Matsutake ( Japanese: 松茸, pine mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake = syn. T. nauseosum) is the common name for a highly sought-after mycorrhizal mushroom that grows in Asia, Europe, and North America. It is prized by the Japanese and Chinese for its distinct spicy-aromatic odor. [1 ] [2 ]
Habitat and distribution [ edit ]
Matsutake grow under trees and are usually concealed under duff on the
forest floor free of non-symbiotic trees, e.g. broad-leaved. It forms a symbiotic relationship with the roots of a limited number of tree species. Matsutake are known to grow in China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Canada, Finland, the United States, Sweden, among other countries. In Japan it is most commonly associated with Japanese Red Pine. [3 ]
Similar species [ edit ]
In the North American
Pacific Northwest is found in Tricholoma magnivelare coniferous forests made up of one or more of the following species: Douglas-fir, Noble Fir, Shasta Red Fir, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa Pine, or Lodgepole Pine. In California and parts of Oregon, it is also associated with hardwoods, including Tanoak, Madrone, Rhododendron, Salal, and Manzanita. In northeastern North America, the mushroom is generally found in Jack Pine forests. T. magnivelare is typically called White Matsutake as it does not feature the brown coloration of the Asian specimen.
In 1999, N. Bergius and E. Danell reported that Swedish (
Tricholoma nauseosum) and Japanese matsutake ( T. matsutake) are the same species. The report led to increased import of matsutake from [4 ] Northern Europe to Japan because of the comparable flavor and taste.
Cost and availability [ edit ]
Though simple to harvest, matsutake are hard to find
nematode , and it has influenced the price a great deal. The annual harvest of matsutake in Japan is now less than 1,000 tons, and the Japanese mushroom supply is largely made up by imports from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus China, Korea, the North American Pacific Northwest ( Northern California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia), and Northern Europe ( Sweden and Finland). The price for matsutake in the Japanese market is highly dependent on quality, availability, and origin. The Japanese matsutake at the beginning of the season, which is the highest grade, can go up to $2,000 per kilogram. In contrast, the average value for imported matsutake is about $90 per kilogram. [5 ] [6 ]
, causing the price to be very high. Domestic production of matsutake in Japan has been sharply reduced over the last 50 years due to a pine
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Ashkenazi, Michael; Jacob, Jeanne (2003). . Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 49. Food culture in Japan ISBN 0-313-32438-7.
^ Play That Fungi Music
^ Ashburne, John, " In search of the Holy Grail of mushrooms", , 16 October 2011, p. 7. Japan Times
^ Eric Danell, The Swedish matsutake and the Japanese matsutake are the same species!, The Edible Mycorrhizal Mushroom Research Group, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
^ (Japanese) 輸入マツタケに異変 中国産激減、フィンランド参戦, J-CAST, 2007/9/26.
^ Matsutani, Minoru, " Japan's long love affair with 'matsutake'", , 9 November 2010, p. 3. Japan Times
External links [ edit ]