Mathura

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Mathura
City
Mathura
Old street in front of the Krishna
Nickname(s): Krishnanagri; The City of Lord Krishna
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Coordinates: 27°29′33″N 77°40′25″E / 27.49250°N 77.67361°E / 27.49250; 77.67361Coordinates: 27°29′33″N 77°40′25″E / 27.49250°N 77.67361°E / 27.49250; 77.67361
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictMathura
Population (2011)
 • Total441,894
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN281001
Telephone code0565
Vehicle registrationUP-85
Websitemathura.nic.in

Mathura (About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.It is located approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Agra, and 145 kilometres (90 mi) south-east of Delhi; about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the town of Vrindavan, and 22 kilometres (14 mi) from Govardhan. It is the administrative centre of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes. The 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura to be 441,894.

In Hinduism, Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna, which is located at the Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex.[1] It is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven cities considered holy by Hindus. The Kesava Deo Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace (an underground prison). Mathura was the capital of the kingdom of Surasena, ruled by Kansa, the maternal uncle of Krishna.

Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

History[edit]

Mathura in 1949
Gate of Shet Lukhmeechund's Temple, a photo by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey, 1860's.
Statue of Kanishka I, 2nd century CE, Mathura Museum.
Sculpture of woman from ancient Braj-Mathura ca. 2nd century CE.

Mathura has an ancient history and also believed to be the homeland and birthplace of Krishna who was born in Yadu dynasty. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura.[2]

Archaeological excavations at Mathura show the gradual growth of a village into an important city. The earliest period belonged to the Painted Grey Ware culture (1100-500 BCE), followed by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture (700-200 BCE). Mathura derived its importance as a center of trade due to its location where the northern trade route of the Indo-Gangetic Plain met with the routes to Malwa (central India) and the west coast.[3]

By the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom.[4] The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BCE). Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα (Méthora).[5] It seems it never was under the direct control of the following Shunga dynasty (2nd century BCE) as not a single archaeological remain of a Shunga presence were ever found in Mathura.[6]

The Indo-Greeks may have taken control, direct or indirect, of Mathura some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, and remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription,[6] which was found in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres (11 mi) from Mathura.[7] The opening of the 3 line text of this inscription in Brahmi script translates as: "In the 116th year of the Yavana kingdom..."[8][9] or '"In the 116th year of Yavana hegemony" ("Yavanarajya")[6] However, this also corresponds to the presence of the native Mitra dynasty of local rulers in Mathura, in approximately the same time frame (150 BCE—50 BCE), possibly pointing to a vassalage relationship with the Indo-Greeks.[6]

After a period of local rule, Mathura was conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the first 1st century BCE. The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. However, Indo-Scythian control proved to be short lived, following the reign of the Indo-Scythian Mahakshatrapa ("Great Satrap") Rajuvula, c. 10–25 CE.

The Kushan Empire took control of Mathura some time after Rajuvula, although several of his successors ruled as Kushans vassals, such as the Indo-Scythian "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, both of whom paid allegiance to the Kushans in an inscription at Sarnath, dating to the 3rd year of the reign of the Kushan emperor Kanishka c. 130 CE.[10] Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of its capitals. [11] The preceding capitals of the Kushans included Kapisa (modern Bagram, Afghanistan), Purushapura (modern Peshawar, Pakistan) and Takshasila/Sirsukh/ (modern Taxila, Pakistan). Faxian mentions the city as a centre of Buddhism about 400 CE while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, mentions it as Mot'ulo, recording that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.[12] Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.[13]

The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 CE[12] and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517 CE.[14][15] Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of 'Butt Shikan', the 'Destroyer of Hindu deities'. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the Shahi-Eidgah Mosque during his rule, which is adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi believed to be over a Hindu temple.[16]

In.[17]

Geography[edit]

Mathura is located at 27°17′N 77°25′E / 27.28°N 77.41°E / 27.28; 77.41.[18] It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet).

Demographics[edit]

Religions in Mathura City
Religion Percent
Hindus
81.54%
Muslim
17.22%
Sikhism
0.30%
Jainism
0.18%
Christians
0.23%
Buddhism
0.04%
Others†
0.49%

The 2011 census of India estimates the population of Mathura to be 441,894, a decadal growth rate of 22.53 per cent from 2001 census of India. Males account for 54% (268,445) and females for 46% (173,449) of this population. Sex ratio of Mathura is 858 females per 1000 males, which has increased from 840 in 2001. However, national sex ratio is 940. Population density in 2011 has increased from 621 per km2 in 2001 to 761 per km2. Mathura has an average literacy rate of 72.65 per cent which has increased from 61.46 percent in 2001 but still lower than the national average of 74.04 per cent. Male and female literacy rate are 84.39 and 58.93 per cent respectively. 15.61 percent of Mathura's population is under 6 years of age. This figure was 19.56 per cent in 2001 census.[19]

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Mathura is situated on the major Delhi-Mumbai train route. Both Central railway and Western Railway routes pass through Mathura.

Important train that origin/terminate from Mathura: 12177/Howrah - Mathura Chambal Express.[20]

Road[edit]

Mathura is connected by road to the rest of Uttar Pradesh and India.

Tram[edit]

A tram network has been proposed in the city, which would make Mathura only the second city in India (after Kolkata) to get tram transport. In 2017, the local MLA Shrikant Sharma announced that the trams will be operation in Mathura and Vrindavan by 2018.[21]

Air[edit]

As of now, the city has no airport but the airport was proposed to Mathura in 2012. The civil aviation minister Ajit Singh suggested Mathura's name for the site of a new greenfield international airport to chief minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav. Mathura's name came into play when group of ministers terminated the planning of building Taj International Airport at Greater Noida. Land has been marked, and construction is in progress near the Yamuna Expressway, with plans to open in the next five years with regular flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Ujjain and Varanasi and some international routes in future.[22][23][24]

Strategic importances[edit]

Mathura is the home for I Corps (Strike Formation)[25][26] within the Indian Army's Central Command, hosting Strike I Corps headquarters in a large classified area in the outskirts of the city known as Mathura Cantonment (Central Command itself has its headquarters at Lucknow). It hosts Strike Infantry units, air defence units, armoured divisions, engineer brigades, artillery Units and classified units of Strategic Forces Command. The I Corps is primarily responsible for western borders of India. In 2007 during Exercise Ashwamedha, all the armoured, artillery and infantry divisions performed a simulation of an overall NBC (nuclear-chemical-biological) environment. The aim was to show operational ability in high intensity, short duration and 'sudden' battles.[27]

Industries[edit]

Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia with 8.0 MMTPA refining capacity.[28] This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery.[28]

Media and communications[edit]

All India Radio has a local station in Mathura which transmits various programs of interest.

Educational institutions[edit]

  • GLA University
  • Sachdeva Institute of Technology
  • U.P. Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go-Ansundhan Sansthan"Mathura University". Upvetuniv.edu.in. 25 October 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.</ref>

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prasad, Dev (2015). Krishna: A Journey through the Lands & Legends of Krishna. Jaico Publishing House. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-8495-170-7.
  2. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.170.
  3. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 281, 336. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.
  4. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India. v. 18". Digital South Asia Library. 1908. pp. 63–74.
  5. ^ Megasthenes, fragment 23 "The Surasenians, an Indian tribe, with two great cities, Methora and Clisobora; the navigable river Iomanes flows through their territory" quoted in Arrian Indica 8.5. Also "The river Jomanes (Yamuna) flows through the Palibothri into the Ganges between the towns Methora and Carisobora." in FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11. Archived 10 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b c d History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.8-10 [1]
  7. ^ Bulletin of the Asia Institute. Wayne State University Press. p. 70.
  8. ^ B. N. Mukherjee. Kushāṇa studies: new perspectives. Firma KLM. p. 13. ISBN 81-7102-109-3.
  9. ^ Osmund Bopearachchi; Wilfried Pieper (1998). Ancient Indian coins. Brepols. ISBN 2-503-50730-1.
  10. ^ A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc.... Rapson, p. ciii.
  11. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131716779. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  12. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Muttra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–102. (Mathura)
  13. ^ Wikisource Yule, Henry; Douglas, Robert Kennaway (1911). "Hsüan Tsang". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 844.
  14. ^ Sultan Sikandar Lodi The Muntakhabu-'rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th-century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  15. ^ Lodi Kings: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  16. ^ Asher, Catherine B (24 September 1992). "Architecture of Mughal India". ISBN 9780521267281.
  17. ^ Shailaja Neelakantan (3 June 2016). "Mathura violence death toll now 24, opposition blames Akhilesh govt". The Times of India.
  18. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Mathura, India". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  19. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : Uttar Pradesh". 2011 Census of India. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  20. ^ "Chambal Express".
  21. ^ Mathura to get tram network by 2018
  22. ^ "International airport now at Mathura". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ "Centre invites proposal from UP for airport near Mathura - Times of India". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  25. ^ Pike, John. "India - Army Central Command Order of Battle". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  26. ^ "www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Organisation.html". Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  27. ^ "www.india-defence.com/reports/3115". Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  28. ^ a b "IndianOil Corporation | Mathura Refinery". Iocl.com. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  • Mathura-The Cultural Heritage. Edited by Doris Meth Srinivasan, published in 1989 by AIIS/Manohar.
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Ashoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Mukherjee, B. N. 1981. Mathurā and its Society: The Śaka-Pahlava Phase. Firma K. L. M. Private Limited, Calcutta.
  • Sharma, R. C. 1976. Mathura Museum and Art. 2nd revised and enlarged edition. Government Museum, Mathura.
  • Growse, F. S. 1882. " Mathura A District Memoir.
  • Drake-Brockman, D. L. 1911. " Muttra A Gaztteer.
  • The Jain stûpa and other antiquities of Mathura, by Smith, Vincent Arthur, 1848-1920. (1901)

External links[edit]