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March 22, 1684|
Ocsova, Kingdom of Hungary
(now Očová, Slovakia)
|Died||August 29, 1749
Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary
(now Bratislava, Slovakia)
|Occupation||lutheran priest, writer, historian, geographer, alchemist|
Matthias Bel or Matthias Bél (German: Matthias Bel; Hungarian: Bél Mátyás; Slovak: Matej Bel; Latin: Matthias Belius; March 22, 1684 – August 29, 1749) was a Lutheran pastor and polymath from the Kingdom of Hungary. He is also known as the Great Ornament of Hungary (Magnum decus Hungariae). He described himself as "lingua Sla-vus, natione Hungarus, eruditione Germanus" ("by language a Slav, by nation a Hungarian, by erudition a German").
Matthias Bel was born in Ocsova, Kingdom of Hungary (now Očová, Slovakia) to Matej Bel Funtík or Bel-Funtík, a Slovak wealthy peasant and butcher, and Veszprém-born Erzsébet Cseszneky, who hails from the Hungarian noble family, Cseszneky.
According to some Slovak sources, he considered himself an ethnic Slovak.[page needed] though Bel described himself as "by language a Slav, by nation a Hungarian, by erudition a German". His fathers double family-name is part Slovak (Funtík) and part Hungarian (Bél). In 1710, he got married to an ethnic German woman from Hungary, Susanna Hermann, and the couple had eight children together.
Bel attended schools in Lučenec (Losonc), Kalinovo (Kálnó), and Dolná Strehová (Alsósztregova), and then grammar schools in Banská Bystrica (Besztercebánya), Pressburg (today Bratislava), and briefly in Veszprém and in the Calvinist college of Pápa. Between 1704–1706, he studied theology, philosophy, and medicine at the University of Halle and he was appointed rector at the school of Klosterbergen near Magdeburg after that. Later, returning to the Kingdom of Hungary, became an assistant rector and became afterwards the rector at the Lutheran grammar school in Besztercebánya (Banská Bystrica), where he was also simultaneously a pastor. As a Rákóczi-sympathisant, he was almost executed by General Sigbert Heister. Between 1714 and 1719, he was the rector of the Lutheran grammar school and then also a pastor of the German Lutheran church in Pressburg.
Bel died on August 29, 1749. He was buried in Pressburg, the cemetery has now disappeared.
Bel spoke Slovak, Hungarian, and German, and his works had been published mostly in Latin, which were steeped in the Hungarian national consciousness as had been manifested for instance in his writing, the Notitia Hungariae novae historico geographica, which is an extolment of the Hungarian history, influenced by his deep affection for the Hungarian language.
He never edited a language book in Slovak, as the first attempt to codify the written form of the Slovak language was performed only in 1787, well after his death. Domestically, Slovak Protestants used at that time the so-called biblical Czech language instead, introduced by a translation of the Bible known as the Bible of Kralice.
One of his notable writings is the Institutiones linguae Germanicae (Rules of the German grammar) written in Latin for Hungarians, of which special edition was published in Halle in 1730 for Hungarian students studying in Germany. He also wrote a popular book, "Der ungarische Sprachmeister" (Hungarian language master), on Hungarian grammar for Germans. He mistakenly suspected that the Hungarian language was relative of the Hebrew one. In the one work of him whose name is "Literatura Hunno-Scythica" published in 1718, Bél endeavoured to prove that there existed, at one time, a Hun-Scythian alphabet, of which he thought that that must have been known to the Székelys.
Bel was active in the fields of pedagogy, philosophy, philology, history, and theoretical theology; he was the founder of Hungarian geographic science and a pioneer of descriptive ethnography and economy. A leading figure in pietism, Bel wrote sacred works in Lutheran liturgical language.
As a teacher Bel wrote books, introduced natural science lessons, and emphasized the importance of using visual aid and experimental education. His methods spread and had a modernizing effect on the education system of the entirety of Hungary.
As a philologist, Bel was the first to study the Hungarian runes and also contributed to the evolution of the Hungarian literary language. He revised and republished Gáspár Károli's Bible-translation. He wrote Hungarian, Latin and German grammars – in the latter he also reviewed the German communities and dialects in Hungary. His work as a translator and editor in the field of religious work is also copious.
A pioneer of collaborative research in the history of the Kingdom of Hungary, Bel undertook a comprehensive historical and geographic examination of the territory in his well-known Notitia Hungariae Novae Historico Geographiaca. His work about the counties of Hungary was aided by many – while others accused him of espionage. The chancery entrusted Sámuel Mikoviny to supplement his work with detailed maps. The Notitia's complete edition could not be achieved during Bél's lifetime. Only eleven county descriptions were issued in print: Szepes County's description was published in Bél's Notitia project introduction, the Prodromus, the other ten county descriptions – namely Pozsony County, Turóc County, Zólyom County, Liptó County, Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun County, Nógrád County, Bars County, Nyitra County, Hont County, Moson County – were published in five volumes of the Notitia. The remaining 37 county descriptions along with the Jász-Kun districts' description were left in manuscripts due to the revising county authorities' negligence or hostility, and the problems with the printery. These manuscripts have been scattered to several archives or collections.
Recently Hungarian historians and philologists began to publish a critical edition of the county descriptions remained in manuscripts, based on the results of a comprehensive research made by the Hungarian historian Gergely Tóth. Calculating the length of the descriptions, they find it achievable to publish all the descriptions left in manuscript in 10 volumes. The first volume, which contains the descriptions of Árva and Trencsén counties, has already been published.
In 1735 Bel drew up a proposal for the creation of a scientific academy, to be based in Pressburg.
Honours and awards
Bel's works met with recognition and respect beyond the Kingdom: he was a member of a number of learned societies abroad (e.g., Prussian Royal Academy (Berlin), Royal Society of London, Societas eruditorum incognitorum in terris Austriacis (Olomouc), Jena, Saint Petersburg). He was elevated to noble rank by Charles VI of Austria, and received a golden medallion with his (Bel's) own portrait from Pope Clement XII.
- Forma sacrorum verborum (Halle, 1707)
- Compendium (1713)
- Invitatio ad symbola conferenda dum historia linguae hungaricae libri II...edere parat... (Berolini, 1713)
- Grammatica Latina (Leutschoviae, 1717)
- Rhetorices veteris et novae praecepta (Lipsiae, 1717)
- Institutiones linguac germanicae et slavicae in Hungaria ortu (Leutschoviae, 1718)
- De vetera literatura hunnoscythica exercitatio (Lipsiae, 1718)
- Christophori Cellarii latinitatis probatae et exercitae liber memorialis naturali ordine dispositus (Norimbergae, 1719)
- Flos medicinae scholae Salernitanae (Posonii, 1721)
- Hungariae antiquae et novae prodromus (Norinbergae, 1723)
- Preces christianae (Lipsiae, 1728)
- Die Gatt suchende Seele (1729)
- Der ungarische Sprachmeister. (Pressburg, 1729)
- Adparatus ad historiam Hungariae. Decades II. (Posonii, 1735–46)
- Notitia Hungariae novae historico-geographica. Partis I. Tom. I–IV. Partis II. Tom. V. Viennae, (1735–42)
- Compendium Hungariae geographicum (Posonii, 1753)
- Kurze und zuverlässige Nachricht von dem Zustande der protestantischen Kirche in Ungarn
- Compendiolum regnorum Slavoniae, Croatiae, Dalmatiae, Gallicae et Lodomeriae. Posonii et Cassoviae (1777)
- Miscellanea Berolinensia (1734)
- Rainer, Rudolf; Ulreich, Eduard (1988). Karpatendeutsches biographisches Lexikon, Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei (1 ed.). Stuttgart. p. 368. ISBN 3-927096-00-8.
- Weston Evans, Robert John (2006). Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs:Essays on Central Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-19-928144-0.
- Stiftungen, Franckesche (January 1, 2003). Die Hungarica-Sammlung der Franckeschen Stiftungen zu Halle (in German). Verlag der Franckeschen Stiftungen Halle im Max Niemeyer Verlag. ISBN 9783484841079.
- "Pamätná izba Mateja Bela" (in Slovak).
- Lorad, E. (1957). Umelecko-historické pamätné kostoly na Slovensku (in Czech). Spolok sv. Vojtecha.
- Šišulák, Stanislav (2007). "Matej Bel – slovenský polyhistor" [Matej Bel - Slovak polymath] (in Slovak). quark.sk. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011.
- Kriegleder, Wynfrid; Seidler, Andrea; Tancer, Jozef (January 1, 2002). Deutsche Sprache und Kultur im Raum Pressburg (in German). Edition Lumière. ISBN 9783934686076.
- Kníchal, O., Kniha o M. Belovi v maďarčine – Posledný veľký polyhistor. Ľudové noviny, available at: http://www.luno.hu/mambo/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=4564&Itemid=104[permanent dead link]
- Fraňo, J. : Múdry Matej alebo rozprávanie o Matejovi Belovi a jeho dobe. Bratislava, Mladé letá. 1984
- Jozef Fraňo: A tudós Bél
- Doležal, Pavel: Grammatica Slavico-Bohemica, 1746
- Petro, Peter (1995). A History of Slovak Literature. Montréal: McGill-Queen's Press.
- A Magyar Irodalom Története II. (History of Hungarian literature) (in Hungarian). Hungarian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 963-05-1641-1.
- Piaček, Jozef; Kravčík, Miloš (1999). "Bibličtina" [Biblical language]. FILIT: Open Philosophical Encyclopedia Version 3.0 (in Slovak). Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1889). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 607. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- "Library and Archive Catalogue". Royal Society. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Bel, Matthias (Bél Mátyás): Notitia Hungariae novae historico-geographica... Comitatuum ineditorum Tomus II. in quo continentur... Comitatus Soproniensis, Castriferrei, Szaladiensis et Veszprimiensis. Ed. Gregorius Tóth. Textum recensuerunt notisque instruxerunt: Bernadett Benei (et al.) Budapestini, 2012. (Prefaces, samples from the text edition) (pdf)
- Matthias Bel: Notitia Hungariae novae historico geographica... Comitatuum ineditorum tomus primus, in quo continentur... Comitatus Arvensis et Trentsiniensis. Edd. Gregorius Tóth, Ladislaus Glück, Zoltanus Gőzsy. Budapestini, 2011. (The introduction in Hungarian and in English can be read on this link)[permanent dead link]
- BME Irányítástechnika és Informatika Tanszék (in Hungarian)
- Jószerencsét! (in Hungarian)
- Magyar Protestáns Panteon (in Hungarian)
- Catalogus manuscriptorum Matthiae Bél, quae in bibliotheca Lycei Evangelici Posoniensis asservantur
- Tóth, Gergely: Discipuli Posonienses Matthiae Belii. Lymbus 2007. 179–208.