Material properties (thermodynamics)

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The thermodynamic properties of materials are intensive thermodynamic parameters which are specific to a given material. Each is directly related to a second order differential of a thermodynamic potential. Examples for a simple 1-component system are:

  • Isothermal compressibility
  • Adiabatic compressibility
  • Specific heat at constant pressure
  • Specific heat at constant volume

where P  is pressure, V  is volume, T  is temperature, S  is entropy, and N  is the number of particles.

For a single component system, only three second derivatives are needed in order to derive all others, and so only three material properties are needed to derive all others. For a single component system, the "standard" three parameters are the isothermal compressibility , the specific heat at constant pressure , and the coefficient of thermal expansion .

For example, the following equations are true:

The three "standard" properties are in fact the three possible second derivatives of the Gibbs free energy with respect to temperature and pressure.

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