Matteo Carandini

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Matteo Carandini
Born 1967
Rome, Italy
Residence London, England
Nationality Italian, American
Awards McKnight Scholar 2005, GlaxoSmithKline / Fight for Sight Chair 2007, European Research Council Advanced Investigator 2009, Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator, 2011
Scientific career
Fields Neuroscience (Visual Neuroscience, Computational Neuroscience, Systems Neuroscience)
Institutions University College London (professor)

Matteo Carandini (born 1967) is a neuroscientist who studies the visual system. He received a PhD in Neural Science from New York University and continued as a postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern University. After holding positions in Zurich (1999–2002) and in San Francisco at the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute (2002–2008), he is currently a Professor at University College London, where he runs a joint laboratory with Kenneth D Harris.

He studies the visual cortex at the level of individual neurons and populations of neurons, their intercommunication within the visual cortex, with a particular interest in the functions of the eye, thalamus, and the early visual areas of the cerebral cortex. Carandini conducts his research with the goal of contributing to the knowledge of how the brain processes visual information in the human brain and he works primarily with mice.

Achievements[edit]

In the 1990s, working with David Heeger and J. Anthony Movshon he refined and provided evidence for Heeger's normalization model of V1 responses.[1][2]

Together with David Ferster he characterized the relationship between synaptic excitation, synaptic inhibition, membrane potential, and firing rate in visual cortex [3][4] and discovered that prolonged visual stimulation causes a tonic hyperpolarization in V1 neurons.[5]

More recent work concerns the characterization of fast adaptive mechanisms in the responses of the early visual system,[6][7] a comparison with the properties of natural images [8] and a test of the resulting models in the responses to complex natural stimuli.[9] Other recent research projects include the use of optical and electrical imaging of cortical responses, population coding of visual stimuli, and the improvement of techniques for visual psychophysics in mice.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carandini, M; Heeger, DJ (1994). "Summation and division by neurons in primate visual cortex". Science. 264 (5163): 1333–6. Bibcode:1994Sci...264.1333C. doi:10.1126/science.8191289. PMID 8191289. 
  2. ^ Carandini, M; Heeger, DJ; Movshon, JA (1997). "Linearity and normalization in simple cells of the macaque primary visual cortex". Journal of Neuroscience. 17 (21): 8621–44. PMID 9334433. 
  3. ^ Anderson, JS; Carandini, M; Ferster, D (2000). "Orientation tuning of input conductance, excitation, and inhibition in cat primary visual cortex". Journal of Neurophysiology. 84 (2): 909–26. PMID 10938316. 
  4. ^ Carandini, M; Ferster, D (2000). "Membrane potential and firing rate in cat primary visual cortex". Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (1): 470–84. PMID 10627623. 
  5. ^ Carandini, M; Ferster, D (1997). "A tonic hyperpolarization underlying contrast adaptation in cat visual cortex". Science. 276 (5314): 949–52. doi:10.1126/science.276.5314.949. PMID 9139658. 
  6. ^ Bonin, V.; Mante, V.; Carandini, M. (2005). "The Suppressive Field of Neurons in Lateral Geniculate Nucleus". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (47): 10844–56. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3562-05.2005. PMID 16306397. 
  7. ^ Carandini, M.; Demb, J. B.; Mante, V.; Tolhurst, D. J.; Dan, Y.; Olshausen, B. A.; Gallant, J. L.; Rust, N. C. (2005). "Do We Know What the Early Visual System Does?". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (46): 10577–10597. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3726-05.2005. PMID 16291931. 
  8. ^ Mante, V.; Frazor, R. A.; Bonin, V.; Geisler, W. S.; Carandini, M. (2005). "Independence of luminance and contrast in natural scenes and in the early visual system". Nature Neuroscience. 8 (12): 1690–7. doi:10.1038/nn1556. PMID 16286933. 
  9. ^ Mante, V.; Bonin, V.; Carandini, M. (2008). "Functional Mechanisms Shaping Lateral Geniculate Responses to Artificial and Natural Stimuli". Neuron. 58 (4): 625–38. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.03.011. PMID 18498742.