Matteo Messina Denaro

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Matteo Messina Denaro
Messina Denaro Espresso.jpg
Matteo Messina Denaro on the cover of L'Espresso
Born (1962-04-26) April 26, 1962 (age 51)
Castelvetrano, Sicily, Italy
Nationality Italian
Other names Diabolik
Allegiance Cosa Nostra

Matteo Messina Denaro (born 26 April 1962), also known as Diabolik, is a Sicilian mafioso. He got his nickname from the Italian comic book character of the same name. He is considered to be one of the new leaders of Cosa Nostra after the arrest of Bernardo Provenzano on 11 April 2006. Matteo Messina Denaro became known nationally on 12 April 2001 when the magazine L'Espresso put him on the cover with the headline: Ecco il nuovo capo della mafia ("Here is the new boss of the Mafia"). He has been a fugitive since 1993 and according to Forbes magazine he is among the ten most wanted criminals in the world.[1][2]

Mafia playboy[edit]

Mug shot of Matteo Messina Denaro's drivers license.

Messina Denaro used the pseudonym "Alessio" in his clandestine correspondence with former Mafia boss Provenzano. He suffers from severe myopia and received treatment for this condition at a clinic in Barcelona, Spain in 1994 and 1996.[3]

Messina Denaro is often portrayed as a ruthless playboy mafioso and womaniser, driving an expensive Porsche sports car and wearing a Rolex Daytona watch, Ray Ban sunglasses and fancy clothes from Giorgio Armani and Versace. He is an ardent player of computer games and is said to have an illegitimate child. Matteo has a reputation for fast living and allegedly killed a Sicilian hotel owner who accused him of taking young girls to bed.[4][5] As such, he is remarkably different from traditional Mafia bosses like Salvatore Riina and Bernardo Provenzano who claim to adhere to conservative family values.

Mafia background[edit]

New photofit of Messina Denaro after working on a 20-year-old mug-shot from his driving license (April 2007).[6][7]
"Officers from the scientific unit have spent several months working on it and have used sophisticated techniques to build up the image," according to a Palermo police spokesman. "Denaro is an arrogant man and that's why he has a slight smile in the photofit and we know he has a liking for designer clothes that's why he has an open-neck silk shirt."[8]

Matteo Messina Denaro was born into the Denaro Family (a well-known mafia family) in Castelvetrano in the province of Trapani, Sicily. His father Francesco Messina Denaro, known as Don Ciccio, was the capo mandamento of Castelvetrano and the head of the Mafia Commission of the Trapani region. Matteo learned to use a gun at 14, and committed his first of many murders at 18. He is estimated to have killed at least 50 people. "I filled a cemetery all by myself," he once bragged. He made a reputation by murdering rival boss Vincenzo Milazzo from Alcamo and strangling Milazzo’s three-months pregnant girlfriend.

His father started as a campiere (armed guard) of the D’Alì family, wealthy landowners who were among the founders of the Banco Sicula. He became the fattore (overseer of an estate) of the D’Alì land holdings. They handed over a significant estate in the area Zangara (Castelvetrano) to Messina Denaro. However, the real new owner turned out to be Salvatore Riina, with whom Messina Denaro was allied.[9]

Antonio D'Alì Sr. had to resign from the board of the Banco Sicula in 1983 because he appeared on the list of the secret freemason lodge Propaganda Due (P2) of Licio Gelli. His son Antonio D'Alì jr. became a senator for Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party in 1996, and in April 2001 under-secretary at the Ministry of the Interior, the institution responsible for fighting organised crime. His cousin Giacomo D’Alì is a counsellor of the Banca Commerciale Italiana (Comit) in Milan, which acquired the Banca Sicula in 1991. Matteo’s brother Salvatore Messina Denaro, arrested in November 1998, worked at the Banca Sicula and continued to work for Comit.

Mafia activity[edit]

After the natural death of his father in November 1998, Matteo became capo mandamento of the area including Castelvetrano and the neighbouring cities, while Vincenzo Virga ruled in the city of Trapani and its surroundings. After the arrest of Virga in 2001, Messina Denaro took over the leadership of the Mafia in the province of Trapani.[10] He is said to command some 900 men and apparently reorganised the 20 Mafia families in Trapani into one single mandamento separated from the rest of Cosa Nostra. The Trapani Mafia is considered the zoccolo duro (solid pedestal) of Cosa Nostra and the most powerful except for the families in Palermo.

Messina Denaro gets his money through an extensive extortion racket forcing businesses to pay a pizzo (protection money) and skimming off public construction contracts (the family owns substantial sand quarries). He is also active in the international drug trade, allegedly with the Cuntrera-Caruana clan, attracting attention of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

According to the Direzione distrettuale antimafia (DDA) of Palermo, he maintains contacts with relatives in Western New York and Vito Roberto Palazzolo, a fugitive Mafia boss in South Africa. He also has interests in Venezuela and contacts with Colombian drug trafficking cartels as well as the 'Ndrangheta. His illicit networks extend to Belgium and Germany.[11]

Matteo Messina Denaro has strong links with Mafia families in Palermo, in particular in Brancaccio, territory of the Graviano Family. Filippo Guttadauro the brother of the Giuseppe Guttadauro – the regent of the Brancaccio Mafia while Giuseppe Graviano and Filippo Graviano are in jail – is the brother-in-law of Messina Denaro. They are involved in cocaine trafficking in agreement with ‘Ndrangheta clans from Platì, Marina di Gioiosa Ionica and Siderno, as well as the Mafia family of Mariano Agate.[12][13]

1993 bombings[edit]

After bomb attacks in Capaci and Via D’Amelio that killed prosecutors Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, the arrest of Salvatore Riina on January 15, 1993 and the introduction of strict prison regime (article 41-bis), Cosa Nostra embarked on a terrorist campaign in which Matteo Messina Denaro played a prominent role.

The remaining Mafia bosses, among them Matteo Messina Denaro, Giovanni Brusca, Leoluca Bagarella, Antonino Gioè, Giuseppe Graviano and Gioacchino La Barbera, met several times (often in the Santa Flavia area in Bagheria on an estate owned by the mafioso Leonardo Greco). They decided on a strategy to force the Italian state to retreat. That resulted in a series of bomb attacks in the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, in Via Palestro in Milan, in the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, which left 10 people dead and 93 injured as well as damage to centres of cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery.[14]

Messina Denaro also tailed the TV-journalist Maurizio Costanzo, host of the Maurizio Costanzo Show, who just escaped a car-bomb attack on May 14, 1993. Apparently he also observed the movements of Giovanni Falcone and the Minister of Justice, Claudio Martelli, in 1991. After the 1993 bombings Messina Denaro went into hiding and has not been seen since. On May 6, 2002, he received a life-time sentence (in absentia) for his role in the terrorist attacks of 1993.

In June 2000, a law enforcement operation led to the arrest of several individuals who assisted the fugitive Matteo Messina Denaro and discovered two residences where he had found shelter. One of these residences was located in an area of the city of Bagheria (in the province of Palermo), while the other was in the Brancaccio area of Palermo. Since one of the main rules within the Mafia is that a fugitive should hide in a friendly area, there is reason to believe that Messina Denaro has a good relationship to both Provenzano and the Gravianos.[15]

Possible successor of Provenzano[edit]

Messina Denaro was one of the "young turks" within Cosa Nostra that wanted to set aside Bernardo Provenzano in 1998, according the pentita Giusy Vitale. Next to Messina Denaro they were Giovanni Brusca, Domenico Raccuglia and Vito Vitale. The younger bosses wanted to take strategic decisions without prior consent of Provenzano. They told him to "go home and take care of your family."[16]

After the arrest of Bernardo Provenzano on April 11, 2006, Matteo Messina Denaro is often mentioned as his successor. His main rivals are supposed to be Salvatore Lo Piccolo – boss of the mandamento of San Lorenzo in Palermo – and Mimmo Raccuglia from Altofonte. Allegedly Provenzano nominated Messina Denaro in one of his pizzini – small slips of paper used to communicate with other mafiosi to avoid phone conversations.[17][18]

This presupposes that Provenzano has the power to nominate a successor, which is not unanimously accepted among Mafia observers. "The Mafia today is more of a federation and less of an authoritarian state," according to anti-Mafia prosecutor Antonio Ingroia of the Direzione distrettuale antimafia (DDA) of Palermo, referring to the previous period of authoritarian rule under Salvatore Riina. Provenzano "established a kind of directorate of about four to seven men who met very infrequently, only when necessary, when there were strategic decisions to make."[19]

According to Ingroia "in an organization like the Mafia, a boss has to be one step above the others otherwise it all falls apart. It all depends on if he can manage consensus and if the others agree or rebel." Provenzano "guaranteed a measure of stability because he had the authority to quash internal disputes." According to Sergio Lari, deputy chief prosecutor of Palermo: "Either the directorate can choose a successor or we could again be in for a fiery time."[18]

Ingroia said that it was unlikely that there would be an all-out war over who would fill Provenzano's shoes. "Right now I don't think that's probable," he said. Of the two possible successors, Ingroia thought Lo Piccolo was the more likely heir to the Mafia throne. "He's from Palermo and that's still the most powerful Mafia stronghold," Ingroia said.[20]

After Lo Piccolo arrest[edit]

After the arrest of Salvatore Lo Piccolo in November 2007, Messina Denaro is generally viewed as one of the possible leading Mafia bosses.[21] According to Antonio Ingroia, one of the prosecutors of the Direzione Distrettuale Antimafia (DDA) of Palermo, the main leading figures in Cosa Nostra at the moment, Messina Denaro, Giovanni Riina, Domenico Raccuglia, Pietro Tagliavia and Gianni Nicchi, are still too young to be recognized as leading bosses of the organisation.[22] The police believes that Messina Denaro is hiding out close to his family home at Castelvetrano, and is moving between safe houses.[8] On November 15, 2009, Domenico Raccuglia was arrested in a small town near Trapani having been convicted in absentia for murder and other crimes, facing three life sentences.[23]

On November 18, 2008, Italian authorities seized 700 million euros (US$885 million) in assets from the supermarket king of Sicily, Giuseppe Grigoli, traceable to Messina Denaro. The assets include 12 businesses, 220 real estate holdings - including villas and apartment blocks - and 133 land holdings for a total of some 60 hectares.[24][25] Grigoli was arrested in December 2007 after authorities found documents linking him to Messina Denaro in the hideout where Provenzano was arrested in April 2006. Grigoli has the exclusive franchise for western Sicily of the Despar supermarket chain.[26][27]

"This is one of the most important operations in recent years," according to Palermo prosecutor Roberto Scarpinato. Investigators believe that through his supermarkets Grigoli was able to launder illicit profits for Cosa Nostra and give a legal cover to mafiosi. "Having conquered the food distribution market, Grigoli was able to give jobs to hundreds of people close to Cosa Nostra or recommended by the Mafia," Scarpinato said. From evidence discovered on tiny paper-scrap messages found in the hut where Provenzano was arrested, Messina Denaro "knew to the last comma the accounts of Grigoli's supermarkets", he added.[24][28]

More assets seized[edit]

In January 2010, police seized construction companies, villas, shops and vehicles worth some 550 million euros (USD 760 million) from a western Sicilian construction magnate, Rosario Cascio, believed to be one of the main bankrollers and money launderers for Messina Denaro. Together with 700 million euros (USD 970 million) in assets taken from supermarket magnate Giuseppe Grigoli at the end of 2008 and 200 million euros (USD 280 million) from construction tycoon Francesco Pecora in November 2009. In total 1.4 billion euros (USD 1.9 billion) have been seized, which is seen as a clear reminder of the deep-rooted economic power of Messina Denaro.[29]

In September 2010, police seized a record amount of assets worth 1.5 bn euros (USD 2 billion) from a Sicilian businessman Vito Nicastri accused of working with Messina Denaro. He had invested in wind and solar energy sources, as a way of laundering money.[30] The Italian police is applying a new strategy to try to capture Messina Denaro, arresting scores of his underlings and seizing million of euros in assets. "The circle is closing around the No.1 fugitive," Interior Minister Roberto Maroni said. Palermo Chief Prosecutor Francesco Messineo added that the aim of the strategy against Messina Denaro was to "dry up the water he swims in".[31]

With the arrest of Gerlandino Messina, the alleged boss of Agrigento, on October 23, 2010 in Favara, Agrigento province, the circle around Messina Denaro tightens even more, as notes addressed specifically to Messina Denaro to discuss territorial division will provide clues to his whereabouts and recent activities.[32]

Arrest attempts[edit]

On March 15, 2010, his brother Salvatore Messina Denaro was arrested along with 18 others in operation "Golem 2". They were part of a network surrounding the Mafia boss, and were charged with organising Messina Denaro's secret correspondence in order to help him remain on the run. Other charges include mafia association, corruption and protection rackets.[33]

On May 19, 2011, an attempt to arrest Matteo Messina Denaro failed. Police surrounded a manor farm ten minutes from his hometown Castelvetrano. They were tipped by the secret service Agenzia Informazioni e Sicurezza Interna (Italian for "Internal Information and Security Agency" - Aisi), which had provided useful information for the previous arrests of Mafia bosses Giuseppe Falsone and Gerlandino Messina. However, there was no trace of Messina Denaro.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The World's 10 Most Wanted Fugitives, Forbes Magazine, 13 May 2010
  2. ^ Who is now on the World's Most Wanted list? The Guardian, 4 May 2011
  3. ^ Changes in Mafia Leadership Reveal New Links to US-Based La Cosa Nostra, DNI Open Source Center, 19 November 2007
  4. ^ (Italian) Ecco il nuovo capo della mafia, L’Espresso, 12 April 2001
  5. ^ (Italian) Cosa Nostra cerca il nuovo padrino, La Stampa, 13 April 2006
  6. ^ (Italian) Mafia, ecco l'identikit del boss Messina Denaro, La Repubblica, April 6, 2007
  7. ^ (Italian) Mafia, l'identikit di Messina-Denaro
  8. ^ a b Changing face of new godfather, The Scotsman', April 10, 2007
  9. ^ (Italian) Parlamento pulito. Il catalogo è questo, societacivile.it
  10. ^ (Italian) Relazione conclusiva Final report of the Antimafia Commission, presided by senator Roberto Centaro, January 2006
  11. ^ (Italian) Il ruolo di Matteo Messina Denaro, La Sicilia, April 18, 2004
  12. ^ (Italian) Attività di analisi, progettualità e strategia operativa, Direzione Investigativa Antimafia, 2° semestre 2003
  13. ^ (Italian) Le indagini «Igres», in the 2006 Final Report of the Italian Antimafia Commission
  14. ^ (Italian) Ordinanza di custodia cautelare in carcere, Tribunale di Caltanissetta, Ufficio del giudice per le indagini preliminari, April 11, 1994
  15. ^ Report concerning the activities conducted and the results obtained by the Direzione Investigativa Antimafia (DIA), first half of 2000.
  16. ^ (Italian) "La nuova mafia era contro Provenzano", La Sicilia, April 6, 2005
  17. ^ (Italian) Mafia cerca il confronto con lo Stato, Sebastiano Gulisano, Polizia e democrazia, September 2001
  18. ^ a b Prosecutors fear capture of mafia boss will spark bloody war of succession, by John Hooper, The Guardian, April 13, 2006
  19. ^ The Mafia after Provenzano-peace or all-out war?, Reuters, April 12, 2006.
  20. ^ In Sicily, the end of 'Pax Mafiosa'?, International Herald Tribune, April 13, 2006
  21. ^ (Italian) 'Vincere Cosa nostra? Arresti e lavoro'. Intervista al magistrato De Lucia, Ateneonline, November 20, 2007
  22. ^ (Italian) Lo Piccolo, il fautore della strategia della "rimmersione", Intervista ad Antonio Ingroia, Antimafia Duemila n. 56, Anno VII° Numero 5 – 2007
  23. ^ Sicilian police arrest Mafia boss, BBC News, November 15, 2009
  24. ^ a b Mafia banker's assets seized, Reuters, November 18, 2008
  25. ^ Sequestrati i beni al re dei market allo Stato un impero da 700 milioni, La Repubblica, November 19, 2008
  26. ^ Italian police arrest supermarket owner suspected of Mafia links, International Herald Tribune, December 20, 2007
  27. ^ (Italian) Mafia, arrestato re dei supermercati; era vicino a Matteo Messina Denaro, La Repubblica, December 20, 2007
  28. ^ Police seize assets of 'mafia banker', Daily Telegraph, November 19, 2008
  29. ^ Mafia seizure hits Cosa nostra head, ANSA, January 27, 2009
  30. ^ Italy makes 'record' Mafia asset seizure, BBC News, September 14, 2010
  31. ^ Biggest-ever Mob seizure from man 'close to No.1', La Gazzetta del Mezzogiorno, September 14, 2010
  32. ^ (Italian) Mafia, catturato il boss di Agrigento; in manette Gerlandino Messina, Corriere della Sera, October 23, 2010
  33. ^ Police arrest 19 accused of helping mafia 'godfather', France 24, March 15, 2010
  34. ^ (Italian) Messina Denaro, blitz dopo la soffiata degli 007; ma nella masseria il superlatitante non c'è, La Repubblica, May 20, 2011

External links[edit]