Matteo Renzi

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Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi 2015.jpeg
56th Prime Minister of Italy
Assumed office
22 February 2014
President Giorgio Napolitano
Sergio Mattarella
Preceded by Enrico Letta
Secretary of the Democratic Party
Assumed office
15 December 2013
Deputy Lorenzo Guerini
Debora Serracchiani
Preceded by Guglielmo Epifani
Mayor of Florence
In office
22 June 2009 – 24 March 2014
Preceded by Leonardo Domenici
Succeeded by Dario Nardella
President of the Province of Florence
In office
14 June 2004 – 22 June 2009
Preceded by Michele Gesualdi
Succeeded by Andrea Barducci
Personal details
Born (1975-01-11) 11 January 1975 (age 41)
Florence, Tuscany, Italy
Political party Democratic Party (2007–present)
Other political
affiliations
The Daisy (2002–2007)
People's Party (1996–2002)
Spouse(s) Agnese Landini (m. 1999)
Children Francesco
Emanuele
Ester
Residence Palazzo Chigi
Alma mater University of Florence
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
Website matteorenzi.it
Matteo Renzi Portrait.png This article is part of a series about
Matteo Renzi
  • Political offices

President of Florence Province (2004–2009)
Mayor of Florence (2009–2014)
Democratic Party secretary (2013– )
Prime Minister (2014– )


  • Elections

  • Government

Matteo Renzi firma.svg

Emblem of Italy.svg

Matteo Renzi (Italian pronunciation: [matˈtɛːo ˈrɛntsi]; born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Italy since 22 February 2014 and Secretary of the Democratic Party since 15 December 2013.[1][2] He was President of the Province of Florence from 2004 to 2009 and Mayor of Florence from 2009 to 2014.[3][4]

At the age of 39 years and 42 days, Renzi became the youngest Italian Prime Minister since unification in 1861, being younger than Benito Mussolini when he took office in 1922 by 52 days.[5] He was also the first person to become Prime Minister as a Mayor. Currently the youngest leader in the G7, Renzi has been described as the de facto leader of the Party of European Socialists, in opposition to Angela Merkel's People's Party; the two leaders are together often referred to as Merkenzi.[6][7][8] In 2014 he was ranked as the third most influential person under 40 in the world by the American magazine Fortune, and listed as one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers by Foreign Policy.[9][10] Moreover, Renzi is nicknamed Il Rottamatore (The Scrapper) due to his ambition of renovating the Italian political establishment.[11]

Since coming to office, Renzi's Government has implemented numerous reforms, including a radical overhaul of the Italian Senate, numerous changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a deep reformation of the public administration, the simplification of the civil trial, the introduction of same-sex civil unions, and the abolition of many small taxes.[12][13]

Early life[edit]

Renzi was born in 1975 in Florence, Tuscany, the second of four children. His father, Gian Gastone Venanzio Renzi, was a small business owner and Christian Democratic municipal councillor in Rignano sull'Arno.[14][15] Renzi grew up in an observant Catholic family in Rignano sull'Arno, but studied in Florence at the Classical Lyceum Dante Alighieri, where he passed his final exam with the vote 60/60 but risked rejection because, as students' representative, he refused to withdraw a school newspaper in which there was harsh criticism of the math professor.[16] During this time he was a Scout in the Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy (AGESCI).[17]

In 1999 he graduated from the University of Florence with a degree in law, with a thesis on Giorgio La Pira, the former Christian Democratic Mayor of Florence. He then went on to work for CHIL Srl, a marketing company owned by his family, coordinating the sales service of the newspaper La Nazione.[18] During this time Renzi was also a football referee at amateur level and a futsal player.[19] In 1994, he participated as a competitor for five consecutive episodes in the television program Wheel of Fortune hosted by Mike Bongiorno, winning 48 million lire.[20]

Early political career[edit]

Renzi's interest in politics began in high school. In 1996 he was one of the founders of the committee in support of Romano Prodi's candidature as Prime Minister in the general election; that same year he joined the centrist Italian People's Party, and became its Provincial Secretary in 1999. In the same year he married Agnese Landini, with whom he later had three children.

In 2001 he joined Francesco Rutelli's The Daisy party, composed by members of the disbanded People's Party. On 13 June 2004 he was elected President of Florence Province with 59% of the vote, as the candidate of the centre-left coalition. He was the youngest person to become President of an Italian Province.[21] In the years as President of the Province, Renzi expressed his ideas against the "political caste", and during his mandate he reduced taxes and decreased the number of the Province's employees and managers.[22]

Mayor of Florence[edit]

After five years as the President of Florence Province, Renzi announced that he would seek election as the Mayor of Florence. On 9 June 2009, Renzi, by now a member of the Democratic Party, won the election with 48% of the vote, compared to 32% for his opponent Giovanni Galli.[23] As Mayor he halved the number of city councillors, installed 500 free WiFi access points across the city, reduced kindergarten waiting lists by 90%, and increased spending on social welfare programs and schools.[24]

Renzi in 2009 as Mayor of Florence.

One year after being sworn in as Mayor, and with his popularity in national opinion polls increasing, Renzi organised a public meeting with another young party administrator, Debora Serracchiani, at Leopolda Station in Florence to discuss Italian politics, after stating that a complete change was also necessary in his party.[25] Other prominent Democratic Party members who aligned themselves with Renzi's programme were Matteo Ricchetti, President of the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna, Davide Faraone, a regional councillor from the Sicilian Regional Assembly, and Giuseppe Civati, a prominent member of the Democratic Party in Lombardy and a member of the Lombard Regional Council.[26]

Following this public meeting, the Italian media gave Renzi the nickname "il Rottamatore", or "The Scrapper". In 2011, Renzi organised a second public meeting, also in Florence, where he wrote down one hundred topics of discussion. During this time he began to be strongly criticised by other members of his party closer to the then-Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, after his suggestion that Italian politicians of the same generation as then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi should retire. In September 2012, Renzi announced that he would seek to lead the centre-left coalition in the 2013 general election; the other four candidates for that position were Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the Democratic Party, Nichi Vendola, Leader of the Left Ecology Freedom, Laura Puppato, a Democratic Deputy from Veneto and Bruno Tabacci, Leader of the Democratic Centre.[27] After the first round of the December election, Renzi gained 35.5% of the vote, finishing second behind Bersani and qualifying for the second ballot. Renzi eventually gained a total of 39% of the vote, against Bersani's 61%.[28]

During the subsequent campaign in the 2013 election in March, Renzi backed Bersani by organising large public rallies in his support in Florence, but come the election the Democratic Party only gained 25.5% of the vote, despite opinion polls placing the party at almost 30%. In April, during the elections for the President of the Republic, Renzi caused a minor controversy by openly criticising the candidacies of both Franco Marini and Anna Finocchiaro, two long-standing members of his Democratic Party.[29][30]

Party Secretary[edit]

Matteo Renzi in 2013.

Following the resignation of Pier Luigi Bersani in April 2013, Renzi announced that he would stand for the position of Secretary of the Democratic Party; he was supported by a number of his former political opponents, such as former Party Secretaries Walter Veltroni and Dario Franceschini, Deputy Marina Sereni, MEP David Sassoli and Turin Mayor Piero Fassino.[31][32] Other supporters of his included Deputies like Gianni Dal Moro, Francesco Sanna, Francesco Boccia, Lorenzo Basso and Enrico Borghi, all of whom were considered close to the newly elected Prime Minister Enrico Letta.[33]

The other two candidates for Party Secretary were Gianni Cuperlo, a Member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Secretary of the Italian Communist Youth Federation, and Giuseppe Civati, a left-wing-oriented Deputy from Lombardy and a former supporter of Renzi. In the December election, Renzi was elected with 68% of the popular vote, compared to 18% for Gianni Cuperlo and 14% for Giuseppe Civati. He became the new Secretary of the Democratic Party and the centre-left's prospective candidate for Prime Minister. His victory was welcomed by Prime Minister Enrico Letta, who had been the Vice-Secretary of the party under Bersani's leadership.

Throughout January and February 2014 there were multiple reports of persistent leadership tensions between Renzi and Prime Minister Letta. Many claimed that Renzi was pressuring Letta to resign in his favour, arguing that as he was now the leader of the Democratic Party he should be given the right to become Prime Minister. On 12 February, Letta acknowledged these rumours for the first time, publicly demanded that Renzi make his position clear. Renzi subsequently called a meeting of the Democratic Party leadership for the following evening. Just before the meeting took place, Renzi publicly called on Letta to resign and allow him to form a new government.[34] Letta initially resisted the demand, but following a vote in favour of Renzi's proposal during the meeting, which Letta did not attend, he announced that he would tender his resignation as Prime Minister on 14 February.[35]

Under Renzi's leadership, the Democratic Party officially joined the Party of European Socialists (PES) as a full-time member on 28 February 2014.[36]

Prime Minister of Italy[edit]

Renzi announcing the formation of his Government.

On 17 January 2014, while on air at "Le invasioni Barbariche", interviewed about the tensions between him and the Prime Minister Enrico Letta, Renzi tweeted #enricostaisereno to reassure his party colleague that he wasn't plotting anything against him.

At a meeting on 13 February 2014, however, not even a month later, the Democratic Party leadership voted heavily in favour of Renzi's call for "a new government, a new phase and a radical programme of reform". Minutes after the Party backed the Renzi proposal by 136 votes to 16, with two abstentions, Palazzo Chigi – the official residence of the Prime Minister – announced that Letta would travel to the Quirinale the following day to tender his resignation to President Giorgio Napolitano.[37]

In an earlier speech, Renzi had paid tribute to Letta, saying that he was not intended to put him "on trial". But, without directly proposing himself as the next Prime Minister, he said the Eurozone's third-largest economy urgently needed "a new phase" and "radical programme" to push through badly-needed reforms. The motion he put forward made clear "the necessity and urgency of opening a new phase with a new executive". Speaking privately to party leaders, Renzi said that Italy was "at a crossroads" and faced either holding fresh elections or a new government without a return to the polls.[38] On 14 February, President Napolitano accepted Letta's resignation from the office of Prime Minister.[39]

Following Letta's resignation, Renzi formally received the task of forming a new government from President Napolitano on 17 February.[40] Renzi held several days of talks with party leaders, all of which he broadcast live on the internet, before unveiling his Cabinet on 21 February, which contained members of his Democratic Party, the New Centre-Right, the Union of the Centre and the Civic Choice. His Cabinet became Italy's youngest government to date, with an average age of 47.[41] It was also the first in which the number of female ministers was equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.[42][43]

The following day Renzi was formally sworn in as Prime Minister, becoming the fourth Prime Minister in four years and the youngest Prime Minister in the history of Italy.[44] His rise to become Prime Minister was widely seen as a sign of much-needed generational change, and at the time he took office he enjoyed by far the highest approval rating of any politician in the country.[45] On 25 February Renzi won a vote of confidence in the Italian Parliament, with 169 votes in the Senate and 378 in the Chamber of Deputies.[46]

On 7 February 2015, after just under a year in power, five senators and two deputies from the Civic Choice defected to the Democratic Party, citing the leadership of Renzi as Prime Minister as the primary reason for their decision to change parties.[47]

On 20 March 2015, Prime Minister Renzi briefly became ad interim Minister of Infrastructure and Transport following the resignation of Maurizio Lupi, due to a corruption scandal involving public works on infrastructure in which his name had been cited several times.[48] Renzi held the office on an unofficial basis until 2 April, when Graziano Delrio was appointed as the new Minister.[49]

Domestic policy[edit]

Labour reform[edit]

Upon becoming Prime Minister, Renzi said that "long-overdue" labour market reform would be at the top of his agenda to improve the state of the Italian economy. On 12 March 2014, the Cabinet issued a law-decree on fixed-term contracts, called the Poletti Decree, from the name of the Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti, as well as a bill proposing major reforms to the Italian labour market called the Jobs Act.[50] A reduction in the tax burden of about €80 was announced for those earning less than €1,500 per month. On 30 April Renzi, together with the Minister for the Public Administration Marianna Madia, presented the guidelines for the reform of the Public Administration, subsequently approved by the Cabinet on 13 June.[51]

Trade union protesters demonstrate near the Colosseum against Renzi's labour market reforms.

In September the government brought the Jobs Act before Parliament, which provided for, among other things, the abolition of Article 18 of the Workers' Statute, which protected workers from unjustified dismissal. The proposal was heavily criticised by the largest Italian trade union, the General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) and its leaders Susanna Camusso and Maurizio Landini.[52] Moreover, the left-wing of the Democratic Party, by then led by the former National Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, criticised the government for the reform, threatening to vote against it.[53][54]

On 29 September, the National Committee of the Democratic Party voted to support the Jobs Act, despite the disagreements within the party, with 130 votes in favour, 20 against and 11 abstaining.[55] On 9 October the Italian Senate voted to approve the Jobs Act, and the landmark reform passed with 165 votes in favour to 111 against, marking the first step for the most ambitious economic legislation of the eight-month-old government. Before the vote Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti was forced to cut his speech short due to the loud protests of the Five Star Movement and Lega Nord oppositions, some of whom threw coins and papers.[56] German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who was visiting Milan and had been among the most vocal politicians regarding Italy’s need for speedy economic reforms, said the labour law marked an "important step" to reduce "employment barriers" in the Eurozone’s third-largest economy.[57]

On 25 October, almost one million people took part in a mass protest in Rome, organised by the CGIL in opposition to the labour reforms of the government. Some high-profile members of the left-wing faction of the Democratic Party, including Gianni Cuperlo, Stefano Fassina and Pippo Civati, also participated in the protest.[58] On 8 November more than 100,000 public employees protested in Rome in a demonstration organised by the three largest trade unions in the country, the CGIL, the CISL and the UIL.[59]

On 25 November, the Chamber of Deputies approved the Jobs Act with 316 votes, but the Five Star, Lega Nord and almost forty members of the Democratic Party abstained from the vote to protest against the reform.[60] On 3 December the Senate gave the Jobs Act the final approval it needed to become law.[61]

Economic policies[edit]

Prime Minister Renzi speaks at Ca' Foscari University, Venice.

In March 2014 the Cabinet approved the auctioning of a large number of luxury cars that were used to transport heads of state, including nine Maseratis, two Jaguars, and various other cars such as BMWs and Alfa Romeos. Out of the 1,500 cars put up for sale, 170 sold immediately over eBay.[62] In April, as part of his wider industrial reforms, Renzi forced the chief executives of Italy's biggest state-owned companies, including Eni, Terna, Finmeccanica, Enel and Poste Italiane, to resign, citing a lack of public confidence in their leadership.[63] He subsequently appointed women to the majority of new positions, making it the first time any woman had served as a chief executive of a state-owned company in Italy.[63]

On 1 August, Renzi launched law-decree called Unblock Italy, which was intended to facilitate the implementation of major projects, civil works and infrastructure that were suspended at the time, as well as achieving further administrative simplification. The centre of this was the Millegiorni, or the "Thousand Days Programme". On 1 September Renzi launched the website passodopopasso.italia.it, which would allow citizens to monitor the progress of the Millegiorni. Later, on 9 October, Renzi presented his first Finance Bill (Legge di Stabilità), which was approved by the European Commission on 28 October.[64]

In February 2015, with the economy continuing to stagnate, the Government announced a plan to abolish rules that limit cooperative lenders' shareholders to one vote each at shareholder meetings regardless of the size of their holdings.[65] The European Commission subsequently forecast that the Italian economy would begin to grow by the spring.[65] The Government also announced the abolition of IRAP, a regional tax on production activities and, discussing the 2016 Finance Bill, Renzi further promised to cancel IRPEF, IMU and TASI, taxes on individuals, public services and residences.[66][67] In May 2015 the economy recorded growth of 0.3%, finally ending the Italian triple-dip recession.[68] In January 2016, Renzi highlighted an additional 500,000 jobs that he claimed had been created through his policies.[69]

Constitutional reforms[edit]

Renzi inspecting troops with President Sergio Mattarella.

Upon becoming Prime Minister, Renzi stated that one of his most important tasks was to achieve constitutional reforms. The Italian institutional framework had remained essentially unchanged since 1 January 1948, when the Italian Constitution first came into force after being enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947.[70]

The first stage of Renzi's reform package aimed to abolish the so-called "perfect bicameralism", which gave identical powers to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate; the reforms would substantially decrease the membership and power of the Senate. Under the reforms: the Senate's power to force the resignation of the Government by refusing to grant a vote of confidence would be removed; only a few types of bills, including the constitutional bills, constitutional amendments, laws regarding local interests, referendums and the protection of linguistic minorities, would need to be passed by the Senate; the Senate could only propose amendments to bills in some cases, with the Chamber of Deputies always having the final word; and the membership of the Senate would be changed, with regional representatives appointed in a manner virtually identical to Germany's Bundesrat.

On 11 March 2014, the Chamber of Deputies approved both the plans to overhaul the Senate and the second stage of Renzi's constitutional reforms, a flagship electoral reform law that would see Italy's voting system overhauled.[71] On 26 March, despite objections raised by several parties in the coalition, the Government won a vote in the Senate on the bill reforming the provinces, with 160 voting in favour and 133 against. On 6 May, the Constitutional Affairs Committee of the Senate approved the Government’s bill on the reform of the Senate.[72] Due to the ambitious reforms that provided for the abolition of Senate, a new electoral law and an increase in the powers of the Prime Minister, Renzi was accused by politicians and constitutionalists like Stefano Rodotà or Fausto Bertinotti of being an authoritarian and anti-democratic leader.[73][74][75][76][77]

Matteo Renzi with President Giorgio Napolitano.

In April 2014, Renzi proposed that Italy adopt what he called the Italicum voting system, a proportional representation system with a majority bonus for the party which obtained over 40% of the vote, in order to provide for stable and long-term government. In order to approve the new electoral law, which was opposed by the Five Star Movement and a minority of his own Democratic Party, Renzi gained the support of former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, who was still the leader of Forza Italia, despite having been expelled from the Senate due to his sentence for tax evasion. The alliance between Renzi and Berlusconi was named the Nazareno Pact, from the name of the street in Rome where the headquarters of the Democratic Party are located, where the two leaders met for the first time to discuss the reform.[78]

Renzi was harshly criticised by many within the Democratic Party's left-wing minority for the deal with Berlusconi, as well as by the populist Five Star Movement of Beppe Grillo who said the Nazareno Pact was the proof that there are no differences between the Italian centre-left and centre-right.[79] Despite concern from some within the Democratic Party, the Italicum was given final approval by the Italian Senate on 27 January 2015, thanks to support from Forza Italia Senators.[80]

On 28 April 2015, concerned that the reform may not pass, Renzi announced he would hold a confidence vote to approve the electoral reform changes. The Five Star Movement, Forza Italia and some left-wing Democratic Party members strongly opposed this decision, with some seeking to draw comparisons between Renzi and Benito Mussolini.[81] It would be only the third time that an electoral law was twinned with a confidence vote, after Mussolini's Acerbo law and Alcide De Gasperi's "Scam law".[82] On 4 May the Chamber of Deputies finally approved Renzi's flagship electoral changes with 334 votes for and 61 votes against, the latter including a faction of the PD. The reforms will take full effect in July 2016.[83]

Having easily passed the Chamber of Deputies on 11 March 2015, in a first stage, the reforms to the Italian Senate that would see its power greatly diminished and membership drastically changed were finally passed by the Senate on 13 October 2015.[84] The vote was won by 176 votes to 16, with a large number of senators abstaining from the vote in protest at having to vote on abolishing many of their own powers. The last vote was held on 12 April 2016, when the Chamber finally approved the reform with 361 votes while all the oppositions abandoned the house.[85] The reform passing meant that, following the next general election, the Senate will convert into a chamber made up of existing regional representatives drawn via proportional representation with little ability to vote on meaningful legislation.

Immigration[edit]

Number of migrants arriving by boat in Italy from 1997 to 2015.

As a result of the Libyan and Syrian Civil Wars, a major problem faced by Renzi upon becoming Prime Minister in 2014 was the high levels of illegal immigration to Italy. 2014 saw an increase in the number of migrants rescued at sea being brought to southern Italian ports, with the increase in the number of migrants prompting criticism of Renzi by the anti-immigration Lega Nord, the populist Five Star Movement and Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party.[86][87] On 8 August 2014, the Cabinet approved a law-decree providing for the international protection of migrants. In November 2014, Renzi ordered the Italian-run rescue option Operation Mare Nostrum to be replaced by Frontex's Operation Triton due to the refusal of several EU governments to fund it.

In 2014, 170,100 migrants arrived in Italy by sea, a 296% increase compared to 2013. 141,484 of the travelers ferried over from Libya. Most of the migrants had come from Syria, Eritrea and various countries in West Africa.[88]

On 19 April 2015, a huge shipwreck took place in the Mediterranean Sea, causing the death of more than 700 migrants from North Africa. Renzi, returning to Rome from a political event in Mantua for the regional elections, held an emergency meeting with ministers and spoke by telephone to French President François Hollande and Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat.[89][90] The call led to an emergency meeting of European interior ministers to address the problem of migrant deaths. In a speech addressing immigration, the Italian Prime Minister condemned human trafficking as a "new slave trade".[91]

From January to April 2015, about 1600 migrants died on the route from Libya to Lampedusa, making it the deadliest migrant route in the world.[92]

Civil unions[edit]

On 10 June 2015, the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion obliging the Government to approve a bill regarding civil unions between same-sex couples. Previously all of the major parties in Italy had presented different motions on civil unions, which were all rejected except for the Democratic Party's, which also called for civil unions to be approved. Renzi had stated shortly before becoming Prime Minister that he favoured the introduction of civil unions for same-sex couples.[93] In July 2015, several days after the European Parliament passed a motion calling on all members of the European Union to recognise same-sex relationships, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Italy was violating the Convention on Human Rights by not recognising same-sex couples' "right to family life".[94]

On 7 October 2015, Renzi introduced a bill to Parliament that would establish same-sex civil unions and gender-neutral cohabitation agreements. The bill passed its first reading in the Senate a week later.[95] Although Renzi secured the support of his Democratic Party and the main opposition Forza Italia party, many MPs from both criticised the bill. Despite the bill being put forward on a free vote, Renzi made it clear that he would tie the civil unions bill to a vote of confidence in his Government if it did not pass.[96]

Following months of public and parliamentary debate, on 25 February 2016 the Senate voted in favour of Renzi's proposals to legalise civil unions, with 173 votes in favour and 71 against.[97] An amendment known as the "stepchild adoption" provision that would have granted parental rights to a non-biological parent in a same-sex union was taken out of the bill at the last moment after it became clear a majority of senators did not support it. Although Renzi had expressed support for the amendment, the decision came after the populist Five Star Movement backed out of an agreement to pass it; moreover, the amendment was opposed by the New Centre-Right.[98] Renzi stated that the bill's passage through the Senate was a "victory for love", although he expressed disappointment that the adoption provision was not also adopted, and raised the possibility of introducing it in a separate bill at a later date.[99] On 11 May 2016, the Chamber of Deputies approved the final proposals, with 369 votes in favour and 163 against.[100]

Social policies[edit]

On 3 September 2014 during a press conference, Renzi announced an online consultation with students, teachers and citizens ahead of the major school reforms promoted by Education Minister Stefania Giannini.[101][102] On 9 July 2015, despite the opposition of an overwhelming majority of teachers and students alike to the actual design of the school reform, this was finally approved by the Chamber of Deputies, with 277 votes against 173.[103]

On 15 December, during a ceremony at the Italian National Olympic Committee, Renzi officially launched the candidacy of Rome for the 2024 Summer Olympics.[104] Renzi stated that, "Our country too often seems hesitant. It's unacceptable not to try or to renounce playing the game. Sport in Italy is a way of life and a way of looking at the future. I don’t know if we’ll make it, but the Olympic candidacy is one of the most beautiful things we can do for our kids, for us, for Italy."[105]

Universal Exposition[edit]

Main article: Expo 2015
"NO-Expo" protests during the inauguration of Expo 2015 in Milan.

During Renzi's premiership Milan hosted the Universal Exposition; the themes were technology, innovation, culture and traditions concerning food.[106] Participants to the Expo include 145 countries, three international organisations, several civil society organisations, several corporations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[107] The participants are hosted inside individual or grouped pavilions.

The opening of the Expo on 1 May 2015 was met with protest from anti-austerity activists, black bloc, and anarchists caused criminal damage, resulting in the police using tear gas.[108]

Expo also created some tensions with the Holy See and the Italian government; in fact Pope Francis condemned the concept of Expo, saying that it "obeys the culture of waste and does not contribute to a model of equitable and sustainable development".[108] As Vatican City invested €3 million to obtain its own pavilion at the event before his appointment to the papacy, Francis said that, although it is a good thing that the Church is involved in causes that battle hunger and promote cleaner energy, he stated that too much money was wasted on the Expo itself by Vatican City.[109]

Foreign affairs[edit]

Official trips made by Renzi as Prime Minister.

During his premiership, Renzi faced several challenging foreign policy situations, such as the European debt crisis, the civil war in Libya, the Ukrainian Crisis and the insurgency of the Islamic State (IS) in the Middle East.

Renzi formed a close relationship with US President Barack Obama, supporting the 2014 military intervention against IS with hundreds of Italian troops and four Panavia Tornado aircraft, and also supporting international sanctions against Russia after their invasion of East Ukraine.[110] Renzi forged a positive relationship with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, who praised the economic policies of the Renzi Government. A key ally of Renzi in the Mediterranean is Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi; the two leaders held many bilateral meetings where they discussed the problem of immigration to Italy and the increasing tensions in the Middle East and North Africa.[111]

In the European Union, Renzi has a close relationship with French President François Hollande and his Prime Minister Manuel Valls, especially with Valls, who saw Renzi as a model for his Third Way policies.[112]

Europe[edit]

Following the 2014 European Parliament elections, which saw the Democratic Party receive the highest number of votes of all the individual political parties contesting that election across the entire European Union, Renzi subsequently emerged as the most prominent leader of the European Socialists.[113] This was in opposition to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, widely considered the de facto leader of the European People's Party and, according to some European Union analysts, the two leaders are together referred to as Merkenzi.[114] Renzi and Merkel had many bilateral meetings, the first on 17 March 2014 in Berlin, just a few weeks after Renzi's election as Prime Minister, where the two leaders discussed important reforms that the Italian Government planned to make both in Italy and in the EU.[115] On 22 January 2015, Merkel visited Renzi in his home city of Florence, where she publicly lauded the "impressive" reforms carried out by his government. On the following day the two leaders held a joint press conference in front of Michelangelo's David.[116]

Matteo Renzi with French President François Hollande in Paris, 2015.

Renzi is seen as an ally of French President François Hollande of the Socialist Party. On 15 March 2014 Renzi met Hollande in Paris, agreeing with him a common economic policy focused not only on the austerity measures imposed by the so-called Troika of the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund, but also on more flexible policies to promote economic growth in the EU.[117][118] Renzi is a close personal friend of French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, with the two leaders often regarded as being heirs of the Third Way politics espoused by the likes of Tony Blair.[119] On 7 January 2015, after the Islamic terrorist attack in Paris which caused the death of 17 people, Renzi expressed horror and dismay, offering his best wishes to the people of France and noting his close relationships with the French Prime Minister and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo.[120] On 11 January, he joined more than 40 world leaders and three million people in the Republican March organised by President Hollande.[121]

Renzi built a constructive relationship with British Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party. During their first meeting on 1 April 2014, Cameron stated that the reforms planned by Renzi were "ambitious" and that together the two men would be able to change the European Union.[122][123] On the same day, Renzi also met former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom Renzi had previously called a political inspiration to him.[124] On 2 October 2014, Renzi held a press conference with Cameron in 10 Downing Street, with Cameron lauding their similar policies to reform the European Union and overcome the economic crisis.[125]

On 1 August 2014, following his party's strong showing in the European Parliament elections, Renzi nominated his Foreign Minister, Federica Mogherini, as a candidate to be the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in the incoming-European Commission to be led by Jean-Claude Juncker, the former Prime Minister of Luxembourg. Mogherini was eventually successfully confirmed as the EU High Representative, ensuring that Italy controlled one of the two most senior posts in the Commission.[126][127]

Renzi meets with G7 leaders ahead of the 2014 NATO Summit in Wales.

In September, Renzi participated in the 2014 NATO Summit in Wales. Before the official start of the summit, he had discussions with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, US President Barack Obama and the other three leaders of the European G4 to discuss the crisis with Russia.[128] This summit was the first held after the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the offensive by the Islamic State of the Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.[129]

On 3 February 2015, Renzi received newly elected Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras of the Coalition of the Radical Left in Rome. The two leaders held a joint press conference expressing concerns about austerity measures imposed by the European Commission and stated that economic growth is the only way to solve the crisis. After the press conference, Renzi presented Tsipras with an Italian tie as a gift. Tsipras, who was notable for refusing to ever wear a tie, thanked Renzi and said he would wear the gift in celebration after Greece had successfully renegotiated the austerity measures.[130]

United States[edit]

Similar to his predecessors, Renzi continued the long-standing Italian policy of a close relationship with the United States, building a partnership with President Barack Obama. Italy supported the US in the military intervention against the Islamic State, and participated in the international sanctions against Russia following their invasion of East Ukraine.[131]

Renzi meets with US President Barack Obama, in March 2014.

Renzi met Obama for the first time on 24 March 2014, during the latter's trip to Rome. Renzi also held a joint meeting with Obama, Pope Francis and Italian President Giorgio Napolitano.[132] Obama stated afterwards that he had been impressed by the reforms Renzi wanted to undertake.[133][134] Renzi himself said that he considered Obama an example for the policies he wanted to achieve.[135]

On 22 September, Renzi visited Silicon Valley, California. In San Francisco he met with young Italian emigrants who have created startups in the USA.[136] He also visited the headquarters of Twitter, Google and Yahoo! to hold talks with chief executives.[137] Renzi was accompanied by former US Secretaries of State, Condoleezza Rice and George Shultz, and by the former American Ambassador to Italy, Ronald P. Spogli.[138] He later spoke at Stanford University as the guest of University President John L. Hennessy.[139] (Inspired by what he'd seen on this "innovation" tour, Renzi later promised Italy its own Silicon Valley.) [140]

The following day, Renzi spoke at a United Nations summit in New York City, focusing on the problem of climate change.[141] Following the summit, Renzi met former US President Bill Clinton and his wife, former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton.[142] At the end of his trip, Renzi participated in a reception hosted by Barack Obama.[143]

Renzi was received at the White House in April 2015. He and President Obama discussed many issues, including Ukraine, Libya and ISIL. They discussed Europe's economy, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, climate change and energy security.[144]

On 16 October 2015, the Italian Government announced that it would prolong its military presence in Afghanistan along with the U.S. Army, in order to continue its security mission and prevent the rise of Islamist forces such as Al-Qaeda and ISIL.[145]

Asia[edit]

Renzi built up a close relations with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe; the two Prime Ministers are both against austerity and they are reforming the constitutions of their countries.[146] On 6 June 2014, Renzi received Prime Minister Abe in Rome. Abe publicly congratulated Renzi for the economic and constitutional reforms being delivered by Renzi's government. The two leaders also met in Tokyo in August 2015 and discussed about relations with China and the stability of East Asia.[147]

Renzi during a press conference.

On 9 June, Renzi travelled to Hanoi, Vietnam to meet with President Trương Tấn Sang and Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, as well as Communist Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng to sign economic treaties worth around 5 billion US dollars to the Italian economy.[148][149] In doing so, Renzi became the first Italian Prime Minister to officially visit Vietnam since 1973, when diplomacy first began between Italy and North Vietnam.[150][151] During the visit Renzi placed a wreath in the mausoleum of the former North Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh.[152]

On 11 June, Renzi met Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing, who congratulated him for the "important reforms" being undertaken by his government.[153] Xi also stated that China would continue cooperation with Italy ahead of Expo 2015 in Milan.[154][155] Several months later in October, Renzi met with Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang in Rome to sign twenty treaties worth a total of 8 billion euros.[156]

On 12 June, Renzi met Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev in Astana, where they discussed withdrawal of Italian troops from Afghanistan.[157][158] On 18 November, Renzi travelled to Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, where with Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow he signed a number of economic pacts securing increased gas supply.[159]

Africa[edit]

During his premiership, Renzi started a policy review led to the creation of the Italy-Africa initiative, which includes renewable energy cooperation and a new package of development aid in fields stretching from health care to culture; counterterrorism has been a key part of his agenda, but the East Africa region is also important to stop the migration flows from there to Italy through North Africa, especially Libya.[160]

On 4 March, Renzi travelled to Tunisia, where he had a meeting with Prime Minister Mustapha Ben Jafar. With Jafar, Renzi discussed about the problem of illegal immigration to Italy from the coasts of North Africa. The trip to Tunisia was the first official one made by Renzi as Prime Minister of Italy.[161]

On 18 March 2015, after the Bardo Museum attack in Tunis, in which 28 people died and four of whom were Italians, Renzi condemned the terrorist attack and said that Italy is close to the Tunisian government and people.[162]

On 19 July, Renzi started a major trip to Africa, meeting the Mozambique President Armando Guebuza.[163] Renzi signed economic pacts to create investments by the Italian government-owned oil company Eni in the African country for 50 billion dollars.[164][165][166] The following day he visited the Republic of Congo where he met President Denis Sassou Nguesso, with whom he signed a cooperation for the extraction of oil in the country.[165][167][168] Some journalists criticized the meeting with Sassou Nguesso, who is considered one of the more corrupt dictators of Africa.[169] Renzi later met with Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos in Luanda.[170][171] During the visit, Renzi placed a memorial wreath in the mausoleum of the first Angolan President, Agostinho Neto.[172]

On 24 July, under the direction of Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini, the government worked for the release of Mariam Ibrahim, a Sudanese woman had been who sentenced to death for being a Christian. Thanks largely to the good relations between Sudan and Italy, Ibrahim was released and permitted to fly to Italy on a government plane.[173][174]

On 2 December, Renzi went to Algiers, where he met Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal. With the two leaders of the country, Renzi discussed the Libyan crisis, immigration from North Africa, and also about gas imports from Algeria as an alternative to Russian imports, following the tensions between the European Union and Russia.[175][176]

In January 2016, Matteo Renzi continued his policy toward Africa; the Prime Minister had a three-days trip in Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal. The main tasks of this diplomatic trip was the fight against the Islamic terrorism and the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean Sea;[177] with Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari, Renzi signed an agreement on enhancing cooperation between the Nigerian and Italian Polices.[178]

Russia[edit]

Russian President Vladimir Putin and Matteo Renzi at the opening of Russia Day at Expo 2015.

Russia had previously enjoyed a privileged relationship with Italy, particularly under the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi, who was a personal friend of Russian President Vladimir Putin.[179] Following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, however, relations worsened. On 2 March 2014, Renzi accused Putin of having committed "an unacceptable violation".[180][181] On 19 March, during a speech to the Chamber of Deputies, Renzi stated that the Crimean status referendum was illegal and that the G8 countries must start cooperating to solve the crisis and prevent a return to the Cold War.[182] In June, he subsequently participated in the G7 summit in Brussels, the first one held after the suspension of Russia from the G8 following the annexation of Crimea in March.[183][184]

Renzi phoned Putin on 28 August, asking him to stop the "intolerable escalation" and to reach a peace agreement with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to stop the pro-Russian conflict in that regions.[185] Renzi and Putin also had a bilateral meeting on 16 October, when Renzi hosted the Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Milan with 53 other leaders of the world.[186] On 15 November, during the G-20 summit in Brisbane, the two leaders had another meeting, where they discussed about the Ukrainian crisis, but also on the civil wars in Libya and Syria.[187]

On 5 March 2015 Renzi met President Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow. The talks between the leaders was focused on international issues, such as settlement of the crisis in Ukraine, the situations in the Middle East and in Libya, as well as fighting terrorism.[188][189] Putin guaranteed Russian support in case of a UN intervention in Libya against the Islamic State.[190][191]

Ahead of the bilateral meeting, Prime Minister Renzi visited and laid flowers at the Moscow bridge, near the Kremlin, on which the Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was murdered, a few days before.[192]

Through 2015, Renzi became one of the main supporters of a reduction of international sanctions against Russia and the establishment of a political and military alliance between the Western countries and Russia against the terrorism of the Islamic State.[193]

Renzi questioned Nord Stream II, a new Russia-Germany natural gas pipeline, saying: "I found it surprising that the South Stream project was blocked [Balkan pipeline was cancelled by Russia in December 2014 following obstacles from EU], while now we are discussing a doubling up of Nord Stream".[194]

Middle East[edit]

On 2 August 2014, Renzi met with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Cairo, holding talks about a variety of issues, including the Israel-Gaza conflict. Renzi stated that Italy would support the Egyptian truce proposal, with the two leaders calling for an immediate cease-fire and the beginning of peace negotiations.[195][196][197] In making the visit, Renzi became the first Western leader to visit President el-Sisi since his election. On 15 January 2015, after Islamic State's conquests in Libya, Renzi conducted a long phone call with Sisi, to discuss the terrorist threat in the Mediterranean. The two leaders agreed that the next steps should be political and diplomatic efforts through the United Nations.[198]

On 11 July 2015, a car bomb exploded outside the Italian consulate in Cairo, resulting in at least one death and four injured. ISIS claimed responsibility.[199][200][201]

The relations between Italy and Egypt heavely worsened after the murder of Giulio Regeni, an Italian Cambridge University graduate student killed in Cairo following his abduction on January 25, 2016.[202] Giulio Regeni was a PhD student at Girton College, Cambridge,[203] researching Egypt's independent trade unions.[204]

Due to Regeni's research activities and left-wing political leanings, the security services of el-Sisi's government are strongly suspected of involvement in his murder,[205] although Egypt's media and government deny this and claim secret undercover agents belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood carried out the crime in order to embarrass the Egyptian government and destabilize relations between Italy and Egypt.[206][207]

Matteo Renzi with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, 12 April 2016.

On 20 August 2014 Renzi traveled to Iraq, in the midst of the insurgency led by the Islamic State.[208] There he met with the Head of State, Fuad Masum, Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi and his immediate predecessor Nouri al-Maliki.[209] On the same day, 20 August 2014, Renzi travelled north to Erbil to meet the President of Iraqi Kurdistan, Mas'ud Barzani, and Prime Minister Nechervan Barzani.[210] Renzi later told an American journalist that what he witnessed during his trip to Iraq reminded him of the images of the Srebrenica massacre that had horrified him as a child.[211] While Renzi was in Iraq, the Italian Parliament approved a proposal to arm the Peshmerga soldiers fighting against the Islamic State.[212]

On 23 September, during the 69th General Assembly of the United Nations, Renzi held a bilateral meeting with the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, at which they discussed climate change and increasing tensions in the Middle East.[213] On 11 December Renzi travelled to Ankarafor a second meeting with Erdoğan, during which Renzi expressed his support for Turkish accession to the European Union. On the same day he met with Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.[214]

On 8 January 2015, Renzi made his first official trip of the year, meeting with Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan in Abu Dhabi to address issues of foreign and economic policy, including the Alitalia-Etihad deal.[215] The two leaders discussed joint co-operation domains and enhancing trade exchange and cooperation in energy and aerospace.[216]

Renzi has had good relations with both Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas.[217] On 21 and 22 July 2015 he visited first Jerusalem, where he met with Netanyahu and addressed the Knesset, and then Ramallah, where he met with Abbas.[218] Renzi was the first leader to visit Israel after the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, the deal reached between international community and Iran. Whereas Netanyahu heavily criticised the deal, Renzi supported it, while stressing that "Israel's security is the security of Europe and mine as well." [219]

In January 2016, Renzi met with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in Rome, the first visit to Italy by a President of Iran since 1999. The two leaders signed business deals worth up to 17 billion euros.[220] They also discussed the war against the Islamic State in the Middle East and Libya.[221] On 13 and 14 April 2016 he became the first Western leader to visit Iran after the international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran.[222] In Iran, Renzi met both President Rouhani and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.[223]

Latin America[edit]

After announcing an increase of Italian investment in Central and South America, in October 2015 Renzi undertook a number of official trips across the continent, travelling to Chile, Peru and Colombia.[224] During his visit to Santiago, Renzi and Chilean President Michelle Bachelet launched a large number of renewable energy projects promoted by the Italian multinational Enel.[225] Renzi also visited the European Southern Observatory of Paranal in the Atacama desert.[226] During these trips, Renzi had numerous meetings with communities of Italian-born Latin Americans in these countries.[227]

In a surprise visit, returning from Latin America, on 28 October 2015 Renzi became the first Italian Prime Minister in history to make a state visit to Cuba. In doing so he also became the first G7 leader to meet Cuban President Raúl Castro following the 2015 normalisation of relations between the United States and Cuba.[228][229][230]

In February 2016 Renzi met Argentine President Mauricio Macri during a state visit to Buenos Aires; Renzi became the first European leader to met Macri after the 2015 presidential election and the first Italian Prime Minister since Romano Prodi in 1998 to visit Argentina.[231][232] During his premiership, Renzi has also developed close relationship with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto.[233]

Elections[edit]

2014 European election[edit]

In the European Parliament election held on 25 May 2014, the first national election Renzi had faced since becoming Prime Minister, his Democratic Party won 40.8% of the vote with 11,203,231 votes, becoming by far the largest party in the country with 31 MEPs.[234] The PD won the most votes of any single party across the whole of the European Union, won the largest number of MEPs for any single party, and became the largest group in the Socialists and Democrats European Parliament group.[235]

The Democratic Party's vote share was the best result for an Italian party in a nationwide election since the 1958 general election, when the Christian Democracy won 42.4% of the vote. The positive electoral result enabled Renzi to successfully nominate his Foreign Minister, Federica Mogherini, as the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, ensuring that an Italian would occupy one of the EU's two most powerful political positions.[236]

2015 presidential election[edit]

Renzi speaks with President Sergio Mattarella, in 2015.

Giorgio Napolitano announced his immediate retirement as President of Italy on 14 January 2015. Napolitano had been convinced to stand again as President following the political uncertainty generated by the 2013 general election, but had made it clear he would retire at some point before June 2015. On 29 January, during the National Assembly of the Democratic Party, Renzi officially announced that he would endorse Sergio Mattarella, a judge on the Constitutional Court and a former Minister of Defence, as his candidate for the Italian presidential election to replace Napolitano.[237]

It had been thought, due to the high threshold a candidate requires in the first three rounds of balloting in a presidential election, that Renzi would be forced to seek a compromise candidate with Silvio Berlusconi. However, despite Berlusconi's stringent opposition to Mattarella, Renzi instructed the Democratic Party to abstain from the first three rounds of balloting in an attempt to force a fourth ballot which required a far lower threshold for victory. Despite the risk this strategy involved, centrist parties announced at the last moment that they would support Mattarella on the fourth ballot, and he subsequently won the presidential election with 665 votes out of 1009 from Senators and Deputies. Renzi was able to secure his chosen candidate's election by also unexpectedly securing last-minute support from the conservative New Centre-Right, the socialist Left Ecology Freedom and the liberal Civic Choice.[238]

2016 constitutional referendum[edit]

Basta un Sì ("Just a Yes") logo chosen by Renzi to support the reform.

After constitutional reforms had passed both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate multiple times, Renzi announced that he would hold a constitutional referendum by October 2016 to seek approval for the changes; whilst the reform was approved by a simple majority of the Parliament, it did not achieve the two thirds necessary to avoid a referendum, as per Article 138 of the Italian Constitution.[239]

Voters will be asked whether they approve of amending the Constitution to transform the Senate of the Republic into a "Senate of Regions", with 100 members made up of regional councillors and mayors of large cities, akin to Germany's Bundesrat.[240]

Political views[edit]

See also: Renziani
Matteo Renzi speaks during a Democratic rally in Bologna.

The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism.[241][241][242] According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the British Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policy in the economic sphere and populism. This means that, on one side, he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while, on the other, he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria and a certain type of capitalism."[243]

Renzi has occasionally been compared to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair for his political views.[244] Renzi himself has previously cited Blair as an inspiration for him, and claims to be as supporter of Blair's ideology of the Third Way, which attempts to synthesise liberal economics and left-wing social policies.[245][246] In an interview with the Italian talk show, Che tempo che fa, Renzi stated that his meeting with Bill and Hillary Clinton was the most interesting part of his trip to the United States, because he considered them as models of the progressive left-wing.[247] In 2016, Renzi endorsed Hillary Clinton's campaign to be elected President of the United States, in an interview where he also expressed admiration for the policies of Bill Clinton and Barack Obama.[248]

Matteo Renzi is in favour of the recognition of civil union for same-sex couple and the stepchild adoption, a situation which occurred when at least one parent has children, from a previous relationship, that are not genetically related to the other parent.[249] For this Renzi was criticised by the participants of the so-called "Family Day", an anti-LGBT rights demonstration which took place three times in Italy; the Prime Minister was accused of having changed his opinion about the recognition same-sex couple, in fact Renzi participated to the first "Family Day" in 2007, while he was President of the Florence Province and member of the centrist The Daisy party.[250]

Public image[edit]

Renzi taking a selfie with some supporters in Venice.

According to public opinion surveys in May 2014, just after the European election, Renzi's approval rating was 74%, the highest ever rating for an Italian politician Prime Minister (the highest absolute consensus with 84% was recorded by Professor Mario Monti in November 2011 who drive an only technical bipartisan government) [251] His lowest approval to date was in June 2015, with just over 35%.[252]

In 2014, Renzi was ranked as the third most influential under 40 person in the world, by the American magazine Fortune and in the Top 100 Global Thinkers by Foreign Policy.[10]

Both as Prime Minister and Mayor of Florence, Renzi has been renowned as an assiduous user of social networks, especially Twitter where he is followed by more than two million people. Renzi cited his use of social networks as a contributing factor to his victory in the Democratic Party leadership election in 2013.[253]

Renzi has stated that he is a fan of the American TV series House of Cards; some journalists had noted similarities between the rise to power of the character Francis Underwood, played by Kevin Spacey, and the manner in which Renzi replaced Enrico Letta as Prime Minister in 2014.[254] This comparison surfaced in the media again when, in June 2015, a phone conversation from January 2014 between Renzi and a general of the Finance Guard, Michele Adinolfi, was leaked to the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano. During the conversation, Renzi described Letta as "incapable" and told Adinolfi that he would replace him as Prime Minister, which would happen less than a month later.[255][256]

Personal life[edit]

In 1999 Renzi married Agnese Landini, a teacher, with whom he has three children.[257] The Renzi family are regular mass-goers and are active in the Association of Italian Catholic Guides and Scouts, the largest scouting association in Italy.[258]

Renzi is an avid football fan and supports Fiorentina, the team of his hometown Florence.[259]

At the 2014 local elections, his sister Benedetta was elected a municipal councillor for the Democratic Party in Castenaso, a small town near Bologna.[260] Renzi's father, Tiziano, was previously a municipal councillor in Rignano sull'Arno, near Florence, for the Christian Democrats.[261]

Cabinet[edit]

Main article: Renzi Cabinet

The Renzi Cabinet was sworn in by President Giorgio Napolitano on 22 February 2014, becoming the 63rd Cabinet of the Italian Republic. The Cabinet is composed of 17 members, with eleven coming from the Democratic Party, four from Popular Area and two independents. The Cabinet is Italy's youngest to date, with an average age of 47.[41] In addition, it is also the first in which the number of female ministers is equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.[42][43]

Cabinet First Renzi Ministry
(2014–present)
Party Term
Prime Minister Matteo Renzi Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of the Interior Angelino Alfano Popular Area (2014–present)
Minister of Foreign Affairs Federica Mogherini Democratic Party (2014)
Paolo Gentiloni Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Economy and Finances Pier Carlo Padoan Independent (2014–present)
Minister of Defence Roberta Pinotti Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Justice Andrea Orlando Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Economic Development Federica Guidi Independent (2014–2016)
Carlo Calenda Democratic Party (2016–present)
Minister of Labour Giuliano Poletti Independent (2014–present)
Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Maurizio Lupi Popular Area (2014–2015)
Graziano Delrio Democratic Party (2015–present)
Minister of Agriculture Maurizio Martina Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Education Stefania Giannini Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Health Beatrice Lorenzin Popular Area (2014–present)
Minister of the Environment Gian Luca Galletti Popular Area (2014–present)
Minister of Culture Dario Franceschini Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Regional Affairs Maria Carmela Lanzetta Democratic Party (2014–2015)
Enrico Costa Popular Area (2016–present)
Minister of Constitutional Affairs Maria Elena Boschi Democratic Party (2014–present)
Minister of Public Administration Marianna Madia Democratic Party (2014–present)

Authored books[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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