|56th Prime Minister of Italy|
22 February 2014 – 12 December 2016
|Preceded by||Enrico Letta|
|Succeeded by||Paolo Gentiloni|
|Secretary of the Democratic Party|
7 May 2017 – 12 March 2018
|Preceded by||Matteo Orfini (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Maurizio Martina|
15 December 2013 – 19 February 2017
|Preceded by||Guglielmo Epifani|
|Succeeded by||Matteo Orfini (Acting)|
|Member of the Senate of the Republic|
|Assumed office |
23 March 2018
|Mayor of Florence|
22 June 2009 – 24 March 2014
|Preceded by||Leonardo Domenici|
|Succeeded by||Dario Nardella|
|President of the Province of Florence|
14 June 2004 – 22 June 2009
|Preceded by||Michele Gesualdi|
|Succeeded by||Andrea Barducci|
|Born||11 January 1975|
Florence, Tuscany, Italy
|Political party||People's Party (1996–2002)|
The Daisy (2002–2007)
Democratic Party (2007–present)
Agnese Landini (m. 1999)
|Alma mater||University of Florence|
Matteo Renzi (Italian pronunciation: [matˈtɛːo ˈrɛntsi]; born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016. After the rejection of his constitutional reform in the December 2016 referendum, Renzi formally resigned on 12 December when Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni was appointed new head of the government by President Sergio Mattarella. Renzi served, with a brief interruption, as Secretary of the Democratic Party from 2013 to 2018, when he resigned after the 2018 electoral defeat. He was also President of the Province of Florence from 2004 to 2009 and Mayor of Florence from 2009 to 2014. Renzi, who did not hold a seat in either house of Parliament during his tenure as Prime Minister, became a member of the Senate in March 2018.
At the age of 39 years and 42 days upon assuming office, Renzi is the youngest person to serve as Italian Prime Minister (52 days younger than Benito Mussolini, who took office in 1922) and was the youngest leader in the G7. He was also the first serving Mayor to become Prime Minister. Renzi was sometimes described as the de facto leader of the Party of European Socialists, in opposition to the European People's Party associated with Angela Merkel; the two leaders are together often referred to as Merkenzi. In 2014, the American magazine Fortune ranked Renzi as the third most influential person under 40 in the world, and Foreign Policy listed him as one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers. Moreover, Renzi is nicknamed il Rottamatore (the Scrapper) due to his ambition of renovating the Italian political establishment.
Renzi has been described as a centrist and as a liberal by political observers. While in power, Renzi's Government implemented numerous reforms, including changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reformation of the public administration, the simplification of civil trials, the introduction of same-sex civil unions and the abolition of many small taxes.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Prime Minister of Italy
- 3.1 Domestic policy
- 3.2 Foreign affairs
- 4 After the premiership
- 5 Elections
- 6 Political views
- 7 Public image
- 8 Personal life
- 9 Cabinet
- 10 Electoral history
- 11 Authored books
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Renzi was born in 1975 in Florence, Tuscany, the second of four children. His father, Tiziano Renzi, was a small business owner and Christian Democratic municipal councillor in Rignano sull'Arno. Renzi grew up in an observant Catholic family in Rignano sull'Arno, then studied in Florence at the Classical Lyceum Dante Alighieri, where he passed his final exam with the grade of 60/60 but was nearly expelled because, as the students' representative, he refused to withdraw a school newspaper in which there was harsh criticism of a maths teacher. During this time he was a Scout in the Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy (AGESCI).
In 1999, he graduated from the University of Florence with a degree in law, with a thesis on Giorgio La Pira, the former Christian Democratic Mayor of Florence. He then went on to work for CHIL Srl, a marketing company owned by his family, co-ordinating the sales service of the newspaper La Nazione. During this time Renzi was also a football referee at amateur level and a futsal player. In 1994, he participated as a competitor for five consecutive episodes in the television program La Ruota Della Fortuna (a localised version of the U.S. game show Wheel of Fortune) hosted by Mike Bongiorno, winning 48 million lire.
Early political career
Renzi's interest in politics began in high school. In 1996 he was one of the founders of the committee in support of Romano Prodi's candidature as Prime Minister in the general election; that same year he joined the centrist Italian People's Party, and became its Provincial Secretary in 1999. In the same year he married Agnese Landini, with whom he later had three children.
In 2001, he joined Francesco Rutelli's The Daisy party, composed by members of the disbanded People's Party. On 13 June 2004 he was elected President of Florence Province with 59% of the vote, as the candidate of the centre-left coalition. He was the youngest person to become President of an Italian Province. In the years as President of the Province, Renzi expressed his ideas against the "political caste", and during his mandate he reduced taxes and decreased the number of the Province's employees and managers.
Mayor of Florence
After five years as the President of Florence Province, Renzi announced that he would seek election as the Mayor of Florence. On 9 June 2009, Renzi, by now a member of the Democratic Party, won the election on a second round vote with 60% of the votes, compared to 40% for his opponent Giovanni Galli. As Mayor he halved the number of city councillors, installed 500 free WiFi access points across the city, reduced kindergarten waiting lists by 90%, and increased spending on social welfare programs and schools.
One year after being sworn in as Mayor and with his popularity in national opinion polls increasing, Renzi organised a public meeting with another young party administrator, Debora Serracchiani, at Leopolda Station in Florence to discuss Italian politics, after stating that a complete change was also necessary in his party. Other prominent Democratic Party members who aligned themselves with Renzi's programme were Matteo Richetti, President of the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna, Davide Faraone, a regional councillor from the Sicilian Regional Assembly, and Giuseppe Civati, a prominent member of the Democratic Party in Lombardy and a member of the Lombard Regional Council.
Following this public meeting, the Italian media gave Renzi the nickname "il Rottamatore", or "The Scrapper". In 2011, Renzi organised a second public meeting, also in Florence, where he wrote down one hundred topics of discussion. During this time he began to be strongly criticised by other members of his party closer to the then-Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, after his suggestion that Italian politicians of the same generation as then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi should retire. In September 2012, Renzi announced that he would seek to lead the centre-left coalition in the 2013 general election; the other four candidates for that position were Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the Democratic Party, Nichi Vendola, Leader of the Left Ecology Freedom, Laura Puppato, a Democratic Deputy from Veneto and Bruno Tabacci, Leader of the Democratic Centre. After the first round of the December election, Renzi gained 35.5% of the vote, finishing second behind Bersani and qualifying for the second ballot. Renzi eventually gained a total of 39% of the vote, against Bersani's 61%.
During the subsequent campaign in the 2013 election in March, Renzi backed Bersani by organising large public rallies in his support in Florence, but come the election the Democratic Party only gained 25.5% of the vote, despite opinion polls placing the party at almost 30%. In April, during the elections for the President of the Republic, Renzi caused a minor controversy by openly criticising the candidacies of both Franco Marini and Anna Finocchiaro, two long-standing members of his Democratic Party.
Following the resignation of Pier Luigi Bersani in April 2013, Renzi announced that he would stand for the position of Secretary of the Democratic Party. The PD's loss of seats led to party members' doubts concerning Bersani's leadership abilities. Renzi's impressive resume at such a young age, in combination with his reputation as a political outsider thanks to his "scrapping", made him very electable in comparison. He was supported by a number of his former political opponents, such as former Party Secretaries Walter Veltroni and Dario Franceschini, Deputy Marina Sereni, MEP David Sassoli and Turin Mayor Piero Fassino. Other supporters of his included Deputies like Gianni Dal Moro, Francesco Sanna, Francesco Boccia, Lorenzo Basso and Enrico Borghi, all of whom were considered close to the newly elected Prime Minister Enrico Letta.
The other two candidates for Party Secretary were Gianni Cuperlo, a Member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Secretary of the Italian Communist Youth Federation, and Giuseppe Civati, a left-wing-oriented Deputy from Lombardy and a former supporter of Renzi. In the December election, Renzi was elected with 68% of the popular vote, compared to 18% for Gianni Cuperlo and 14% for Giuseppe Civati. He became the new Secretary of the Democratic Party and the centre-left's prospective candidate for Prime Minister. His victory was welcomed by Prime Minister Enrico Letta, who had been the Vice-Secretary of the party under Bersani's leadership.
Throughout January and February 2014 there were multiple reports of persistent leadership tensions between Renzi and Prime Minister Letta. Many claimed that Renzi was pressuring Letta to resign in his favour, arguing that as he was now the leader of the Democratic Party he should be given the right to become Prime Minister. On 12 February, Letta acknowledged these rumours for the first time, publicly demanded that Renzi make his position clear. Renzi subsequently called a meeting of the Democratic Party leadership for the following evening. Just before the meeting took place, Renzi publicly called on Letta to resign and allow him to form a new government. Letta initially resisted the demand, but following a vote in favour of Renzi's proposal during the meeting, which Letta did not attend, he announced that he would tender his resignation as Prime Minister on 14 February.
Prime Minister of Italy
On 17 January 2014, while on air at Le invasioni barbariche on La7 TV channel, interviewed about the tensions between him and the Prime Minister Enrico Letta, Renzi tweeted #enricostaisereno ("Enrico don't worry") to reassure his party colleague that he was not plotting anything against him.
However, at a meeting on 13 February 2014 the Democratic Party leadership voted heavily in favour of Renzi's call for "a new government, a new phase and a radical programme of reform". Minutes after the Party backed the Renzi proposal by 136 votes to 16, with two abstentions, Palazzo Chigi – the official residence of the Prime Minister – announced that Letta would travel to the Quirinale the following day to tender his resignation to President Giorgio Napolitano.
In an earlier speech, Renzi had paid tribute to Letta, saying that he was not intended to put him "on trial". But, without directly proposing himself as the next Prime Minister, he said the Eurozone's third-largest economy urgently needed "a new phase" and "radical programme" to push through badly-needed reforms. The motion he put forward made clear "the necessity and urgency of opening a new phase with a new executive". Speaking privately to party leaders, Renzi said that Italy was "at a crossroads" and faced either holding fresh elections or a new government without a return to the polls. On 14 February, President Napolitano accepted Letta's resignation from the office of Prime Minister.
Following Letta's resignation, Renzi formally received the task of forming a new government from President Napolitano on 17 February. Renzi held several days of talks with party leaders, all of which he broadcast live on the internet, before unveiling his Cabinet on 21 February, which contained members of his Democratic Party, the New Centre-Right, the Union of the Centre and the Civic Choice. His Cabinet became Italy's youngest government to date, with an average age of 47. It was also the first in which the number of female ministers was equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.
The following day, Renzi was formally sworn in as Prime Minister, becoming the fourth Prime Minister in four years and the youngest Prime Minister in the history of Italy. His rise to become Prime Minister was widely seen as a sign of much-needed generational change, and at the time he took office he enjoyed by far the highest approval rating of any politician in the country. On 25 February Renzi won a vote of confidence in the Italian Parliament, with 169 votes in the Senate and 378 in the Chamber of Deputies.
On 7 February 2015, after just under a year in power, five senators and two deputies from the Civic Choice defected to the Democratic Party, citing the leadership of Renzi as Prime Minister as the primary reason for their decision to change parties.
On 20 March 2015, Prime Minister Renzi briefly became ad interim Minister of Infrastructure and Transport following the resignation of Maurizio Lupi, due to a corruption scandal involving public works on infrastructure in which his name had been cited several times. Renzi held the office on an unofficial basis until 2 April, when Graziano Delrio was appointed as the new Minister.
On 4 December 2016, after the failure of the referendum he proposed, announced his resignation. On 7 December 2016, Renzi officially handed over the resignation to the President Sergio Mattarella.
Upon becoming Prime Minister, Renzi said that "long-overdue" labour market reform would be at the top of his agenda to improve the state of the Italian economy. On 12 March 2014, the Cabinet issued a law-decree on fixed-term contracts, called the Poletti Decree, from the name of the Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti, as well as a bill proposing major reforms to the Italian labour market called the Jobs Act. A reduction in the tax burden of about €80 was announced for those earning less than €1,500 per month. On 30 April Renzi, together with the Minister for the Public Administration Marianna Madia, presented the guidelines for the reform of the Public Administration, subsequently approved by the Cabinet on 13 June.
In September the government brought the Jobs Act before Parliament, which provided for, among other things, the abolition of Article 18 of the Workers' Statute, which protected workers from unjustified dismissal. The proposal was heavily criticised by the largest Italian trade union, the General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) and its leaders Susanna Camusso and Maurizio Landini. Moreover, the left-wing of the Democratic Party, by then led by the former National Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, criticised the government for the reform, threatening to vote against it.
On 29 September, the National Committee of the Democratic Party voted to support the Jobs Act, despite the disagreements within the party, with 130 votes in favour, 20 against and 11 abstaining. On 9 October the Italian Senate voted to approve the Jobs Act, and the landmark reform passed with 165 votes in favour to 111 against, marking the first step for the most ambitious economic legislation of the eight-month-old government. Before the vote Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti was forced to cut his speech short due to the loud protests of the Five Star Movement and Lega Nord oppositions, some of whom threw coins and papers. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who was visiting Milan and had been among the most vocal politicians regarding Italy's need for speedy economic reforms, said the labour law marked an "important step" to reduce "employment barriers" in the Eurozone's third-largest economy.
On 25 October, almost one million people took part in a mass protest in Rome, organised by the CGIL in opposition to the labour reforms of the government. Some high-profile members of the left-wing faction of the Democratic Party, including Gianni Cuperlo, Stefano Fassina and Pippo Civati, also participated in the protest. On 8 November more than 100,000 public employees protested in Rome in a demonstration organised by the three largest trade unions in the country, the CGIL, the CISL and the UIL.
On 25 November, the Chamber of Deputies approved the Jobs Act with 316 votes, but the Five Star, Lega Nord and almost forty members of the Democratic Party abstained from the vote to protest against the reform. On 3 December the Senate gave the Jobs Act the final approval it needed to become law.
In March 2014 the Cabinet approved the auctioning of a large number of luxury cars that were used to transport heads of state, including nine Maseratis, two Jaguars, and various other cars such as BMWs and Alfa Romeos. Out of the 1,500 cars put up for sale, 170 sold immediately over eBay. In April, as part of his wider industrial reforms, Renzi forced the chief executives of Italy's biggest state-owned companies, including Eni, Terna, Finmeccanica, Enel and Poste Italiane, to resign, citing a lack of public confidence in their leadership. He subsequently appointed women to the majority of new positions, making it the first time any woman had served as a chief executive of a state-owned company in Italy.
On 1 August, Renzi launched law-decree called Unblock Italy, which was intended to facilitate the implementation of major projects, civil works and infrastructure that were suspended at the time, as well as achieving further administrative simplification. The centre of this was the Millegiorni, or the "Thousand Days Programme". On 1 September Renzi launched the website passodopopasso.italia.it, which would allow citizens to monitor the progress of the Millegiorni. Later, on 9 October, Renzi presented his first Finance Bill (Legge di Stabilità), which was approved by the European Commission on 28 October.
In February 2015, with the economy continuing to stagnate, the Government announced a plan to abolish rules that limit cooperative lenders' shareholders to one vote each at shareholder meetings regardless of the size of their holdings. The European Commission subsequently forecast that the Italian economy would begin to grow by the spring. The Government also announced the abolition of IRAP, a regional tax on production activities and, discussing the 2016 Finance Bill, Renzi further promised to cancel IRPEF, IMU and TASI, taxes on individuals, public services and residences. In May 2015 the economy recorded growth of 0.3%, finally ending the Italian triple-dip recession. In January 2016, Renzi highlighted an additional 500,000 jobs that he claimed had been created through his policies.
Upon becoming Prime Minister, Renzi stated that one of his most important tasks was to achieve constitutional reforms. The Italian institutional framework had remained essentially unchanged since 1 January 1948, when the Italian Constitution first came into force after being enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947.
The first stage of Renzi's reform package aimed to abolish the so-called "perfect bicameralism", which gave identical powers to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate; the reforms would substantially decrease the membership and power of the Senate. Under the reforms: the Senate's power to force the resignation of the Government by refusing to grant a vote of confidence would be removed; only a few types of bills, including the constitutional bills, constitutional amendments, laws regarding local interests, referendums and the protection of linguistic minorities, would need to be passed by the Senate; the Senate could only propose amendments to bills in some cases, with the Chamber of Deputies always having the final word; and the membership of the Senate would be changed, with regional representatives appointed in a manner virtually identical to Germany's Bundesrat.
On 11 March 2014, the Chamber of Deputies approved both the plans to overhaul the Senate and the second stage of Renzi's constitutional reforms, a flagship electoral reform law that would see Italy's voting system overhauled. On 26 March, despite objections raised by several parties in the coalition, the Government won a vote in the Senate on the bill reforming the provinces, with 160 voting in favour and 133 against. On 6 May, the Constitutional Affairs Committee of the Senate approved the Government's bill on the reform of the Senate. Due to the ambitious reforms that provided for the abolition of Senate, a new electoral law and an increase in the powers of the Prime Minister, Renzi was accused by politicians and constitutionalists like Stefano Rodotà or Fausto Bertinotti of being an authoritarian and anti-democratic leader.
In April 2014, Renzi proposed that Italy adopt what he called the Italicum voting system, a proportional representation system with a majority bonus for the party which obtained over 40% of the vote, in order to provide for stable and long-term government. To approve the new electoral law, which was opposed by the Five Star Movement and a minority of his own Democratic Party, Renzi gained the support of former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, who was still the leader of Forza Italia, despite having been expelled from the Senate due to his sentence for tax evasion. The alliance between Renzi and Berlusconi was named the Nazareno Pact, from the name of the street in Rome where the headquarters of the Democratic Party are located, where the two leaders met for the first time to discuss the reform.
Renzi was harshly criticised by many within the Democratic Party's left-wing minority for the deal with Berlusconi, as well as by the Five Star Movement of Beppe Grillo who said the Nazareno Pact was the proof that there are no differences between the Italian centre-left and centre-right. Despite concern from some within the Democratic Party, the Italicum was given final approval by the Italian Senate on 27 January 2015, thanks to support from Forza Italia Senators.
On 28 April 2015, concerned that the reform may not pass, Renzi announced he would hold a confidence vote to approve the electoral reform changes. The Five Star Movement, Forza Italia and some left-wing Democratic Party members strongly opposed this decision, with some seeking to draw comparisons between Renzi and Benito Mussolini. It would be only the third time that an electoral law was twinned with a confidence vote, after Mussolini's Acerbo law and Alcide De Gasperi's "Scam law". On 4 May the Chamber of Deputies finally approved Renzi's flagship electoral changes with 334 votes for and 61 votes against, the latter including a faction of the PD. The reforms will take full effect in July 2016.
Having easily passed the Chamber of Deputies on 11 March 2015, in a first stage, the reforms to the Italian Senate that would see its power greatly diminished and membership drastically changed were finally passed by the Senate on 13 October 2015. The vote was won by 176 votes to 16, with a large number of senators abstaining from the vote in protest at having to vote on abolishing many of their own powers. The last vote was held on 12 April 2016, when the Chamber finally approved the reform with 361 votes while all the oppositions abandoned the house.
On 4 December 2016, the reform was rejected in a constitutional referendum.
As a result of the Libyan and Syrian Civil Wars, a major problem faced by Renzi upon becoming Prime Minister in 2014 was the high levels of illegal immigration to Italy. 2014 saw an increase in the number of migrants rescued at sea being brought to southern Italian ports, with the increase in the number of migrants prompting criticism of Renzi by the anti-immigration Lega Nord, the Five Star Movement and Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party. On 8 August 2014, the Cabinet approved a law-decree providing for the international protection of migrants. In November 2014, Renzi ordered the Italian-run rescue option Operation Mare Nostrum to be replaced by Frontex's Operation Triton due to the refusal of several EU governments to fund it.
In 2014, 170,100 migrants arrived in Italy by sea, a 296% increase compared to 2013. 141,484 of the travellers ferried over from Libya. Most of the migrants had come from Syria, Eritrea and various countries in West Africa.
On 19 April 2015, a huge shipwreck took place in the Mediterranean Sea, causing the death of more than 700 migrants from North Africa. Renzi, returning to Rome from a political event in Mantua for the regional elections, held an emergency meeting with ministers and spoke by telephone to French President François Hollande and Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat. The call led to an emergency meeting of European interior ministers to address the problem of migrant deaths. In a speech addressing immigration, the Italian Prime Minister condemned human trafficking as a "new slave trade".
On 10 June 2015, the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion obliging the Government to approve a bill regarding civil unions between same-sex couples. Previously all of the major parties in Italy had presented different motions on civil unions, which were all rejected except for the Democratic Party's, which also called for civil unions to be approved. Renzi had stated shortly before becoming Prime Minister that he favoured the introduction of civil unions for same-sex couples. In July 2015, several days after the European Parliament passed a motion calling on all members of the European Union to recognise same-sex relationships, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Italy was violating the Convention on Human Rights by not recognising same-sex couples' "right to family life".
On 7 October 2015, Renzi introduced a bill to Parliament that would establish same-sex civil unions and gender-neutral cohabitation agreements. The bill passed its first reading in the Senate a week later. Although Renzi secured the support of his Democratic Party and the main opposition Forza Italia party, many MPs from both criticised the bill. Despite the bill being put forward on a free vote, Renzi made it clear that he would tie the civil unions bill to a vote of confidence in his Government if it did not pass.
Following months of public and parliamentary debate, on 25 February 2016 the Senate voted in favour of Renzi's proposals to legalise civil unions, with 173 votes in favour and 71 against. An amendment known as the "stepchild adoption" provision that would have granted parental rights to a non-biological parent in a same-sex union was taken out of the bill at the last moment after it became clear a majority of senators did not support it. Although Renzi had expressed support for the amendment, the decision came after the Five Star Movement backed out of an agreement to pass it; moreover, the amendment was opposed by the New Centre-Right. Renzi stated that the bill's passage through the Senate was a "victory for love", although he expressed disappointment that the adoption provision was not also adopted, and raised the possibility of introducing it in a separate bill at a later date. On 11 May 2016, the Chamber of Deputies approved the final proposals, with 369 votes in favour and 163 against.
On 3 September 2014 during a press conference, Renzi announced an online consultation with students, teachers and citizens ahead of the major school reforms promoted by Education Minister Stefania Giannini. On 9 July 2015, despite the opposition of an overwhelming majority of teachers and students alike to the actual design of the school reform, this was finally approved by the Chamber of Deputies, with 277 votes against 173.
On 15 December, during a ceremony at the Italian National Olympic Committee, Renzi officially launched the candidacy of Rome for the 2024 Summer Olympics. Renzi stated that, "Our country too often seems hesitant. It's unacceptable not to try or to renounce playing the game. Sport in Italy is a way of life and a way of looking at the future. I don’t know if we’ll make it, but the Olympic candidacy is one of the most beautiful things we can do for our kids, for us, for Italy." On 21 September 2016, Mayor of Rome Virginia Raggi, a member of the Five Star Movement, told reporters the bid for the games would go no further. Raggi, having long been opposed to Rome hosting the games, cited ongoing financial troubles in the country as the main reason for cancelling the bid. She said hosting the games would be "irresponsible" and would only cause the city to fall into further debt.
During Renzi's premiership Milan hosted the Universal Exposition; the themes were technology, innovation, culture and traditions concerning food. Participants to the Expo include 145 countries, three international organisations, several civil society organisations, several corporations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The participants are hosted inside individual or grouped pavilions.
Expo also created some tensions with the Holy See and the Italian government; in fact Pope Francis condemned the concept of Expo, saying that it "obeys the culture of waste and does not contribute to a model of equitable and sustainable development". As Vatican City invested €3 million to obtain its own pavilion at the event before his appointment to the papacy, Francis said that, although it is a good thing that the Church is involved in causes that battle hunger and promote cleaner energy, he stated that too much money was wasted on the Expo itself by Vatican City.
At 03:36 CEST on 24 August 2016, an earthquake measuring 6.2 on the moment magnitude scale struck Central Italy. The epicentre was close to Accumoli, in an area near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. The earthquake killed 298 people and left more than 4,500 homeless.
On 1 September, Renzi appointed the former President of Emilia-Romagna Vasco Errani as Special Commissioner for Reconstruction. Errani had been already a Special Commissioner during the earthquake that struck his home region in 2012.
A magnitude 6.1 intraplate earthquake struck 3 km (2 mi) west of Visso on 26 October at 21:18 local time (19:18 UTC). The earthquake, which occurred two months after a magnitude 6.2 earthquake in August, struck about 30 km (20 mi) to the northwest of the August earthquake's epicentre. The civil protection, however, estimated the consequences less dramatically than feared. According to official data, a man died because he had suffered a heart attack as a result of the quake.
A third large, shallow earthquake of USGS preliminary magnitude 6.6 struck 6 km (4 mi) north of Norcia at 07:40 local time (06:40 UTC) on 30 October. This quake was the largest in Italy in 36 years, since the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. The three earthquakes caused almost 100,000 homeless.
During his premiership, Renzi faced several challenging foreign policy situations, such as the European debt crisis, the civil war in Libya, the Ukrainian Crisis and the insurgency of the Islamic State (IS) in the Middle East.
Renzi formed a close relationship with US President Barack Obama, supporting the 2014 military intervention against IS with hundreds of Italian troops and four Panavia Tornado aircraft, and also supporting international sanctions against Russia after their invasion of East Ukraine. Renzi forged a positive relationship with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, who praised the economic policies of the Renzi Government. A key ally of Renzi in the Mediterranean is Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi; the two leaders held many bilateral meetings where they discussed the problem of immigration to Italy and the increasing tensions in the Middle East and North Africa.
In the European Union, Renzi has a close relationship with French President François Hollande and his Prime Minister Manuel Valls, especially with Valls, who saw Renzi as a model for his Third Way policies.
Following the 2014 European Parliament elections, which saw the Democratic Party receive the highest number of votes of all the individual political parties contesting that election across the entire European Union, Renzi subsequently emerged as the most prominent leader of the European Socialists. This was in opposition to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, widely considered the de facto leader of the European People's Party and, according to some European Union analysts, the two leaders are together referred to as Merkenzi. Renzi and Merkel had many bilateral meetings, the first on 17 March 2014 in Berlin, just a few weeks after Renzi's election as Prime Minister, where the two leaders discussed important reforms that the Italian Government planned to make both in Italy and in the EU. On 22 January 2015, Merkel visited Renzi in his home city of Florence, where she publicly lauded the "impressive" reforms carried out by his government. On the following day the two leaders held a joint press conference in front of Michelangelo's David.
Renzi is seen as an ally of French President François Hollande of the Socialist Party. On 15 March 2014 Renzi met Hollande in Paris, agreeing with him a common economic policy focused not only on the austerity measures imposed by the so-called Troika of the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund, but also on more flexible policies to promote economic growth in the EU. Renzi is a close personal friend of French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, with the two leaders often regarded as being heirs of the Third Way politics espoused by the likes of Tony Blair. On 7 January 2015, after the Islamic terrorist attack in Paris which caused the death of 17 people, Renzi expressed horror and dismay, offering his best wishes to the people of France and noting his close relationships with the French Prime Minister and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo. On 11 January, he joined more than 40 world leaders and three million people in the Republican March organised by President Hollande.
Renzi built a constructive relationship with British Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party. During their first meeting on 1 April 2014, Cameron stated that the reforms planned by Renzi were "ambitious" and that together the two men would be able to change the European Union. On the same day, Renzi also met former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom Renzi had previously called a political inspiration to him. On 2 October 2014, Renzi held a press conference with Cameron in 10 Downing Street, with Cameron lauding their similar policies to reform the European Union and overcome the economic crisis.
On 1 August 2014, following his party's strong showing in the European Parliament elections, Renzi nominated his Foreign Minister, Federica Mogherini, as a candidate to be the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in the incoming-European Commission to be led by Jean-Claude Juncker, the former Prime Minister of Luxembourg. Mogherini was eventually successfully confirmed as the EU High Representative, ensuring that Italy controlled one of the two most senior posts in the Commission.
In September, Renzi participated in the 2014 NATO Summit in Wales. Before the official start of the summit, he had discussions with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, US President Barack Obama and the other three leaders of the European G4 to discuss the crisis with Russia. This summit was the first held after the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the offensive by the Islamic State of the Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
On 3 February 2015, Renzi received newly elected Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras of the Coalition of the Radical Left in Rome. The two leaders held a joint press conference expressing concerns about austerity measures imposed by the European Commission and stated that economic growth is the only way to solve the crisis. After the press conference, Renzi presented Tsipras with an Italian tie as a gift. Tsipras, who was notable for refusing to ever wear a tie, thanked Renzi and said he would wear the gift in celebration after Greece had successfully renegotiated the austerity measures.
Similar to his predecessors, Renzi continued the long-standing Italian policy of a close relationship with the United States, building a partnership with President Barack Obama. Italy supported the US in the military intervention against the Islamic State, and participated in the international sanctions against Russia following their invasion of East Ukraine.
Renzi met Obama for the first time on 24 March 2014, during the latter's trip to Rome. Renzi also held a joint meeting with Obama, Pope Francis and Italian President Giorgio Napolitano. Obama stated afterwards that he had been impressed by the reforms Renzi wanted to undertake. Renzi himself said that he considered Obama an example for the policies he wanted to achieve.
On 22 September, Renzi visited Silicon Valley, California. In San Francisco he met with young Italian emigrants who have created startups in the USA. He also visited the headquarters of Twitter, Google and Yahoo! to hold talks with chief executives. Renzi was accompanied by former US Secretaries of State, Condoleezza Rice and George Shultz, and by the former American Ambassador to Italy, Ronald P. Spogli. He later spoke at Stanford University as the guest of University President John L. Hennessy.
The following day, Renzi spoke at a United Nations summit in New York City, focusing on the problem of climate change. Following the summit, Renzi met former US President Bill Clinton and his wife, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. At the end of his trip, Renzi participated in a reception hosted by Barack Obama.
Renzi was received at the White House in April 2015. He and President Obama discussed many issues, including Ukraine, Libya and ISIL. They discussed Europe's economy, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, climate change and energy security. In October 2015, the Italian Government announced that it would prolong its military presence in Afghanistan along with the US Army, in order to continue its security mission and prevent the rise of Islamist forces such as Al-Qaeda and ISIL.
On 18 October 2016, President Obama invited Renzi and his wife Agnese to attend an official state dinner at the White House. The two men held a joint press conference during which Obama, the dinner being his final state visit as President, commented that he had "saved the best for last", and the two reiterated their support for one another.
Renzi built up a close relations with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe; the two Prime Ministers are both against austerity and they are reforming the constitutions of their countries. On 6 June 2014, Renzi received Prime Minister Abe in Rome. Abe publicly congratulated Renzi for the economic and constitutional reforms being delivered by Renzi's government. The two leaders also met in Tokyo in August 2015 and discussed about relations with China and the stability of East Asia.
On 9 June, Renzi travelled to Hanoi, Vietnam to meet with President Trương Tấn Sang and Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, as well as Communist Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng to sign economic treaties worth around 5 billion US dollars to the Italian economy. In doing so, Renzi became the first Italian Prime Minister to officially visit Vietnam since 1973, when diplomacy first began between Italy and North Vietnam. During the visit Renzi placed a wreath in the mausoleum of the former North Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh.
On 11 June, Renzi met Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing, who congratulated him for the "important reforms" being undertaken by his government. Xi also stated that China would continue co-operation with Italy ahead of Expo 2015 in Milan. Several months later in October, Renzi met with Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang in Rome to sign twenty treaties worth a total of 8 billion euros.
On 12 June, Renzi met Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev in Astana, where they discussed withdrawal of Italian troops from Afghanistan. On 18 November, Renzi travelled to Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, where with Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow he signed a number of economic pacts securing increased gas supply.
During his premiership, Renzi started a policy review led to the creation of the Italy-Africa initiative, which includes renewable energy co-operation and a new package of development aid in fields stretching from health care to culture; counterterrorism has been a key part of his agenda, but the East Africa region is also important to stop the migration flows from there to Italy through North Africa, especially Libya.
On 4 March, Renzi travelled to Tunisia, where he had a meeting with Mustapha Ben Jafar. With Jafar, Renzi discussed about the problem of illegal immigration to Italy from the coasts of North Africa. The trip to Tunisia was the first official one made by Renzi as Prime Minister of Italy.
On 18 March 2015, after the Bardo Museum attack in Tunis, in which 28 people died and four of whom were Italians, Renzi condemned the terrorist attack and said that Italy is close to the Tunisian government and people.
On 19 July, Renzi started a major trip to Africa, meeting the Mozambique President Armando Guebuza. Renzi signed economic pacts to create investments by the Italian government-owned oil company Eni in the African country for 50 billion dollars. The following day he visited the Republic of Congo where he met President Denis Sassou Nguesso, with whom he signed a co-operation for the extraction of oil in the country. Some journalists criticised the meeting with Sassou Nguesso, who is considered one of the more corrupt dictators of Africa. Renzi later met with Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos in Luanda. During the visit, Renzi placed a memorial wreath in the mausoleum of the first Angolan President, Agostinho Neto.
On 24 July, under the direction of Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini, the government worked for the release of Mariam Ibrahim, a Sudanese woman had been who sentenced to death for being a Christian. Thanks largely to the good relations between Sudan and Italy, Ibrahim was released and permitted to fly to Italy on a government plane.
On 2 December, Renzi went to Algiers, where he met Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal. With the two leaders of the country, Renzi discussed the Libyan crisis, immigration from North Africa, and also about gas imports from Algeria as an alternative to Russian imports, following the tensions between the European Union and Russia.
In January 2016, Renzi continued his policy toward Africa; the Prime Minister had a three-days trip in Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal. The main tasks of this diplomatic trip was the fight against the Islamic terrorism and the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean Sea; with Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari, Renzi signed an agreement on enhancing co-operation between the Nigerian and Italian Polices.
Renzi has been one of the strongest supporters of the new Libyan Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj and of his government of national union. In August 2016 the newspaper la Repubblica reported that dozens of Italian special forces were operating in Libya, for training and intelligence activities. These special forces were operating under the direct command of the Prime Minister's office.
Russia had previously enjoyed a privileged relationship with Italy, particularly under the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi, who was a personal friend of Russian President Vladimir Putin. Following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, however, relations worsened. On 2 March 2014, Renzi accused Putin of having committed "an unacceptable violation". On 19 March, during a speech to the Chamber of Deputies, Renzi stated that the Crimean status referendum was illegal and that the G8 countries must start co-operating to solve the crisis and prevent a return to the Cold War. In June, he subsequently participated in the G7 summit in Brussels, the first one held after the suspension of Russia from the G8 following the annexation of Crimea in March.
Renzi phoned Putin on 28 August, asking him to stop the "intolerable escalation" and to reach a peace agreement with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to stop the pro-Russian conflict in that regions. Renzi and Putin also had a bilateral meeting on 16 October, when Renzi hosted the Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Milan with 53 other leaders of the world. On 15 November, during the G-20 summit in Brisbane, the two leaders had another meeting, where they discussed about the Ukrainian crisis, but also on the civil wars in Libya and Syria.
On 5 March 2015, Renzi met President Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow. The talks between the leaders was focused on international issues, such as settlement of the crisis in Ukraine, the situations in the Middle East and in Libya, as well as fighting terrorism. Putin guaranteed Russian support in case of a UN intervention in Libya against the Islamic State.
Ahead of the bilateral meeting, Prime Minister Renzi visited and laid flowers at the Moscow bridge, near the Kremlin, on which the Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was murdered, a few days before.
Through 2015, Renzi became one of the main supporters of a reduction of international sanctions against Russia and the establishment of a political and military alliance between the Western countries and Russia against the terrorism of the Islamic State.
Renzi questioned Nord Stream II, a new Russia-Germany natural gas pipeline, saying: "I found it surprising that the South Stream project was blocked [Balkan pipeline was cancelled by Russia in December 2014 following obstacles from EU], while now we are discussing a doubling up of Nord Stream".
On 2 August 2014, Renzi met with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Cairo, holding talks about a variety of issues, including the Israel-Gaza conflict. Renzi stated that Italy would support the Egyptian truce proposal, with the two leaders calling for an immediate cease-fire and the beginning of peace negotiations. In making the visit, Renzi became the first Western leader to visit President el-Sisi since his election. On 15 January 2015, after Islamic State's conquests in Libya, Renzi conducted a long phone call with Sisi, to discuss the terrorist threat in the Mediterranean. The two leaders agreed that the next steps should be political and diplomatic efforts through the United Nations.
The relations between Italy and Egypt dramatically worsened after the murder of Giulio Regeni, an Italian Cambridge University graduate student killed in Cairo following his abduction on 25 January 2016. Giulio Regeni was a PhD student at Girton College, Cambridge, researching Egypt's independent trade unions.
Due to Regeni's research activities and left-wing political leanings, the security services of el-Sisi's government are strongly suspected of involvement in his murder, although Egypt's media and government deny this and claim secret undercover agents belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood carried out the crime in order to embarrass the Egyptian government and destabilise relations between Italy and Egypt.
On 20 August 2014 Renzi travelled to Iraq, in the midst of the insurgency led by the Islamic State. There he met with the Head of State, Fuad Masum, Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi and his immediate predecessor Nouri al-Maliki. On the same day, 20 August 2014, Renzi travelled north to Erbil to meet the President of Iraqi Kurdistan, Mas'ud Barzani, and Prime Minister Nechervan Barzani. Renzi later told an American journalist that what he witnessed during his trip to Iraq reminded him of the images of the Srebrenica massacre that had horrified him as a child. While Renzi was in Iraq, the Italian Parliament approved a proposal to arm the Peshmerga soldiers fighting against the Islamic State.
On 23 September, during the 69th General Assembly of the United Nations, Renzi held a bilateral meeting with the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, at which they discussed climate change and increasing tensions in the Middle East. On 11 December Renzi travelled to Ankarafor a second meeting with Erdoğan, during which Renzi expressed his support for Turkish accession to the European Union. On the same day he met with Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.
On 8 January 2015, Renzi made his first official trip of the year, meeting with Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan in Abu Dhabi to address issues of foreign and economic policy, including the Alitalia-Etihad deal. The two leaders discussed joint co-operation domains and enhancing trade exchange and co-operation in energy and aerospace.
Renzi has had good relations with both Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas. On 21 and 22 July 2015 he visited first Jerusalem, where he met with Netanyahu and addressed the Knesset, and then Ramallah, where he met with Abbas. Renzi was the first leader to visit Israel after the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, the deal reached between international community and Iran. Whereas Netanyahu heavily criticised the deal, Renzi supported it, while stressing that "Israel's security is the security of Europe and mine as well." 
In January 2016, Renzi met with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in Rome, the first visit to Italy by a President of Iran since 1999. The two leaders signed business deals worth up to 17 billion euros. They also discussed the war against the Islamic State in the Middle East and Libya. On 13 and 14 April 2016 he became the first Western leader to visit Iran after the international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran. In Iran, Renzi met both President Rouhani and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.
After announcing an increase of Italian investment in Central and South America, in October 2015 Renzi undertook a number of official trips across the continent, travelling to Chile, Peru and Colombia. During his visit to Santiago, Renzi and Chilean President Michelle Bachelet launched a large number of renewable energy projects promoted by the Italian multinational Enel. Renzi also visited the European Southern Observatory of Paranal in the Atacama desert. During these trips, Renzi had numerous meetings with communities of Italian-born Latin Americans in these countries.
In a surprise visit, returning from Latin America, on 28 October 2015 Renzi became the first Italian Prime Minister in history to make a state visit to Cuba. In doing so he also became the first G7 leader to meet Cuban President Raúl Castro following the 2015 normalisation of relations between the United States and Cuba.
In February 2016 Renzi met Argentine President Mauricio Macri during a state visit to Buenos Aires; Renzi became the first European leader to met Macri after the 2015 presidential election and the first Italian Prime Minister since Romano Prodi in 1998 to visit Argentina. During his premiership, Renzi has also developed close relationship with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto.
After the premiership
Following the defeat in the constitutional referendum and the subsequent resignation as Prime Minister, Renzi remained Secretary of the Democratic Party. As leader of the main party both in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic, he supported the new government led by his former Minister of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni, also a Democrat.
2017 leadership election and party split
On 19 February 2017, during the PD National Assembly, Renzi resigned as Secretary of the party, announcing his candidacy for the next leadership election. A few days before he launched the movement In Cammino ("On the way") in support of his candidacy.
Contextually, a large portion of the party's internal left-wing, led by Enrico Rossi and Roberto Speranza, who were endorsed by former party leaders Massimo D'Alema, Pier Luigi Bersani and Guglielmo Epifani, left the PD and founded the Democratic and Progressive Movement (MDP), along with splinters from the Italian Left (SI).
On 6 March Matteo Renzi presented his electoral programme, in which he expressed his intention to renovate the party, Italy and Europe. He also announced an electoral ticket with the Agriculture Minister Maurizio Martina; Martina would become Deputy Secretary and would probably lead the party if Renzi becomes Prime Minister again.
From 10 to 12 March Renzi and his supporters participated in Lingotto '17, a convention based in the district of Lingotto in Turin, where the Democratic Party was founded ten years before under the leadership of Walter Veltroni. During his speech he harshly condemned the Five Star Movement (M5S), accused of being a populist party controlled by a private company, and Lega Nord, which uses fear to gain votes. Renzi attacked also European bureaucrats and proposed a primary election to appoint the Party of European Socialists candidate for the European Commission presidency and the direct election of the President.
Among the notable participants of the pro-Renzi convention were Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni, current ministers like Pier Carlo Padoan, Dario Franceschini, Graziano Delrio, Marianna Madia, Roberta Pinotti and Secretary Maria Elena Boschi. Emma Bonino, historic Radical leader and former Foreign Affairs Minister, also participated in the rally.
The other two candidates for the leadership election were President of Apulia Michele Emiliano and Minister of Justice Andrea Orlando. Emiliano is an outspoken former magistrate with strong support in the poor South, who was expected to join the dissidents in MDP but decided instead to challenge Renzi from within the mainstream party; he is often described as a democratic socialist and populist politician. Orlando is a social democratic politician and a leading member of the party since the foundation. Orlando is often described as the candidate of the social democratic establishment of the party.
After having won the vote by party members in March with almost 67% of votes, on 30 April, Renzi was re-elected Secretary of the party by a landslide with 69.2% of votes; while Orlando received 19.9% and Emiliano 10.9% of votes.
Second term as Secretary
After the rejection of the constitutional reform, the Parliament had to change the electoral law proposed by Renzi's government; in fact the so-called Italicum regulates only the election of the Chamber of Deputies, and not the one of the Senate, which, if the reform passed, would be indirectly elected by citizens. After the re-election as Secretary, Renzi proposed a new electoral law called Mattarellum bis, better known as Rosatellum, from the name of his main proponent Ettore Rosato, Democratic leader in the Chamber of Deputies. This electoral law was similar to the one which was applied in Italy from 1993 to 2004.
The Rosatellum used an additional member system, which act as a mixed system, with 36% of seats allocated using a first past the post electoral system and 64% using a proportional method, with one round of voting. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies did not differ in the way they allocated the proportional seats, both using the D'Hondt method of allocating seats. The new electoral law was supported by PD and his government ally Popular Alternative, but also by the opposition parties Forza Italia and Lega Nord.
Despite many protests from the Five Star Movement and the Democratic and Progressive Movement, the electoral law was approved on 12 October by the Chamber of Deputies with 375 votes in favor and 215 against, and on 26 October by the Senate with 214 votes against 61.
The electoral programme of the Democratic Party for the general election included, among the main points, the introduction of a minimum hourly wage of €10, a measure that would affect 15% of workers, that is those workers who do not adhere to the national collective agreements; a cut of the contributory wedge for permanent contracts; a relocation allowance and an increase in subsidies for the unemployed; a monthly allowance of €80 for parents for each minor child; fiscal detraction of €240 for parents with children; and the progressive reduction of IRPEF and IRES rates, respectively the Italian income tax and the corporate tax. Moreover the PD advocated the re-launch of the process of European integration and federation, towards the formation of the United States of Europe.
In the election, his centre-left coalition arrived third behind the centre-right alliance, in which Matteo Salvini's League was the main political force, and the Five Star Movement of Luigi Di Maio finished second. On 5 March, Renzi announced that the PD will be in opposition during this legislature and he will resign as secretary when a new cabinet is formed. Renzi officially resigned on 12 March during PD's national directorate, and his deputy secretary Martina was appointed acting leader.
2014 European election
In the European Parliament election held on 25 May 2014, the first national election Renzi had faced since becoming Prime Minister, his Democratic Party won 40.8% of the vote with 11,203,231 votes, becoming by far the largest party in the country with 31 MEPs. The PD won the most votes of any single party across the whole of the European Union, won the largest number of MEPs for any single party, and became the largest group in the Socialists and Democrats European Parliament group.
The Democratic Party's vote share was the best result for an Italian party in a nationwide election since the 1958 general election, when the Christian Democracy won 42.4% of the vote. The positive electoral result enabled Renzi to successfully nominate his Foreign Minister, Federica Mogherini, as the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, ensuring that an Italian would occupy one of the EU's two most powerful political positions.
2015 presidential election
Giorgio Napolitano announced his immediate retirement as President of Italy on 14 January 2015. Napolitano had been convinced to stand again as President following the political uncertainty generated by the 2013 general election, but had made it clear he would retire at some point before June 2015. On 29 January, during the National Assembly of the Democratic Party, Renzi officially announced that he would endorse Sergio Mattarella, a judge on the Constitutional Court and a former Minister of Defence, as his candidate for the Italian presidential election to replace Napolitano.
It had been thought, due to the high threshold a candidate requires in the first three rounds of balloting in a presidential election, that Renzi would be forced to seek a compromise candidate with Silvio Berlusconi. However, despite Berlusconi's stringent opposition to Mattarella, Renzi instructed the Democratic Party to abstain from the first three rounds of balloting in an attempt to force a fourth ballot which required a far lower threshold for victory. Despite the risk this strategy involved, centrist parties announced at the last moment that they would support Mattarella on the fourth ballot, and he subsequently won the presidential election with 665 votes out of 1009 from Senators and Deputies. Renzi was able to secure his chosen candidate's election by also unexpectedly securing last-minute support from the conservative New Centre-Right, the socialist Left Ecology Freedom and the liberal Civic Choice.
2016 constitutional referendum
After constitutional reforms had passed both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate multiple times, Renzi announced that he would hold a constitutional referendum on 4 December 2016 to seek approval for the changes; whilst the reform was approved by a simple majority of the Parliament, it did not achieve the two thirds necessary to avoid a referendum, as per Article 138 of the Italian Constitution.
Voters were asked whether they approved of amending the Constitution to transform the Senate of the Republic into a "Senate of Regions", with 100 members made up of regional councillors and mayors of large cities, akin to Germany's Bundesrat. The reform would diminish the size of the Italian senate from 315 to 100, making all senators indirectly elected by regional councils and mayors. In addition, the reform makes it harder for the senate to veto legislation.
Following early results which indicated that the "No" side was clearly ahead, Renzi conceded defeat and resigned.
2018 general election
Renzi led a centre-left coalition composed by his Democratic Party, the liberal More Europe of Emma Bonino, the centrist Popular Civic List of Beatrice Lorenzin and the progressive Together of Giulio Santagata. The centre-left was affected by a political schism, when many members of PD's left-wing faction, like Bersani, D'Alema and Speranza, left the party founding another movement, known as Democrats and Progressives (MDP); in the election MDP run under the joint list Free and Equal led by Pietro Grasso.
In March election, the centre-right alliance, in which Matteo Salvini's League emerged as the main political, won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate with 37.0% of votes, while the anti-establishment Five Star Movement led by Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes (32.7%). Renzi's centre-left coalition came only third with 22.9% of votes. However, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.
The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism. According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the British Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policy in the economic sphere and populism. This means that, on one side, he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while, on the other, he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria and a certain type of capitalism."
The Telegraph referred to Renzi as "a prominent centrist voice in Europe". Renzi has occasionally been compared to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair for his political views. Renzi himself has previously cited Blair as an inspiration for him, and claims to be a supporter of Blair's ideology of the Third Way, which attempts to synthesise liberal economics and left-wing social policies. In an interview with the Italian talk show, Che tempo che fa, Renzi stated that his meeting with Bill and Hillary Clinton was the most interesting part of his trip to the United States, because he considered them as models of the progressive left-wing. In 2016, Renzi endorsed Hillary Clinton's campaign to be elected President of the United States, in an interview where he also expressed admiration for the policies of Bill Clinton and Barack Obama.
Renzi is in favour of the recognition of civil unions for same-sex couples and stepchild adoptions, a situation which occurs when at least one parent has children, from a previous relationship, that are not genetically related to the other parent. For this Renzi was criticised by the participants of the "Family Day", an anti-LGBT rights demonstration which took place three times in Italy; the Prime Minister was accused of having changed his opinion about the recognition of same-sex couples. Renzi participated in the first "Family Day" in 2007, while he was President of Florence Province and a member of the centrist The Daisy party.
According to public opinion surveys in May 2014, just after the European election, Renzi's approval rating was 74%, the highest ever rating for an Italian politician serving as Prime Minister (the highest absolute consensus, 84% was recorded in November 2011 by Professor Mario Monti, who presided over a technical, bipartisan government). His lowest approval to date was in June 2015, with just over 35%.
Italy is currently undergoing a wave of populism and post-modern leadership likened to Renzi's style. As a "master of telepolitics," Renzi uses his own skills and accomplishments as evidence of his ability to lead, promotes the Internet as a platform for democracy, and uses heavy emotional appeals along with relatable, persuasive language to advocate for his positions.
Both as Prime Minister and Mayor of Florence, Renzi has been renowned as an assiduous user of social networks, especially Twitter where he is followed by more than two million people. Renzi cited his use of social networks as a contributing factor to his victory in the Democratic Party leadership election in 2013.
Renzi has stated that he is a fan of the American TV series House of Cards; some journalists had noted similarities between the rise to power of the character Francis Underwood, played by Kevin Spacey, and the manner in which Renzi replaced Enrico Letta as Prime Minister in 2014. This comparison surfaced in the media again when, in June 2015, a phone conversation from January 2014 between Renzi and a general of the Finance Guard, Michele Adinolfi, was leaked to the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano. During the conversation, Renzi described Letta as "incapable" and told Adinolfi that he would replace him as Prime Minister, which would happen less than a month later.
In December 2018, Renzi presented a TV Series called Firenze secondo me (Florence according to me), broadcast by Nove TV Channel. It is a historical and artistic documentary, in which Renzi presents the city of Florence, narrating historical events and showing the most famous sites of cultural interest, like Palazzo Vecchio, the Uffizi Gallery, the Vasari Corridor, the Basilica of Santa Croce, Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens.
In 1999 Renzi married Agnese Landini, a teacher, with whom he has three children: two sons, Francesco and Emanuele, and a daughter, Ester. The Renzi family are regular Mass-goers and are active in the Association of Italian Catholic Guides and Scouts, the largest scouting association in Italy.
At the 2014 local elections, his sister Benedetta was elected a municipal councillor for the Democratic Party in Castenaso, a small town near Bologna. Renzi's father, Tiziano, was the city secretary of the Democratic Party for Rignano sull'Arno, near Florence, until March 2017; he was previously a municipal councillor for the Christian Democrats from 1985 to 1990.
The Renzi Cabinet was sworn in by President Giorgio Napolitano on 22 February 2014, becoming the 63rd Cabinet of the Italian Republic. The Cabinet is composed of 17 members, with eleven coming from the Democratic Party, four from Popular Area and two independents. The Cabinet is Italy's youngest to date, with an average age of 47. In addition, it is also the first in which the number of female ministers is equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.
|2018 general election (S): Florence|
|Matteo Renzi||Centre-left coalition||109,830||43.9|
|Alberto Bagnai||Centre-right coalition||61,642||24.6|
|Nicola Cecchi||Five Star Movement||49,925||19.9|
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- Primarie – Partito Democratico
- Legge elettorale, il 5 giugno in aula. Il Pd spinge sul Rosatellum, ma i numeri in Senato restano incerti
- Legge elettorale, cosa prevede il 'Rosatellum'
- Arriva il "Rosatellum", Renzi: a giugno la nuova legge elettorale
- Rosatellum, come funziona la legge elettorale e cosa prevede
- Rosatellum 2.0, tutti i rischi del nuovo Patto del Nazareno
- Il patto a quattro Pd-Ap-Lega-Fi regge. Primo ok al Rosatellum, ma da martedì in Aula entra nel mirino dei franchi tiratori
- Rosatellum approvato alla Camera. Evitata la trappola dello scrutinio segreto. Via libera al salva-Verdini
- Il Rosatellum bis è legge dello Stato: via libera definitivo al Senato con 214 sì
- Il Programma del PD
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 10 Gennaio 2018
- Pd, Renzi ecco il programma elettorale: 240 euro al mese per figlio. "Taglio contributi tempo indeterminato"
- Renzi: il futuro sono gli Stati Uniti d'Europa
- Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia
- Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI
- Pd sconfitto, Renzi si dimette: "Serve una pagina nuova, noi all'opposizione"
- Direzione Pd, Renzi assente: "Mi dimetto ma non mollo". Martina: "Guiderò il partito con collegialità"
- Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia
- Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI
- Direzione Pd, Renzi assente: "Mi dimetto ma non mollo". Martina: "Guiderò il partito con collegialità"
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- Official website of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (in Italian)
- Renzi's personal website (in Italian)
- Renzi on his party's website (in Italian)
| President of the Province of Florence
| Mayor of Florence
| Minister of Infrastructures and Transportation
Maria Carmela Lanzetta
| Minister of Regional Affairs and Autonomies
| Minister of Economic Development
| Prime Minister of Italy
|Party political offices|
| Secretary of the Democratic Party
| Secretary of the Democratic Party