The name "mathemagician" was probably first applied to Martin Gardner, but has since been used to describe many mathematician/magicians, including Arthur T. Benjamin,Persi Diaconis,Colm Mulcahy, and Shona Jean McKay. Diaconis has suggested that the reason so many mathematicians are magicians is that "inventing a magic trick and inventing a theorem are very similar activities."
A great number of self-working mentalism tricks rely on mathematical principles. Max Maven often utilizes this type of magic in his performance.
There is a character named "the Mathemagician" in the 1961 book The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster. This character is king of a magical realm of numbers. His brother and arch-enemy is king of the realm of words.