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Matthew Walker (scientist)

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Matthew Walker
Matthew Walker

1972 or 1973 (age 50–51)[2]
Alma mater
Known forWhy We Sleep
Scientific career
InstitutionsHarvard University
University of California, Berkeley
ThesisA psychophysiological investigation into fluctuating levels of consciousness in neurodegenerative dementia (1999[dead link])

Matthew Walker is a British author, scientist and professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.[1][3][4][5]

As an academic, Walker has focused on the impact of sleep on human health. He has contributed to many scientific research studies.[1] Why We Sleep (2017) is his first work of popular science.[6]

Early life and education[edit]

Walker was born in Liverpool, England, and was raised in that city and Chester.[7] Walker graduated with a degree in neuroscience from University of Nottingham in 1996. He received a Ph.D. in neurophysiology from Newcastle University in 1999,[8] where his research was funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Neurochemical Pathology Unit.[9]

Career and research[edit]

Walker has spent most of his career working in the United States.

Harvard University[edit]

In 2004 Walker became an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. In one experiment he conducted in 2002, he trained people to type a complex series of keys on a computer keyboard as quickly as possible. One group started in the morning and the other started in the evening, with a 12-hour time interval for each group respectively. He and his colleagues found that those who were tested in the evening first and re-tested after getting a good night's sleep improved their performance significantly without a loss of accuracy compared to their counterparts.[10][11]

University of California, Berkeley[edit]

Walker left Harvard in 2007 and has taught as a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Walker is the founder and director of the Center for Human Sleep Science, which is located in UC Berkeley's department of psychology, in association with the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and the Henry H. Wheeler Jr. Brain Imaging Center. The organisation uses brain imaging methods (MRI, PET scanning), high-density sleep electroencephalography recordings, genomics, proteomics, autonomic physiology, brain stimulation, and cognitive testing to investigate the role of sleep in human health and disease. It researches Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, depression, anxiety, insomnia, cardiovascular disease, drug abuse, obesity, and diabetes.[12]

Verily / Google[edit]

In 2018 Walker collaborated with research scientists at Project Baseline in developing a sleep diary.[13] Project Baseline is led by Verily (a life sciences research organisation of Alphabet Inc.). As of 2020 Walker states on his website that he is "a Sleep Scientist at Google [helping] the scientific exploration of sleep in health and disease."[14]

Why We Sleep[edit]

Walker's first book was Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams (2017).[15] He spent four years writing the book,[16] in which he asserts that sleep deprivation is linked to numerous fatal diseases, including dementia.[17] The book became a Sunday Times bestseller in the UK,[18] and a New York Times Bestseller in the US.[19] It has also been published in Spanish and in traditional Mandarin Chinese in 2019 by Commonwealth Publishing Group.

Why We Sleep was subject to criticism by Alexey Guzey, an independent researcher with a background in economics, in an essay entitled "Matthew Walker's 'Why We Sleep' Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors".[20][21] Guzey, together with Andrew Gelman, a statistician at Columbia University, accused Walker of falsification of data in an article published in Chance.[22] Guzey and Gelman argued that "it is unethical to reproduce a graph and remove the one bar in the original graph that contradicts your story".[22] Gelman suggested that the case entered into the territory of "research misconduct."[23][24]

Walker claimed on numerous occasions, including in Why We Sleep, that the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared, "a global sleep loss epidemic."[6] The WHO denied his claim, and Walker subsequently conceded that his assertion had been "misremembered," and was actually attributable to a claim from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2014.[25]

Walker failed to disclose that numerous meta-analyses involving over four million adults found the lowest mortality was associated with seven hours of sleep, and that the increased risk of death associated with sleeping more than seven hours was significantly greater than the risk of sleeping less than seven hours as defined by a J-shaped curve. Psychologist Stuart J. Ritchie criticised Walker's approach in his book. "Walker could have written a far more cautious book that limited itself to just what the data shows, but perhaps such a book wouldn't have sold so many copies or been hailed as an intervention that 'should change science and medicine.'"[26]


In 2019 Walker gave a TED talk entitled "Sleep is your superpower".[27] [28] [29] Markus Loecher, Professor for Mathematics and Statistics at Berlin School of Economics and Law criticised its claims and the veracity of its facts.[30]

Walker has a short-form podcast, The Matt Walker Podcast, focusing on sleep, the brain, and the body. [31] [3]

Article retraction[edit]

An article written by Walker published in Neuron in August 2019 was retracted in July 2020, at the request of the author, after it was found to have considerable overlap with an article of his previously published in The Lancet.[32]


  1. ^ a b c Matthew Walker publications indexed by Google Scholar Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ Cooke, Rachel (24 September 2017). "'Sleep should be prescribed': what those late nights out could be costing you". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b Ganesh, Janan (11 January 2019). "Sleep expert Matthew Walker on the secret to a good night's rest". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  4. ^ Matthew P. Walker Academic homepage at UC Berkeley
  5. ^ NPR's Fresh Air: Sleep Scientist Warns Against Walking Through Life "In An Underslept State"
  6. ^ a b Speed, Barbara (5 May 2020). "How a global industry sold us a lie about sleep". Prospect. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  7. ^ "Why We Sleep: The New Science of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker". 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  8. ^ Walker, Matthew Paul (1999). A psychophysiological investigation into fluctuating levels of consciousness in neurodegenerative dementia. jisc.ac.uk (PhD thesis). Newcastle University. OCLC 45068811. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.323701. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  9. ^ "Matthew P Walker". Loop. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  10. ^ "Matthew Walker". 17 October 2002. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Sleep – NOVA Science Now – Discovery/Psychology/Health (documentary)" (Video). Dailymotion. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  12. ^ "humansleepscience". humansleepscience. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  13. ^ Karimi, Tina (2018-12-18). "2019 Predictions from Project Baseline – and our top 5 2018 moments". Blog – Project Baseline. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
  14. ^ "Entrepreneur". SleepDiplomat.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
  15. ^ Kamp, David (10 October 2017). "Exploring the Necessity and Virtue of Sleep". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  16. ^ O'Connell, Mark (2017-09-21). "Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker review – how more sleep can save your life". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  17. ^ "A 'catastrophic sleep-loss epidemic' is killing us, warns leading scientist". The Independent. 2017-09-24. Archived from the original on 2022-05-12. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  18. ^ Why We Sleep. 4 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Best Sellers". The New York Times. November 12, 2017.
  20. ^ "Dozy Science". More or Less. 25 January 2020. BBC. Radio 4.
  21. ^ Guzey, Alexey (15 November 2019). "Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors". Guzey.com. Retrieved 2020-07-14.
  22. ^ a b Gelman, Andrew; Guzey, Alexey (2020). "Statistics as Squid Ink: How Prominent Researchers Can Get Away with Misrepresenting Data". Chance. 33 (2): 25–27. doi:10.1080/09332480.2020.1754069. S2CID 218846523.
  23. ^ Gelman, Andrew (2019-12-27). "'Why we sleep' data manipulation: A smoking gun?". statmodeling.stat.columbia.edu.
  24. ^ Gelman, Andrew (2019-11-24). "'Why We Sleep' update: some thoughts while we wait for Matthew Walker to respond to Alexey Guzey's criticisms". statmodeling.stat.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2020-07-14.
  25. ^ "More or Less – Dozy science". BBC Sounds. BBC. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  26. ^ Aschwanden, Christie (22 July 2020). "The Many Faces of Bad Science". WIRED. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  27. ^ Matt, Walker (April 2019). "Sleep is your superpower". TED. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  28. ^ "You won't snooze through this TED Talk". 13 May 2019.
  29. ^ "Sleep is your superpower". 10 May 2019.
  30. ^ Loecher, Markus (3 September 2020). "Trouble with TED". Code and Stats. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  31. ^ "The Matt Walker Podcast". Apple Inc. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
  32. ^ Walker, Matthew P. (July 22, 2020). "Retraction Notice to: A Societal Sleep Prescription". Neuron. 107 (2): 394. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2020.07.003. PMID 32702346.