The mathematical sciences are a group of areas of study that includes, in addition to mathematics, those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper.
Statistics, for example, is mathematical in its methods but grew out of scientific observations which merged with inverse probability and grew through applications in the social sciences, some areas of physics, and biometrics to become its own separate, though closely allied field. Computer science, computational science, data science, quantitative biology, operations research, control theory, cryptology, econometrics, theoretical physics, continuum mechanics, mathematical chemistry and actuarial science are other fields that may be considered part of mathematical sciences.
Some institutions offer degrees in mathematical sciences (e.g. the United States Military Academy, Stanford University, and University of Khartoum) or applied mathematical sciences (for example, the University of Rhode Island).
- Exact sciences – Sciences that admit of absolute precision in their results
- Formal science – Branch of science
- Relationship between mathematics and physics – Study of how mathematics and physics relate to each other
- Division of Mathematical Sciences at the National Science Foundation, including a list of disciplinary areas supported
- Faculty of Mathematical Sciences at University of Khartoum, offers academic degrees in Mathematics, Computer Sciences and Statistics
- Programs of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute
- Research topics studied at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences
- Mathematical Sciences in the U.S. FY 2016 Budget; a report from the AAAS