Machilipatnam

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Machilipatnam
Masulipatnam, Masula, Bandar
City
Koneru centre, the business centre of Machilipatnam
Koneru centre, the business centre of Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam is located in Andhra Pradesh
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam is located in India
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Krishna
Mandal Machilipatnam
Founded 14th century
Government
 • Type Mayor council
 • Body Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation
 • MLA Kollu Ravindra (Telugu Desam Party)
 • Municipal commissioner A.S.N.V.Maruthi Diwakar
Area[1]
 • Total 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi)
Elevation 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 169,892
 • Density 6,875/km2 (17,810/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 521 xxx
Telephone code 91-8672
Vehicle registration AP-16
Website machilipatnam.cdma.ap.gov.in

Machilipatnam (About this sound pronunciation ), also known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of the Krishna district.[3] It is also the mandal headquarters of Machilipatnam mandal in Machilipatnam revenue division of the district.[4][5] The ancient port town served as the settlement of European traders from 16th century and it was a major trading port for the British, Dutch and French in the seventeenth century.[6]

Etymology[edit]

During seventeenth century, it was known with the name Masulipatnam, Masula and also Bandar (translates to port in Turkish, Arabic and Persian).[7][8][9] The port town in the ancient times was also referred with the name Maesolia.[10]

History[edit]

Masulipatam port in 1759
View of Masulipatnam in 1676

The town has existed since the 3rd century BCE (Satavahana period) when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st century BCE.[11] The port is located on the southeastern, or Coromandel Coast, of India. Situated in the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade. Muslin clothes were traded by ancient Greeks from the town and the word muslin originated from the name Maisolos.[12] Muslin was an important source of income for the town, being a favourite of Roman traders for domestic consumption. Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns located near Machilipatnam.[13]

The town was the district headquarters of the then, Masulipatnam district and now to the Krishna district, which was formed in 1859 in the composite Madras state.[5]

The Machilipatnam port served as the principal sea port of the Golconda Kingdom (more anciently named Telingana) from 15th to 17th centuries.[14]

Geography[edit]

Machilipatnam city is located at 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13 on the southeast coast of India and in the east coast of Andhra Pradesh.[15] The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (45 feet).[16]

Climate[edit]

Machilipatnam city gets most of its annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. It has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres (37.8 in).

Machilipatnam city is frequently hit by cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal. The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. A storm surge, 5 metres high, inundated the Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam city (Bandar)

On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city.[17] It was purchased from a German manufacturer, Gematronik. With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the newspaper The Hindu. This facility will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state.[18]

Climate data for Machilipatnam
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
34.6
(94.3)
38.1
(100.6)
41.8
(107.2)
46.5
(115.7)
45.4
(113.7)
40.8
(105.4)
38.6
(101.5)
36.8
(98.2)
37.2
(99)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
34.6
(94.3)
37.3
(99.1)
36.7
(98.1)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
28.8
(83.8)
32.43
(90.38)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84)
27.8
(82)
25.8
(78.4)
24.3
(75.7)
28.11
(82.58)
Average low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.6
(72.7)
25.7
(78.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
24.0
(75.2)
21.6
(70.9)
19.9
(67.8)
23.7
(74.66)
Record low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.6
(60.1)
17.3
(63.1)
17.8
(64)
17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.1
(64.6)
17.8
(64)
15.3
(59.5)
14.6
(58.3)
14
(57.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2
(0.08)
7
(0.28)
6
(0.24)
10
(0.39)
35
(1.38)
117
(4.61)
195
(7.68)
184
(7.24)
167
(6.57)
242
(9.53)
86
(3.39)
19
(0.75)
1,070
(42.14)
Average rainy days 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 2.2 7.7 13.8 12.6 10.4 9.2 5.6 1.2 65.1
Average relative humidity (%) 76 75 73 73 66 62 72 74 78 79 75 75 73.2
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[19]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org[20]
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 36,188 —    
1881 35,056 −3.1%
1891 38,809 +10.7%
1901 39,507 +1.8%
1911 42,123 +6.6%
1921 43,940 +4.3%
1931 56,928 +29.6%
1941 59,146 +3.9%
1951 77,953 +31.8%
1961 101,417 +30.1%
1971 112,612 +11.0%
1981 138,525 +23.0%
1991 159,110 +14.9%
2001 179,353 +12.7%
2011 169,892 −5.3%

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 census, Machilipatnam had a population of 170,008. The total population constitute, 83,561 males and 86,447 females —a sex ratio of 1035 females per 1000 males. 13,778 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 7,076 are boys and 6,702 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.32% with 130,173 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 67.41%.[2][21]

Governance[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality in the year 1866 and was upgraded to corporation from special grade municipality on 9 December 2015.[22][23] It covers an area of 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. The present commissioner of the corporation is A.S.N.V.Maruthi Diwakar and the municipal chair person is Motamarri Venkata Baba Prasad.[24]

Machilipatnam Area Development Authority is the urban planning authority, headquartered at Machilipatnam.[25]

Politics[edit]

Machilipatnam is a part of Machilipatnam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Kollu Ravindra is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[26][27] The assembly segment is also a part of Machilipatnam (Lok Sabha constituency), which was won by Konakalla Narayana Rao of Telugu Desam Party.[28]

Economy[edit]

Machilipatnam is known for its handloom industry, which produces Kalamkari textiles exported to United States and other Asian countries. The other notable industries are the boat building and fishing.[29] Machilipatnam was a trading base for the Europeans in the 17th century and known for minting copper coins, exporting diamonds, textiles etc., through the port.[30] The state government is taking certain measures to bring back the glory of the former port city. It has planned to set up Machilipatnam deep sea port and its associated industrial corridor under Machilipatnam Area Development Authority. This move is expected to generate employment to over 25,000 people.[29][31]

Culture[edit]

Bandar laddu hand moulded

Art and handicrafts

Machilipatnam Kalamkari is a handcrafted dyed block-painting of a fabric.[32] It is performed at the nearby town of Pedana and was registered as one of the geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh.[33] Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti style are the only two existing Kalamkari style of works present in India.[34]

Dance

Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam.

Cuisine

The city is well known for a sweet known as Bandar Laddu.[35]

Religious worships

The city has many religions with their worship centres in and around the city such as, Panduranga Temple at Chilakalapudi, Agastheeswara Temple etc. Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast and home to ancient Shiva and Datta temples. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing (recalling those at Rameswaram).[36]

Tourism[edit]

Sai Baba Temple at Machilipatnam

The Manginapudi Beach is located at the coast of the city.[37]

Transport[edit]

The city has a total road length of 359.09 km (223.13 mi).[38] The National Highway 65 (India) connects Machilipatnam to Pune via Hyderabad and Vijayawada. National Highway 216 from Kattipudi to Ongole, passes through the city. Machilipatnam bus station is owned and operated by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.[39][40] The station is also equipped with a bus depot for storage and maintenance of buses.[41] Machilipatnam railway station is a B–Category and Adarsh stations under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division.[42] It is the terminal station of Vijayawada-Machilipatnam branch line, that connects Howrah-Chennai main line at Vijayawada.[43]

Machilipatnam port was damaged by a giant ocean wave on 1 November 1864.[30] Since, then there were many efforts to build a new port. Navayuga Engineering Company Limited is in the process of building a deep water port at Gilakaladinne of the city.[44] The nearest domestic airport is Vijayawada Airport.

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[45][46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Machilipatnam at Glance". Machilipatnam Municipality. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  3. ^ "Mandals in Krishna district". aponline.gov.in. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  4. ^ "Krishna District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 517. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – Krishna" (PDF). Census of India. p. 15,16. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Reddy, Consulting Editor-KV Nandini. Social Sci. (History) 7 (Rev.). Ratna Sagar. p. 72. ISBN 9788183322966. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  7. ^ Guru Srikanth, S (2 April 2015). "Machilipatnam Growth May Trigger Off Reverse Migration". The New Indian Express. Machilipatnam. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Bhatia, Gita Duggal, Joyita Chakrabarti, Mary George, Pooja. Milestones Social Science – 7 (History, Geography, Social and Political Life). Vikas Publishing House. p. 55. ISBN 9789325982673. 
  9. ^ Gateways Of Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136169021. 
  10. ^ "The rise and fall of Maesolia port". The Hindu. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  11. ^ The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India, p. 187
  12. ^ Periplus, Point 62; http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.asp
  13. ^ Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture by Sukumar Butt, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1988, p. 132
  14. ^ Edward Stanley Poole (1865). The Thousand and One Nights, Commonly Called The Arabian Nights' Entertainments; Translated from the Arabic, with Copious Notes, Volume 3 (Volume 1 ed.). Chatto & Windus. p. 89. Retrieved 11 March 2017. 
  15. ^ "redirect to /world/IN/02/Machilipatnam.html". fallingrain.com. 
  16. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/mughal/bellinmasulipatam/overview1758.jpg
  17. ^ "Weather Radar Network of India Meteorological Department". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh News : Modern cyclone warning system for Machilipatnam". hindu.com. 
  19. ^ "Musulipatnam Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "Climate: machilipatnam". Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). Official Portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. p. 43. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  22. ^ "Masula, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram upgraded into corporations". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 10 December 2015. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  23. ^ "Population Glitch for Masula to Turn into Corporation". Machilipatnam. 20 February 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  24. ^ "Machilipatnam info". Machilipatnam Municipality. Retrieved 11 December 2015. 
  25. ^ "State constitutes Machilipatnam Area Development Authority". Machilipatnam. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  26. ^ "MLA". Government of AP. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  27. ^ "Machilipatnam Assembly 2014 Election Results". Elections.in. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  28. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  29. ^ a b Naga Sridhar, G. "A port all at sea". Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  30. ^ a b T. Appala Naidu (8 August 2015). "The rise and fall of Maesolia port". Machilipatnam. Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  31. ^ Appala Naidu, T (6 February 2016). "MADA to expedite work on deep-sea port project". The Hindu. Machilipatnam. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  32. ^ "Kalamkari back in demand". The Hindu. Tirupati. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. 
  33. ^ "State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications" (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016. 
  34. ^ "Kalamkari: Craft of the matter". mid-day. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  35. ^ Varma, Sujatha (13 April 2013). "In search of Bandar Laddu". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  36. ^ "History". dattapeetham.com. 
  37. ^ "Manginapudi Beach". Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 30 January 2016. 
  38. ^ "Details of Roads in Each ULB of Andhra Pradesh". Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration and Urban Developmemt Department - Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  39. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  40. ^ Mareedu, Mouli (21 May 2010). "RTC takes a low blow from Laila". The Times of Iindia. Hyderabad. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  41. ^ "Depot Name". APSRTC. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  42. ^ "Vijayawada Division – a profile" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  43. ^ "Machilipatnam Railway Station". India Rail Info. Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  44. ^ "G.O. on development of Machilipatnam deep water port" (PDF). Department of Ports. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  45. ^ "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  46. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 

External links[edit]