Mat (Russian profanity)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Mat (Russian: мат; матерщи́на / ма́терный язы́к / мáтный язы́к , matershchina / materny yazyk / matny yazyk; Ukrainian: матюки, matyuky) is the term for strong obscene profanity in Russian and some other Slavic language communities.

Four pillars of mat[edit]

Mat has thousands of variations but ultimately centers on four pillars: (1) khuy (“cock”); (2) pizda (“cunt”); (3) ebat’ (“to fuck”); and (4) blyad (“whore”).[1]


The first element of mat is khuy (хуй; About this sound хуй ) for cock, penis, or for equivalent colloquial effect, dick.[1] The etymology of the term is unclear. Mainstream theories include from Proto-Indo European (PIE) *ks-u-, related to хвоя (khvoya, "pine needles"), attributed to Pederson, 1908.;[2] from PIE *hau-, related to хвост (khvost, "tail"), attributed to Merlingen, 1955; from Mongolian хуй (khui, meaning "sheath" or "scabbard"). This was the etymology endorsed by the Soviet government and attributed to Maxim Gorky, who claimed it was a loan word, imposed during Mongol yoke. A Gorokhovski suggests the derivation from Latin huic (lit. "for that", used on prescriptions for genital diseases) as a euphemism, because the old Russian "ud/uda" (from PIE root *ud- meaning "up, out") became taboo in mid-18th century.[3] Currently, the first volume of the Great Dictionary of Mat by the Russian linguist and folklorist Alexei Plutser-Sarno treats only expressions with the stem хуй (khuy), numbering over 500 entries; 12 volumes are planned.

    • "Иди на хуй" (Idí ná khuy) (and numerous variations), literally "go to the dick", equivalent to the English "fuck off."
    • хуёво (khuyóvo) — meaning "bad" like in "feeling oneself bad" or about something of bad quality
    • охуенно (okhuyénno) — "very good" or "awesome"
    • хуярить (khuyárit) — a placeholder for "to do something actively" for certain verbs, e.g, "to ride", "to run". Often requires a preposition, e.g., отхуярить - "to beat someone up", нахуярить = "to load", "to create a mess"


The second element, pizdá (пизда́ , About this sound пизда ) refers to cunt[1].

    • "иди в пизду" ('Idí v pizdú), literally meaning "go into the cunt", using similar to "Иди на хуй" (Idí ná khuy) (see above).
    • пизде́ц (pizdéts) — "deep shit" is often used as an exclamation. Also means death or end of something.
    • пиздеть / пизде́ть (pizdét') — to lie, to talk a lot, occasionally used for simlpy "to talk".
    • пи́здить (pízdit') — "to steal" or "to beat somebody".
    • пиздaтый (pizdáty) — literally "pussy-like", means "awesome", "stunning"; a superlative and/or admiring term that can be applied to any object or event.
    • "получить пизды" (poluchít' pizdý) — get beaten (physically and mentally) from someone
    • "дать пизды" (dat' pizdý) - to beat someone


The third element, yebát' (еба́ть, About this sound ебать ) relates to fuck.[1] It is from the Proto-Slavic jebati and Proto-Indo-European *h₃yebʰ-e-ti, cf. Ancient Greek οἴφω (oíphō) "to live in a marriage" and Sanskrit यभति (yabhati).[citation needed]

    • "ёб твою мать!" (Yób tvoyú mat'; About this sound ёб твою мать ) literally " (I) fucked your mother", an exclamation of discontent; sometimes used an exclamation of surprise
    • "ёбаный в рот!" (Yóbany v rot) literally "fucked in the mouth", an insult, sometimes an exclamation of surprise
    • "ёбнуть", to strike, to hit
    • "ёбнутый" (Yóbnutyi)- masculinum, ёбнутая (yóbnutaya)-femininum, "mad", "delirious", "goosey", literally "hit (on the head)", from "ёбнуть"


The final element blyád (блядь; About this sound блядь ) is related to the word whore.[1] The word was not banned from literary use at the time of Avvakum, who used it to describe various heresies and various expressions based on these terms (as the form of word блудить, bludít, "to stray or fornicate").[citation needed] Also, the 15th century merchant-traveler Afanasy Nikitin used it simply as "concubine," without any obscene connotations. However, in contemporary Russian usage блядь (or бля; blyad' or blya) are hardly considered neutral words. The word is often used as an emphatic interjection, often without intended offense, and sometimes just the opposite: "Во, бля, даёт!" - (approx.) "No shit, look at him!" - may be said, e.g., about a proficient dancer or a garmon player.

Additional words[edit]

Additionally, the following words are considered almost as offensive, and can also be regarded as mat:

  • елда́ (yelda) — "big dick". Rarely used and considered old-fashioned.
  • хер (kher) — "cock"; somewhat less offensive than "khuy"; the actual meanings of хер is the old Russian name of the letter Х Kha, which became strongly associated with the actual хуй (cf. the term "F-word" in English). The old word "похе́рить" (pokhérit) which used to mean "to cross out," "to delete", now tends to be contaminated with the relatively new meaning of "хер" (i.e., obscene "penis"), thus achieving an obscene meaning, also.
  • манда́ (manda) — cunt
  • пидора́с (pidorás), a bastardization of pederast "fag", meaning a homosexual male in Russian. The condensed forms pídor (пи́дор), pedrila (педри́ла), pédik (пе́дик) "faggot" are also used. More often than not (though not necessarily), refers to a passive pederast. Often used as a general term like "asshole" or "motherfucker";
  • залу́па (zalúpa; About this sound залупа ) means "penis head" (from old Russian "lupit'" - here, "to peel off" (like "lupit' yaytso" - "to peel off egg shell"); therefore, this is "what you can see when the foreskin is pulled back or removed"). "Zalupáts'a" means "Playing the great man, giving oneself airs"; in A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich by Solzhenitsin, one of the inmates protests against something ("This is not sovietic!") and is punished for that; his comrades comment: "There was no need to zalupats'a".
  • дрочи́ть (drochít'; About this sound дрочить ) — "wank" (oneself or someone). drochít's'a (дрочиться) - "to masturbate" (oneself). From Old Russian дрочити (to pet, to pamper)
  • фарья´ (far'yá) – a dialectal variant of манда ("cunt"). Extremely rarely used.[citation needed]

Offensive words or meanings that are almost never considered mat, but are used together with it:

Another often-used derivative is mudílo (муди́ло) which only bears an abstract offensive meaning and is somewhat equal to "motherfucker." Sometimes, mudak and mudilo are used as equivalents of "moron," e.g. Вася - полный мудило, ему жена изменяет, а он радуется (Vásya - pólny mudílo, yemú zhená izmenyáyet, a on ráduyetsya,). Translation: Vasya is a complete moron: his wife cheats on him, but he's still glad.

  • муде, муди, мудя, муды; (mudyé, mudí, mudyá, mudý) — "testicles". e.g. Тянуть муде к бороде. Tyanút' mudyé. k borodyé-"To pull the balls to the chin".="To hesitate". Rarely used and considered old-fashioned or regional.
  • су́ка (súka) — meaning "bitch" (female dog); an offensive reference to a woman, but also has a unisex meaning of "traitor", "rascal", "scumbag"; it has a dangerously pejorative connotation in the criminal world (see Suka Wars). English "bitch" about an unpleasant girl is maybe more equivalent to Russian стерва (stérva), which is a rude word but not a major profanity (accepted in written texts). However, сука старая (súka stáraya), literally "old bitch", refers to a mean old woman
  • су́чка (súchka)— literally "little bitch", meaning "whore", "prostitute", "wanton", "jilt"

History and use[edit]

Obscenities are among the earliest recorded attestations of the Russian language (the first written mat words date to the Middle Ages[4]).

Mikhail Lermontov's 1834 "A Holiday in Peterhof" ("Петергофский праздник") is one example of the usage of mat.

And so I will not you
However, if you are a simple blyad
You should consider it an honor
To be acquainted with the cadet’s khuy![1]

Итак, тебе не заплачу я:
Но если ты простая блядь,
То знай: за честь должна считать
Знакомство юнкерского хуя!

Itak, tebe ne zaplachu ya:
No yesli ty prostaya blyad,
To znay: za chest dolzhna schitat
Znakomstvo yunkerskogo khuya!

The prologue to "Luka Mudishchev", probably written at some time in the mid 19th century, was often ascribed to Ivan Barkov, an equally obscene poet who lived in the 18th century:[5]

Hear ye, matrons and widows fair,
Young girls with pussy still untouched!
My tale, before the hole gets punched
About fucking out there.[citation needed]

О вы, замужние, о вдовы,
О девки с целкой наотлёт!
Позвольте мне вам наперёд
Сказать о ебле два-три слова.

Mat is also used in humor or puns by juxtaposing innocent words so that the result will sound as if an obscene word was used. An example is a Cossack song cited in And Quiet Flows the Don (1928-1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov:[6]

Щуку я, щуку я, щуку я поймала.
Девица красная, уху я варила.
Уху я, уху я, уху я варила.

Here "Уху я варила" ("I cooked the fish stew") may be reinterpreted as "У хуя варила" ("Cooked near the penis") or "Ух, хуй я варила" ("Ooh, I cooked a dick").

The contemporaneous use of mat is widespread, especially in the army, the criminal world,[7] and many other all-male milieus. A detailed article by Victor Erofeyev (translated by Andrew Bromfeld) analyzing the history, overtones, and sociology of mat appeared in the 15 September 2003 issue of The New Yorker.

As of 1 July 2014, mat has been banned in Russia from all movies, theatrical productions, and concerts.[1] In modern Russia, the use of mat is censored in the media and the use of mat in public constitutes a form of disorderly conduct, or mild hooliganism, punishable under article 20.1.1 of the Offences Code of Russia,[8] although it is enforced only episodically,[9] in particular due to the vagueness of the legal definition.[10] Despite the public ban, mat is used by Russians of all ages and nearly all social groups, with particular fervor in the male-dominated military and the structurally similar social strata.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Remnick, David (May 5, 2014). "Putin’s Four Dirty Words". The New Yorker. 
  2. ^ [1] [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ Obscene lexics in birch bark documents
  5. ^ «Лука Мудищев» — история и мифология расхожие заблуждения («Luka Mudishchev» - istoriya i mifologiya raskhozhiye zabluzhdeniya, "Luka Mudischev" - The History and Mythology: Widespread Misconceptions) (Russian) accessed Aug 8, 2008
  7. ^ [4](Russian)
  8. ^ (Russian) Article 20.1 of the Offences Code, 8 December 2003 edition] "нарушение общественного порядка, выражающее явное неуважение к обществу, сопровождающееся нецензурной бранью в общественных местах ... влечет наложение административного штрафа в размере от пятисот до одной тысячи рублей или административный арест на срок до пятнадцати суток" ('disorderly conduct displaying explicit disrespect to society, accompanied by obscene language in public ... is punishable by a fine from 500 to 1000 rubles or arrest up to 15 days')
  9. ^ (Russian) "Задержанных на юго-востоке Москвы хулиганов оштрафуют за мат" ('Detained in south-east Moscow, the hooligans will pay fines for mat') at Lenta.Ru, 01-23-2008
  10. ^ (Russian) Министерство связи определит понятие нецензурной речи (Department of communications will define "obscene language") at Lenta.Ru, 24 July 2009
  11. ^ (English) Mikhailin, Vadim (29 September 2004). "Russian Army Mat as a Code System Controlling Behaviour in the Russian Army". The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies 2004 (1). Retrieved 1 July 2009. 

External links[edit]