Maternal Mortality Ratio

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The Maternal Mortality Ratio is a key performance indicator for efforts to improve the health and safety of mothers before, during, and after childbirth per country worldwide. Often referred to as MMR, it is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). It is not to be confused with the Maternal Mortality Rate, which is the number of maternal deaths (direct and indirect) in a given period per 100,000 women of reproductive age during the same time period.[1] The statistics are gathered by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group, and the United Nations Population Division.[2] The yearly report started in 1990 and is called Trends in Maternal Mortality.[2] As of the 2015 data published in 2016, the countries that have seen an increase in the Maternal Mortality Ratio since 1990 are the Bahamas, Georgia, Guyana, Jamaica, Dem. People’s Rep. Korea, Serbia, South Africa, St. Lucia, Suriname, Tonga, United States, Venezuela, RB Zimbabwe.

After noticing that the United States had a continuously increasing MMR despite a relatively stable number of live births, the Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force was created in 2013.[3][4]

Country measurements[edit]

The Maternal Mortality Ratio was one of the KPIs for the eight goals defined by the Millennium Summit of the UN in 2000 to be achieved by 2015.
The Maternal Mortality Ratio is one of the KPIs for the seventeen goals defined by the UN in 2015 to be achieved by 2030.

This KPI was used for the Millennium Development Goals from 2000-2015 and is part of the Sustainable Development Goals. The list of countries with a comparison of this KPI in 1990, 2000 and 2015 are:

Country 1990 2000 2015
Afghanistan 1,340 1,100 396
Albania 71 43 29
Algeria 216 170 140
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola 1,160 924 477
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina 72 60 52
Armenia 58 40 25
Aruba
Australia 8 9 6
Austria 8 5 4
Azerbaijan 64 48 25
Bahamas, The 46 61 80
Bahrain 26 21 15
Bangladesh 569 399 176
Barbados 58 48 27
Belarus 33 26 4
Belgium 9 9 7
Belize 54 53 28
Benin 576 572 405
Bermuda
Bhutan 945 423 148
Bolivia 425 334 206
Bosnia and Herzegovina 28 17 11
Botswana 243 311 129
Brazil 104 66 44
British Virgin Islands
Brunei Darussalam 35 31 23
Bulgaria 25 21 11
Burkina Faso 727 547 371
Burundi 1,220 954 712
Cabo Verde 256 83 42
Cambodia 1,020 484 161
Cameroon 728 750 596
Canada 7 9 7
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic 1,290 1,200 882
Chad 1,450 1,370 856
Channel Islands
Chile 57 31 22
China 97 58 27
Colombia 118 97 64
Comoros 635 499 335
Congo, Dem. Rep. 879 874 693
Congo, Rep. 603 653 442
Costa Rica 43 38 25
Côte d'Ivoire 745 671 645
Croatia 10 11 8
Cuba 58 43 39
Curaçao
Cyprus 16 15 7
Czech Republic 14 7 4
Denmark 11 9 6
Djibouti 517 401 229
Dominica
Dominican Republic 198 79 92
Ecuador 185 103 64
Egypt, Arab Rep. 106 63 33
El Salvador 157 84 54
Equatorial Guinea 1,310 702 342
Eritrea 1,590 733 501
Estonia 42 26 9
Ethiopia 1,250 897 353
Faroe Islands
Fiji 63 42 30
Finland 6 5 3
France 15 12 8
French Polynesia
Gabon 422 405 291
Gambia, The 1,030 887 706
Georgia 34 37 36
Germany 11 8 6
Ghana 634 467 319
Gibraltar
Greece 5 4 3
Greenland
Grenada 41 29 27
Guam
Guatemala 205 178 88
Guinea 1,040 976 679
Guinea-Bissau 907 800 549
Guyana 171 210 229
Haiti 625 505 359
Honduras 272 133 129
Hong Kong SAR, China
Hungary 24 15 17
Iceland 7 5 3
India 556 374 174
Indonesia 446 265 126
Iran, Islamic Rep. 123 51 25
Iraq 107 63 50
Ireland 11 9 8
Isle of Man
Israel 11 8 5
Italy 8 5 4
Jamaica 79 89 89
Japan 14 10 5
Jordan 110 77 58
Kazakhstan 78 65 12
Kenya 687 759 510
Kiribati 234 166 90
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 75 128 82
Korea, Rep. 21 16 11
Kosovo
Kuwait 7 7 4
Kyrgyz Republic 80 74 76
Lao PDR 905 546 197
Latvia 48 30 18
Lebanon 74 42 15
Lesotho 629 649 487
Liberia 1,500 1,270 725
Libya 39 17 9
Liechtenstein
Lithuania 29 16 10
Luxembourg 12 13 10
Macao SAR, China
Macedonia, FYR 14 12 8
Madagascar 778 536 353
Malawi 957 890 634
Malaysia 79 58 40
Maldives 677 163 68
Mali 1,010 834 587
Malta 13 15 9
Marshall Islands
Mauritania 859 813 602
Mauritius 81 40 53
Mexico 90 77 38
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 183 153 100
Moldova 51 49 23
Monaco
Mongolia 186 161 44
Montenegro 10 11 7
Morocco 317 221 121
Mozambique 1,390 915 489
Myanmar 453 308 178
Namibia 338 352 265
Nauru
Nepal 901 548 258
Netherlands 12 14 7
New Caledonia
New Zealand 18 12 11
Nicaragua 173 202 150
Niger 873 794 553
Nigeria 1,350 1,170 814
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway 7 7 5
Oman 30 20 17
Pakistan 431 306 178
Palau
Panama 102 82 94
Papua New Guinea 470 342 215
Paraguay 150 158 132
Peru 251 140 68
Philippines 152 124 114
Poland 17 8 3
Portugal 17 13 10
Puerto Rico 26 22 14
Qatar 29 24 13
Romania 124 51 31
Russian Federation 63 57 25
Rwanda 1,300 1,020 290
Samoa 156 93 51
San Marino
São Tomé and Príncipe 330 222 156
Saudi Arabia 46 23 12
Senegal 540 488 315
Serbia 14 17 17
Seychelles
Sierra Leone 2,630 2,650 1,360
Singapore 12 18 10
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovak Republic 11 8 6
Slovenia 12 12 9
Solomon Islands 364 214 114
Somalia 1,210 1,080 732
South Africa 108 85 138
South Sudan 1,730 1,310 789
Spain 6 5 5
Sri Lanka 75 57 30
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia 45 54 48
St. Martin (French part)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 58 74 45
Sudan 744 544 311
Suriname 127 259 155
Swaziland 635 586 389
Sweden 8 5 4
Switzerland 8 7 5
Syrian Arab Republic 123 73 68
Tajikistan 107 68 32
Tanzania 997 842 398
Thailand 40 25 20
Timor-Leste 1,080 694 215
Togo 568 491 368
Tonga 75 97 124
Trinidad and Tobago 90 62 63
Tunisia 131 84 62
Turkey 97 79 16
Turkmenistan 82 59 42
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Uganda 687 620 343
Ukraine 46 34 24
United Arab Emirates 17 8 6
United Kingdom 10 12 9
United States 12 12 14
Uruguay 37 31 15
Uzbekistan 54 34 36
Vanuatu 225 144 78
Venezuela, RB 94 90 95
Vietnam 139 81 54
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
West Bank and Gaza 118 72 45
Yemen, Rep. 547 440 385
Zambia 577 541 224
Zimbabwe 440 590 443

List of aggregated data by region[edit]

Region 1990 2015
World 385 216
Arab World 289 156
Caribbean small states 94 99
Central Europe and the Baltics 41 11
East Asia & Pacific 159 59
Euro area 11 6
Europe & Central Asia 44 16
European Union 18 8

List of aggregated data by focus subject[edit]

Focus subject 1990 2015
Fragile and conflict affected situations 792 481
Heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) 957 482
Latin America & Caribbean 135 67
Least developed countries: UN classification 903 436
Middle East & North Africa 166 81
North America 11 13
OECD members 32 14
Other small states 538 316
Pacific island small states 176 75
Small states 428 272
South Asia 558 182
Sub-Saharan Africa 987 547
High income 15 10
Low & middle income 425 237
Low income 1,010 496
Lower middle income 533 251
Middle income 349 180
Upper middle income 114 54

See also[edit]

References[edit]