Mathematical Kangaroo (also known as International Mathematical Kangaroo, or Kangourou sans frontières in French) is an international mathematical competition where over 50 countries are represented. There are twelve levels of participation, ranging from grade 1 to grade 12. The competition is held annually on the third Thursday of March. According to the organizers, the key competence tested by Mathematical Kangaroo is logical combination, not just pure knowledge of formulas.
It is the largest competition for school students in the world, with over 5 million participants from 47 countries in 2009, and 6 million by 2014.
The competition was established in 1991 by André Deledicq, a professor of mathematics at the University of Paris 7, and Jean-Pierre Boudine, professor of mathematics at Marseille. The idea comes from the Australian Mathematics Competition, initiated in 1978 by Peter O'Halloran. It is based on multiple-choice questions (MCQs), which were rarely used in France at that time, at least in mathematics. For this competition, Jean-Pierre Boudine and André Deledicq were awarded the 1994 d'Alembert prize of the Mathematical Society of France.
The competition has spread around the world. Pupils from Sweden first took part in 1999. By 2011, 860,000 pupils from 9,000 schools took part in Germany, having grown rapidly from 549,000 in 2007. In 2014, the competition was hosted in Latin America. In 2017, the Bulgarian association held a week-long Kangaroo summer camp In Canada, math contest clubs for elementary school children teach "questions typical of the Math Kangaroo contest", starting with those with a visual component and helping to develop logic and spatial reasoning. Students in Pakistan took part for the first time in 2005, the numbers increasing each year since. In 2009, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette noted that the competition was very popular in Europe, and was "finding its way into the United States". Denmark first participated in 2015.
The competition is a multiple choice test that runs for 75 minutes. It consists of 24 questions for students up to 4th grade, and 30 questions for other students. The sections for 3 point, 4 point, and 5 point questions are equally divided. The minimum score is 0. The maximum score is 96 points for students up to 4th grade, and 120 points for other students. There is no penalty for any incorrect answer, and no penalty for skipping a question.
Evaluation and collecting of results as well as the prizes are regulated and organized nationally. Special prizes are given for the “longest kangaroo jump” (i.e., the highest number of consecutive correct answers) for each school.
Elisabeth Mellroth has investigated the use of mathematical competencies in the mathematical kangaroo.
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- Kangourou Sans Frontières official site
- Kangaroo in Armenia Armenia
- Känguru der Mathematik Austria
- Canguru de Matemática Brasil Brazil
- Math Kangaroo Canada
- Klokan bez granica Croatia
- Thales Foundation Cyprus
- Matematický klokan Czech Republic
- Matemaatikavõistlus Känguru Estonia
- Kangoeroe Vlaanderen Flanders
- Le Kangourou des Mathématiques France
- Känguru der Mathematik Germany
- Διεθνής Μαθηματικός Διαγωνισμός "Καγκουρό" Greece
- Nemzetközi Kenguru Matematika Verseny Hungary
- math kangaroo Iran
- קנגורו מתמטיקה Israel
- Kangourou Italia Italy
- Kengūra Lithuania
- Math Kangaroo Malaysia Malaysia
- Кенгуру Математикийн Уралдаан Монгол
- Wiskunde Kangoeroe The Netherlands
- Kangourou Sans Frontieres Pakistan (KSF PAKISTAN) Pakistan
- Kangaroo >> IKMC in Pakistan Pakistan
- Kangur Matematyczny Poland
- Cangurul Matematic Romania
- Kenguru Russia
- Kengur bez granica Serbia
- Matematický klokan Slovakia
- Mednarodni matematični Kenguru Slovenia
- El Canguro Matemático Castilla y León (Spain)
- El Cangur Catalunya, País Valencià, Balears (Spain)
- Kängurun - Matematikens Hopp Sweden
- Kanguru Matematik Turkey
- Міжнародний математичний конкурс «Кенгуру» Ukraine
- Math Kangaroo United States