Masyumi Party

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Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations

Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia
AbbreviationMasyumi
ChairmanHasyim Asyari (first)
Soekiman Wirjosandjojo
Mohammad Natsir
Secretary-GeneralVarious
Founded24 October 1943 (organization)
7 November 1945 (party)
Dissolved13 September 1960
Merger ofNahdlatul Ulama
Muhammadiyah
Persatuan Islam
Perikatan Umat Islam
Preceded byMajelis Islam A'la Indonesia
Succeeded byCrescent Star Family (later became Crescent Star Party)
HeadquartersDjakarta, Indonesia
NewspaperAbadi
Membership (peak)Tens of millions[1]
IdeologyPan-Islamism
ReligionSunni Islam

The Masyumi Party (Indonesian: Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia) (Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations) was a major Islamic political party in Indonesia during the Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia. It was banned in 1960 by President Sukarno for supporting the PRRI rebellion.

Background[edit]

In 1909, a trade organization called the Islamic Trading Association (Indonesian: Sarekat Daging Islam) was established in Java, then part of the Dutch East Indies to protect the interests of batik traders in the face of competition from ethnic Chinese merchants. In 1912, this became the Sarekat Islam (Islamic Union), and was headed by western-educated Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto. Although it began as a non-political organization, it began to speak out against injustice and poverty. By 1918, it had 450,000 members. Communist influence within it grew, but so did that of the reformist Islamic Muhammadiyah organization, which was anti-communist. In 1920, Muhammadiyah merged into Sarkat Islam.[2][3] In 1923, Tjokroaminoto moved to expel communists from the organization at the SI Congress, and established the Islamic Union Party (Indonesian: Partai Sarekat Islam - PSI), which adopted a policy of non-collaboration with the Dutch. In 1929 the party was renamed the Indonesian Islamic Union Party (PSII). The next few years saw splits within the party, worsened by the death of Tjokroaminoto in 1937. In September 1937, Muhammadiyah and the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama established the Supreme Islamic Council of Indonesia (MIAI) an umbrella group for Islamic organizations.[4][3][5][6] Following the their invasion of the Dutch East Indies, in 1943 the Japanese authorities dissolved the MIAI and established an organization called the Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations (Masyumi) in an attempt to control Islam in Indonesia. It too included Muhammadiyah and the Nahdlatul Ulama. However Muslims resented the attempt to use them as tools of the Japanese, and were especially angered by the obligation to pray towards Tokyo, rather than Mecca.[7][8]

Masyumi as a political party[edit]

Following the Indonesian Declaration of Independence, on 7 November 1945 a new organization called Masyumi was formed. In less than a year it became the largest political party in Indonesia. Its membership included non-political Islamic organizations such as the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama and the modernist Muhammadiyah as well as the PSII. The key leaders were Mohammad Natsir, Mohammad Roem, Jusuf Wibisono and Abu Hanafi. Two Masjumi members, including Natsir, served in the cabinet appointed in November, while 35 Masyumi members were appointed to the Central Indonesian National Committee, and four to its Working Committee. In April 1947, the PSII left Masyumi following disagreements with the leadership, particularly Natsir.[9][10][11]

During the period of liberal democracy era, Masyumi members had seats in the People's Representative Council and the party supplied prime ministers such as Muhammad Natsir and Burhanuddin Harahap.[12]

President Sukarno at a 1954 Masyumi convention

Masyumi came second in the 1955 election. It won 7,903,886 votes, representing 20.9% of the popular vote,[13] resulting in 57 seats in parliament. Masyumi was popular in modernist Islamic regions such as West Sumatra, Jakarta, and Aceh. 51.3% of Masyumi's vote came from Java, but Masyumi was the dominant party for regions outside Java, and it established itself as the leading party for the one third of people living outside Java.[14][15]

The end of the party[edit]

In the mid-1950s, the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia rebellion broke out. In November 1957, senior Masyumi figures Mohammad Natsir, Sjafruddin Prawiranegara and Burhanuddin Harahap, joined the rebels in the Sumatran city of Padang. The Masyumi Party refused to condemn their actions, which damaged the party's image [16][17] In 1960, President Sukarno passed a law allowing him to ban parties whose ideologies conflicted with those of the state, or whose members rebelled against the state, and he subsequently used this law to ban Masyumi on 17 August 1960.[18][19]

Following the banning, Masyumi members and followers established the Crescent Star Family (Indonesian: Keluarga Bulan Bintang) to campaign for Islamic shariah law and teachings. An attempt was made to reestablish the party following the transition to the New Order, but this was not permitted. After the fall of Suharto in 1998, another attempt was made to revive the party name, but eventually Masyumi followers and others established the Crescent Star Party, which contested the legislative elections in 1999, 2004 and 2009.[20]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Madinier 2015, p. xiii.
  2. ^ Kahin 1952, pp. 67-72.
  3. ^ a b Madinier 2015, pp. 36-37.
  4. ^ Kahin 1952, p. 94.
  5. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 319.
  6. ^ Madinier 2015, pp. 43-44.
  7. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 335.
  8. ^ Kahin 1952, p. 111.
  9. ^ Kahin 1952, pp. 157.
  10. ^ Feith 2008, pp. 139,171,193.
  11. ^ Madinier 2015, p. 81.
  12. ^ Simanjuntak 2003, pp. 111 & 150.
  13. ^ Madinier 2015, pp. 430-432.
  14. ^ Feith 2008, pp. 436-437.
  15. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 396.
  16. ^ Ward 1970, pp. 12-14.
  17. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 411.
  18. ^ Ward 1970, p. 16.
  19. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 420.
  20. ^ Bestian Nainggolan & Yohan Wahyu 2016, p. 239.

References[edit]

  • Bestian Nainggolan; Yohan Wahyu, eds. (2016). Partai-Partai Politik Indonesia 1999-2019: Konsentrasi dan Dekonsentrasi Kuasa (in Indonesian). PT Kompas Media Nusantara. ISBN 978-602-412-005-4.
  • Feith, Herbert (2008) [1962]. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Singapore: Equininox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd. ISBN 979-3780-45-2.
  • Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9108-8.
  • Madinier, Rémy (2015). Islam and Politics in Indonesia: The Masyumi Party between Democracy and Integralism. Translated by Desmond, Jeremy. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-843-0.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4480-5
  • Simanjuntak, P. N. H. (2003). Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Djambatan. ISBN 979-428-499-8.
  • Feith, Herbert (1999) Pemilihan Umum 1955 di Indonesia (Translated from The Indonesian Elections of 1955) Kepustakaan Popular Gramedia ISBN 978-979-9023-26-1

See also[edit]