Mat (Russian profanity)
Mat (Russian: мат; матерщи́на / ма́терный язы́к / мáтный язы́к , matershchina / materny yazyk / matny yazyk; Ukrainian: матюки, matyuky) is the term for vulgar, obscene, or profane language in Russian and some other Slavic language communities.
Four pillars of mat
Mat has thousands of variations but ultimately centers on four pillars: the words (1) khuy (“cock”); (2) pizda (“cunt”); (3) yebat’ (“to fuck”); and (4) blyad (“whore”).
The first terms used in mat is hui (хуй; хуй (help·info)) for cock, penis, or for an equivalent colloquial register: dick. The etymology of the term is unclear. Mainstream theories include from Proto-Indo European (PIE) *ks-u-, related to хвоя (khvoya, "pine needles"), attributed to Pederson, 1908; from PIE *hau-, related to хвост (khvost, "tail"), attributed to Merlingen, 1955; from Mongolian хуй (khui, meaning "sheath" or "scabbard"). This was the etymology endorsed by the Soviet government and attributed to Maxim Gorky, who claimed it was a loan word, imposed during Mongol yoke. A Gorokhovski suggests the derivation from Latin huic (lit. "for that", used on prescriptions for genital diseases) as a euphemism, because the old Russian "ud/uda" (from PIE root *ud- meaning "up, out") became taboo in the mid-18th century. Currently, the first volume of the Great Dictionary of Mat by the Russian linguist and folklorist Alexei Plutser-Sarno treats only expressions with the stem хуй (khuy), numbering over 500 entries; 12 volumes are planned.
The third term, yebát' (еба́ть, ебать (help·info)) means fuck. It comes from the Proto-Slavic jebati and Proto-Indo-European *h₃yebʰ-e-ti, cf. Ancient Greek οἴφω (oíphō) "to live in a marriage" and Sanskrit यभति (yabhati).
History and use
Obscenities are among the earliest recorded attestations of the Russian language (the first written mat words date to the Middle Ages).
Mikhail Lermontov's 1834 "A Holiday in Peterhof" ("Петергофский праздник") is one example of the usage of mat.
And so I will not pay you:
Итак, тебе не заплачу я:
Itak, tebe ne zaplachu ya:
Hear ye, matrons and widows fair,
О вы, замужние, о вдовы,
Mat is also used in humor or puns by juxtaposing innocent words so that the result will sound as if an obscene word was used. An example is a Cossack song cited in And Quiet Flows the Don (1928-1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov:
- Щуку я, щуку я, щуку я поймала.
- Девица красная, уху я варила.
- Уху я, уху я, уху я варила.
Here "Уху я варила" ("I cooked the fish stew") may be reinterpreted as "У хуя варила" ("Cooked near the penis") or "Ух, хуй я варила" ("Ooh, I cooked a dick").
The contemporaneous use of mat is widespread, especially in the army, the criminal world, and many other all-male milieus. An article by Victor Erofeyev (translated by Andrew Bromfeld) analyzing the history, overtones, and sociology of mat appeared in the 15 September 2003 issue of The New Yorker.
As of 1 July 2014[update], mat has been banned in Russia from all movies, theatrical productions, and concerts. In modern Russia, the use of mat is censored in the media and the use of mat in public constitutes petty hooliganism, a form of disorderly conduct, punishable under article 20.1.1 of the Offences Code of Russia, although it is enforced only episodically, in particular due to the vagueness of the legal definition. Despite the public ban, mat is used by Russians of all ages and nearly all social groups, with particular fervor in the male-dominated military and the structurally similar social strata.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russian mat.|
- Russian joke: Taboo vocabulary
- Leningrad, a Russian ska/punk band famous for its vulgar lyrics
- Remnick, David (May 5, 2014). "Putin’s Four Dirty Words". The New Yorker.
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- Obscene lexics in birch bark documents
- http://barkoviana.narod.ru/luka_preface.html «Лука Мудищев» — история и мифология расхожие заблуждения («Luka Mudishchev» - istoriya i mifologiya raskhozhiye zabluzhdeniya, "Luka Mudischev" - The History and Mythology: Widespread Misconceptions) (Russian) accessed Aug 8, 2008
- "ЗАПРЕЩЕННЫЙ КЛАССИК"
- (Russian) Article 20.1 of the Offences Code, 8 December 2003 edition] "нарушение общественного порядка, выражающее явное неуважение к обществу, сопровождающееся нецензурной бранью в общественных местах ... влечет наложение административного штрафа в размере от пятисот до одной тысячи рублей или административный арест на срок до пятнадцати суток" ('disorderly conduct displaying explicit disrespect to society, accompanied by obscene language in public ... is punishable by a fine from 500 to 1000 rubles or arrest up to 15 days')
- (Russian) Министерство связи определит понятие нецензурной речи (Department of communications will define "obscene language") at Lenta.Ru, 24 July 2009
- (English) Mikhailin, Vadim (29 September 2004). "Russian Army Mat as a Code System Controlling Behaviour in the Russian Army". The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies 2004 (1). Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- Русский мат с Алексеем Плуцером-Сарно - The online version of the Dictionary of Russian mat by Alexei Plutser-Sarno (Russian)
- Russian slang explained in English, French and German
- Cited portions of a The New Yorker article.
- The unique power of Russia’s underground language Full text of the New Yorker article.
- Mikhailin, Vadim, 2004, Essay: Russian Army Mat as a Code System Controlling Behaviour in the Russian army, The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies
- 'Dead Man's Bluff' by Mikhail Volokhov. Director Andrei Zhitinkin. First play in Russia to be written entirely in profanities. Productions of this play have always been surrounded by controversy: in Russia by Andrei Zhitinkin, with actors Oleg Fomin and Sergei Chonishvili; in France by Bernard Sobel with actors Denis Lavant and Hugues Quester; in Germany and Switzerland the parts were played in French and German by Armin Rohde and Roberto Guerra.