Life-giving and life-taking, fertility and moisture
Modern wooden statue in the Czech Republic
|Consort||Perun and Veles (assumption)|
|Children||Jarilo and Morana|
|Roman equivalent||Terra|
|Christian equivalent||Paraskevi of Iconium, Virgin Mary|
Mokoš (Old East Slavic: Мокошь) is a Slavic goddess mentioned in the Primary Chronicle, protector of women's work and women's destiny. She watches over spinning and weaving, shearing of sheep, and protects women in childbirth. Mokosh is the Great Mother.
Etymology and origin
Mokosh probably means moisture. According to Max Vasmer, her name is derived from the same root as Slavic words mokry, 'wet', and moknut(i), 'get wet'. Or to dive deeply into something. She may have originated in the northern Finno-Ugric tribes of the Vogul, who still have the divinity Moksha.
Mokoš was one of the most popular Slavic deities and the great earth Mother Goddess of East Slavs and Eastern Polans. She is a wanderer and a spinner. Her consorts are probably both the god of thunder Perun and his opponent Veles. In saying, the former Katičić follows Ivanov and Toporov (1983) without further corroborating their claim. Katičić also points to the possibility that as goddess Vela she is the consort of Veles, and might even be interpreted as another form of the polymorph god Veles himself.: 167–198 Mokosh is also the mother of the twin siblings Jarilo and Morana.
Archeological evidence of Mokosh dates back to the 7th century BC. As late as the 19th century, she was worshipped as a force of fertility and the ruler of death. Worshipers prayed to Mokosh-stones or breast-shaped boulders that held power over the land and its people.
In Eastern Europe, Mokosh is still popular as a powerful life giving force and protector of women. Villages are named after her. She shows up in embroidery, represented as a woman with uplifted hands and flanked by two plow horses. Sometimes she is shown with male sexual organs, as the deity in charge of male potency.
A key myth in Slavic mythology, is the divine battle between the thunder god Perun and his opponent the god Veles. Some authors and the original researchers Ivanov and Toporov believe, the abduction of Mokosh causes the struggle,
Traces of Mokosh in place names
Traces of Mokosh are today well preserved in the various toponyms of Slavic countries. In Slovenia her name has been preserved in a village called Makoše in the vicinity of Ribnica, historically known as Makoša or Makoš, and also in the River Mokoš in the Prekmurje region. In Croatia, near the Rieka lies the village of Mokošica, and near Dubrovnik the village Makoše, and also the suburb areas of Nova and Stara Mokošica. A village near Zagreb is also called Mokos. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the village Ravno is located a hill called Mukušina. South of Mostar lies the hill Mukoša.
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- Russian folk belief By Linda J. Ivantis
- Katičić, Radoslav (2003). Die Hauswirtin am Tor: Auf den Spuren der großen Göttin in Fragmenten slawischer und baltischer sakraler Dichtung. Frankfurt am Main: PETER LANG. p. 40. ISBN 3-631-50896-4. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
- Hubbs, Joanna (Sep 22, 1993). Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0253115787 – via Google Books.
- Katičić, Radoslav (2010). Gazdarica na vratima: Tragovima svetih pjesama naše pretkršćanske starine. Zagreb: IBIS GRAFIKA. pp. 209–210. ISBN 978-953-6927-59-3.
- Harald Haarmann (2008). "". Introducing the Mythological Crescent: Ancient Beliefs and Imagery p. 98
- Patricia Monaghan (2010). "". Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines p. 516
- Russian folk belief
- Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture By Joanna Hubbs p. 26
- although Ivanov and Toporov nowhere quote original sources indicating that fact. Compare: Katičić (2010):210
- Pushkin's Historical Imagination by Svetlana Evdokimova p. 216
- Boris Rybakov (1987). "Святилища, идолы и игрища". Язычество Древней Руси (Paganism of Ancient Rus) (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka.
- Vyacheslav Ivanov, Vladimir Toporov. Mokoš./ В. В. Иванов, В. Н. Топоров - «Мокошь». Мифы народов мира, т. II. М.:Российская энциклопедия, 1994.
- Češarek, Domen (2016). "Mala gora pri Ribnici – mitološko izročilo v prostoru (Mala Gora (Little Mountain) by Ribnica – Cosmic myth in mythical landscape)" (PDF). Studia mythologica Slavica. 19: 135.