Black and white close up of portrait on display at Vermont State House.
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 1st district
March 4, 1803 – March 3, 1811
|Preceded by||Thomas T. Davis|
|Succeeded by||Anthony New|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's 1st district
March 4, 1797 – March 3, 1801
|Preceded by||Israel Smith|
|Succeeded by||Israel Smith|
July 14, 1749|
County Wicklow, Ireland
|Died||August 1, 1822
Spadra Bluff, Arkansas, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Mary Horsford and Beulah M. Chittenden|
Matthew Lyon Jr.
Noah Lyon (died in infancy)
|Profession||farmer, printer, congressman|
Lyon represented Vermont in Congress from 1797 to 1801, and represented Kentucky from 1803 to 1811. His tenure in Congress was tumultuous. He brawled with one Congressman, and was jailed on charges of violating the Sedition Act, winning re-election to Congress from inside his jail cell.
Early life and military career
Lyon attended school in Dublin, after having been born in nearby County Wicklow, Ireland. He began to learn the printer's trade in 1763, but emigrated to Connecticut in 1764, where he worked on a farm in Woodbury and continued his education. Lyon landed as a redemptioner.
In 1774, Lyon moved to Wallingford, Vermont (then known as the New Hampshire Grants), and organized a company of militia. He was an adjutant in Colonel Seth Warner's regiment in Canada in 1775, and in July 1776 was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Green Mountain Boys' regiment. He moved to Arlington, Vermont, in 1777.
During the Revolutionary War, Lyon initially served under Horatio Gates in upstate New York. In a version of the event later circulated by his political opponents, he was cashiered for cowardice and ordered to carry a wooden sword to represent his shame. In Lyon's version, he and his men were not being put to good use, and he asked to leave Gates' command and join the regiment commanded by Seth Warner. Lyon's conduct was vindicated by both Arthur St. Clair and James Wilkinson.
Lyon subsequently joined Warner's regiment as a paymaster with the rank of captain, and served during the Battle of Bennington and other actions. After leaving Warner's Regiment following the Battle of Saratoga, Lyon continued his revolutionary activity, serving as a member of Vermont's Council of Safety, a captain in the militia (later advancing to colonel), paymaster general of the Vermont Militia, deputy secretary to Governor Thomas Chittenden, and assistant to Vermont's treasurer.
Political career in Vermont
Lyon served as a member from Arlington in the Vermont House of Representatives from 1779 to 1783. He founded Fair Haven, Vermont in 1783 and returned to the state House of Representatives from 1783 to 1796 as its member.[n 1]
Lyon also built and operated various kinds of mills, including a paper mill. In 1793, he started a printing office and published the Farmers' Library through 1794.[n 2] It was continued as the Fair Haven Gazette.
Lyon was an unsuccessful candidate for election to both the Second and Third Congresses. He contested the election of Israel Smith, a Vermont delegate to the Fourth Congress. He won election as a Democratic-Republican to the Fifth and Sixth Congresses (March 4, 1797 – March 3, 1801); he was not a candidate for renomination in 1800.
Lyon had the distinction of being one of the first two members to have an alleged ethics violation investigated when he was accused of "gross indecency" for spitting in Roger Griswold's face; Griswold was investigated for attacking Lyon in retaliation.
On January 30, 1798, the House was considering whether to remove William Blount of Tennessee from office. Griswold was trying to attract Lyon's attention in order to have a dialogue on the issue, but Lyon was ignoring him on purpose, since they belonged to opposing political parties (Lyon was a Democratic-Republican and Griswold a Federalist). Griswold finally lost his temper and insulted Lyon by calling him a scoundrel, which at the time was considered profanity. Their clash escalated when Lyon declared himself willing to fight for the interest of the common man. Mockingly, Griswold asked if Lyon would be using his wooden sword, a reference to Lyon's supposed dismissal from Gates' command during the Revolution. Furious, Lyon spat tobacco juice on Griswold, earning himself the nickname "The Spitting Lyon".
Lyon later apologized to the House as a whole, claiming he had not known it was in session when he confronted Griswold, and meant no breach of decorum or disrespect to the House as a whole. Not satisfied with the apology, on February 15, 1798, Griswold retaliated by attacking Lyon with a wooden cane, beating him about the head and shoulders in the view of other representatives on the House floor. Lyon retreated to a fire pit and defended himself with the tongs until other Congressmen broke up the fight, with several pulling Griswold by his legs to get him to let go of Lyon. Although the committee appointed to investigate recommended censure of both Lyon and Griswold, the House as a whole rejected the motion.
Imprisonment for sedition
Lyon also has the distinction of being the only person to be elected to Congress while in jail. On October 10, 1798, he was found guilty of sedition in violation of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which prohibited malicious writing of the American government as a whole, or of the houses of Congress, or of the president. While during the Quasi War with France, Lyon was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist President John Adams.
Lyon had launched his own newspaper, The Scourge Of Aristocracy and Repository of Important Political Truth, when the Rutland Herald refused to publish his perceived radical work. On October 1, Lyon printed this paper speaking of the "unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice," as well as Adams' corruption of religion to further his war aims. At the time, it was quite common for Federalists to cite religious reasons for going to war against France, as well as for silencing the opposition. Before the Alien and Sedition Acts had been passed, Lyon had also written a letter to one Alden Spooner, the publisher of the Vermont Journal. In this letter, which was written in response to perceived personal attacks from the Journal, Lyon called the president "bullying," and the Senate's responses "stupid."
Once the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed, the Federalists pushed for this letter to be printed in the Vermont Journal, adding charges against Lyon by subterfuge. One other charge included publishing letters written by the poet Joel Barlow, which Lyon had read at political rallies. These also were published prior to the Acts. Lyon's defense was to be the unconstitutionality of the Acts, as Jeffersonians saw them as violating the First Amendment to the Constitution. In Lyon's particular case, there was the aforementioned letter to Alden Spooner as well as that of Barlow, which meant Lyon felt entitled to bring up the Constitution's safeguards against ex post facto laws. This defense was not allowed.
Lyon was sentenced to four months in a 16 ft X 12 ft jail cell used for felons, counterfeiters, thieves, and runaway slaves in Vergennes, and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs; Judge William Paterson lamented being unable to give a harsher punishment. A bit of a resistance movement was created; the Green Mountain Boys even threatened to destroy the jail and might have done so if not for Lyon urging peaceful resistance. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress by nearly doubling the votes of his closest adversary, 4,576 to 2,444. Upon his release, Lyon exclaimed: "I am on my way to Philadelphia!"
Political career away from Vermont
Lyon moved to Kentucky by 1801, settling in Eddyville in Livingston County, Kentucky (later Caldwell County and now Lyon County). He established a paper mill propelled by oxen and a distillery, and subsequently engaged in boat building. The U. S. war department employed him to build gun-boats for the War of 1812, but he became bankrupt from speculation.
He became a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1802 and was elected to the Eighth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1803 – March 3, 1811). He sought reelection in 1810 to the Twelfth Congress, but was unsuccessful.
In 1820, Lyon was appointed United States factor to the Cherokee Nation in the Arkansas Territory He again attempted to serve in Washington, D.C. but was unsuccessful. In 1821, Lyon contested the election of James W. Bates (a delegate from the Territory), to the Seventeenth Congress. Lyon died in Spadra Bluff, Arkansas (near Clarksville) on August 1, 1822. He was initially interred in Spadra Bluff Cemetery, and in 1833 he was reinterred in Eddyville Cemetery.
Lyon was married twice. His first wife was Mary Horsford whom he married in 1772. She was the daughter of Samuel Horsford and Mary Grant and had been married previously to Daniel Allen, the uncle of Ethan Allen, until his death in 1772. She died in 1782. Lyon's second marriage was to Beulah M. Chittenden, the daughter of Thomas Chittenden, in 1784.
His son James (1776–1824) may also have been indicted by the federal government for violating the Sedition Act, since he was connected with his father and with James Thomson Callender. It is believed he might have fled to evade capture. His son Chittenden Lyon (1787–1842) was also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1827–1835) from Kentucky.
- At the time, Vermont apportioned the House by town, with each town having one representative.
- It was officially listed as being operated by his son, James Lyon.
- Miller 1951, p. 109
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 28
- McLaughlin 1900, pp. 41–48
- Austin 1981, p. 13
- Austin 1981, pp. 15–17
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 59
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 225
- Montagno 1954, p. 96
- Eliakim Persons Walton, Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont, Volume 8, 1880, page 469
- J. Fairfax McLaughlin, A Picturesque Politician of Jefferson's Time, The Century Illustrated Magazine, Volume 65, page 932
- Austin 1981, p. 18
- Rossiter Johnson, John Howard Brown, The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1904, entry for Matthew Lyon
- Hemenway 1877, p. 721
- The Farmers' Library, or, Vermont Political & Historical Register. Rutland, Vt: J. Lyon, 1793–1794. OCLC 14152194 WorldCat
- Goldsmith 1962, p. 183
- The Fair Haven Gazette and Poultney Journal. Fair Haven, Vt. OCLC 37328623 WorldCat
- Miller 1963, p. 208
- "Representative Roger Griswold of Connecticut attacked Matthew Lyon of Vermont on the House Floor". history.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 26, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Hakim 2003, p. 45
- McLaughlin 1900, pp. 276–300
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 374
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 331
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 338
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 199
- Bowers 1925, p. 386
- e. g. "Thou Shalt Not Bear False Witness Against Thy Neighbor" Vergennes Gazette 14 March 1799
- "The Sedition Act Trials – Historical Background and Documents".
- Miller 1951, p. 107
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 207
- "Trial of Matthew Lyon for Sedition" Vergennes Gazette 11 October 1798
- Miller 1951, p. 108
- Bowers 1925, p. 387
- Bowers 1925, p. 388
- Collins 1877, p. 491
- Collins 1877, p. 489
- Battle 1885, p. 290
- Hagan 1992, p. 72
- Collins 1877, p. 492
- Montagno 1954, p. 347
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 472
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Elections 1834, p. 372
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 474
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 475
- Austin 1981, pp. 11–13
- Austin 1981, pp. 31–32
- Blumberg 2010, p. 141
- Windham Herald 26 October 1799
- Battle 1885, p. 585
- McLaughlin 1900, p. 428
- Gates 1906, p. 44
- Sherrill Milnes. American Aria. p. xiv.
- Austin, Aleine (1981). Matthew Lyon: "New Man" of the Democratic Revolution, 1749–1822. Pennsylvania State University Press.
- Battle, J. H. (1885). Kentucky A History of the State.
- Blumberg, Phillip I. (2010). Repressive Jurisprudence in the Early American Republic: the First Amendment and the Legacy of English Law. Cambridge.
- Bowers, Claude Gernade (1925). Jefferson and Hamilton: the Struggle for Democracy in America. Houghton Mifflin.
- Collins, Lewis (1877). History of Kentucky.
- Gates, Merrill Edwards (1906). Men of Mark in America. 2.
- Goldsmith, Adolph O. (1962). "The Roaring Lyon of Vermont". Journalism Quarterly.
- Hakim, Joy (2003). Freedom: A History of US. Oxford University Press.
- Hemenway, Abby Maria (1877). The Vermont Historical Gazetteer: A Magazine, Embracing a History of Each Town, Civil, Ecclesiastical, Biographical and Military. 3.
- McLaughlin, J. Fairfax (1900). Matthew Lyon, the Hampden of Congress a Biography (PDF). Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford.
- Miller, John C. (1951). Crisis in Freedom: the Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Miller, John C. (1963). The Federalist Era: 1789–1801. Harper & Row.
- Montagno, George L. (1954). Matthew Lyon, Radical Jeffersonian, 1796–1801: A Case Study in Partisan Politics. University of California at Berkeley.
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Elections (1834). Cases of Contested Elections in Congress: From the Year 1789 to 1834.
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's 1st congressional district
Thomas T. Davis
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 1st congressional district