 2012). "The Story of Sega's First Ever Home Console". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on September 15, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- "SG-1000 Technical specifications" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "SG-1000 II Technical specifications" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "SC-3000 Technical specifications" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "Mark III data" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Master System data" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Bruce Lowry: The Man That Sold the NES". Game Informer. GameStop. 12 (110): 102–103. June 2002.
- Horowitz, Ken (2016). Playing at the Next Level: A History of American Sega Games. McFarland & Company. pp. 6–15. ISBN 9781476625577.
- Horowitz, Ken (December 5, 2006). "Interview: Mark Cerny". Sega-16. Ken Horowitz. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Beuscher, David. "Sega Master System – Overview". AllGame. All Media Network. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Takiff, Jonathan (June 20, 1986). "Video Games Gain In Japan, Are Due For Assault On U.S." The Vindicator. p. 2. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- McGill, Douglas C. (December 4, 1988). "Nintendo Scores Big". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Hewison, Richard. "From the Archives: Virgin Games, Part 1". Retro Gamer. London, UK: Imagine Publishing (84): 50–55. ISSN 1742-3155.
- McFerran, Damien (July 22, 2014). "Hardware Classics: Sega Master System". Nintendo Life. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- "Master System completa 20 anos de vida no Brasil". Universo Online (in Portuguese). Grupo Folha. September 4, 2009. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- "Tec Toy lança no País o videogame Mega Drive". O Estado de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 111 (35513). São Paulo: Grupo Estado. November 22, 1990. p. 81. ISSN 1516-2931. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- "Estrela e Gradiente trazem jogos Nintendo". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 73 (23360). São Paulo: Grupo Folha. March 18, 1993. pp. 2–13. ISSN 1414-5723. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
- Szczepaniak, John (November 2006). "Company Profile: Tec Toy". Retro Gamer. No. 30. Imagine Publishing. pp. 50–53. ISSN 1742-3155.
- Sponsel, Sebastian (November 16, 2015). "Interview: Stefano Arnhold (Tectoy)". Sega-16. Ken Horowitz. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Sczepaniak, John (2006). "Retroinspection: Mega Drive". Retro Gamer. London, UK: Imagine Publishing (27): 42–47. ISSN 1742-3155.
- "Nintendo to Pay $25 Million In Rebates on Price Fixing". The New York Times. April 11, 1991. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "16-Bit Hits – New video games offer better graphics, action". Minneapolis Star Tribune – via NewsBank (subscription required). October 15, 1991. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- "Company News; Nintendo Suit by Atari Is Dismissed". The New York Times. May 16, 1992. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Total 8-bit and 16-bit Cartridge Consoles: Active installed base estimates. Screen Digest. Screen Digest Ltd. March 1995. p. 61. (cf. here  Archived March 24, 2017, at the Wayback Machine and here  Archived March 24, 2017, at the Wayback Machine)
- Szczepaniak, John (2006). "Company Profile: Tec Toy". Retro Gamer. London, UK: Imagine Publishing (30): 50–53. ISSN 1742-3155.
- Smith, Ernie (July 27, 2015). "Brazil Is An Alternate Video Game Universe Where Sega Beat Nintendo". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on June 21, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Fick, Matthew. "The 5 longest console lifespans". IGN Africa. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "Retroinspection: Sega Game Gear". Retro Gamer. London, UK: Imagine Publishing (41): 78–85. 2009. ISSN 1742-3155.
- Buchanan, Levi (October 9, 2008). "Remember Game Gear?". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on April 23, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Beuscher, David. "Sega Game Gear – Overview". AllGame. All Media Network. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Master System peripherals" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Mark III peripherals" (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Ransom-Wiley, James (October 26, 2006). "Coleco Tiptoes Back with Sega-filled Handheld". Joystiq. AOL. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Semrad, Steve (February 2, 2006). "The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time, Page 8". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Mott, Tony (2013). 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die. New York, New York: Universe Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7893-2090-2.
- Parkin, Simon (September 13, 2013). "Sonic the Hedgehog: past, present and future". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
They made 40 games in this way ...But by my judgment only two were really worth playing.
- Totilo, Stephen (March 10, 2014). "A Candid Talk With Mark Cerny, Who Designed The PS4, Among Other Things". Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Archived from the original on June 4, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Kunkel, Bill; Worley, Joyce; Katz, Arnie (November 1988). "Video Gaming World". Computer Gaming World. p. 54. ISSN 0744-6667. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016.
- Buchanan, Levi (January 25, 2008). "Alex Kidd in Miracle World Review". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- cf. Mott, Tony (2013). 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die. New York, New York: Universe Publishing. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7893-2090-2.
- "Retro Reviews: R-Type". Game Informer. GameStop. 12 (114): 114. October 2002.
- "The Collector's Guide: Sega Master System", Retro Gamer, issue 117, pages 20–31, 2013
- "[セガハード大百科] ゲームカートリッジ For SC/SG" [Sega Hardware Encyclopedia: Game Cartridge for SC/SG]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "[セガハード大百科] セガ マイカード" [Sega Hardware Encyclopedia: Sega My Card]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "[セガハード大百科] マイカードマークIII" [Sega Hardware Encyclopedia: Sega My Card Mark III]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "[セガハード大百科] セガマーク３/マスターシステム対応ソフトウェア" [Sega Hardware Encyclopedia: List of Sega Mark III/Master System software]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "[セガハード大百科] セガ ゴールドカートリッジ" [Sega Hardware Encyclopedia: Sega Gold Cartridge]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Leccesse, Donna (May 5, 1989). "Retailers say video is a dream come true; Nintendo is leading the way to better sales". Playthings. Sandow Media LLC. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014 – via HighBeam Research(subscription required).
- Steve; Ed; Martin; Sushi-X (January 1992). "EGM Rates The Systems Of 1992!!!". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Sendai Publishing: 74.
- Steve; Ed; Martin; Sushi-X (January 1993). "Electronic Gaming Monthly's Buyer's Guide". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Sendai Publishing: 32.
- Pearse, Bill (January 1, 1992). "Nintendo and Sega gear up for battle. (Nintendo of America Inc. and Sega Inc. compete for 16-bit video game market; includes related articles) (Industry Overview)". Playthings. Sandow Media LLC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014 – via HighBeam Research(subscription required).
- Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy L.; Ernkvist, Mirko (2012). "Console Hardware: The Development of Nintendo Wii". The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-138-80383-1.
- "Sonic Boom: The Success Story of Sonic the Hedgehog". Retro Gamer — the Mega Drive Book. London, UK: Imagine Publishing: 31. 2013. ISSN 1742-3155.
- "Top 25 Videogame Consoles of All Time: SEGA Master System is Number 20". IGN. Ziff Davis. 2009. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Sega expands distribution in Greater China". Screen Digest. Screen Digest Ltd. March 1, 2005. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014 – via HighBeam Research(subscription required).
- "Cruis'n USA and Wonder Boy Now Available on Wii Shop Channel!". Nintendo. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- Leupold, Tom (February 3, 2006). "Games on tap, or 'History of the Gaming World, Part I'". Oakland Tribune. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014 – via HighBeam Research(subscription required).
- Nintendo Life Staff (June 18, 2019). "Gallery: Flicking Through Sega Master System: A Visual Compendium". Nintendo Life. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- Nintendo Life Staff (July 2, 2018). "Kickstarter For The Sega Master System Visual Compendium Is Now Live". Nintendo Life. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.