From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Alternative namesMatsoni,
Caspian Sea yoghurt
Place of originArmenia
Region or stateCaucasus
Main ingredientsMilk

Matzoon[1] (Armenian: մածուն matsun) or Matsoni (Georgian: მაწონი mats'oni) is a fermented milk product of Armenian origin,[2][3][4] found in Caucasian cuisine, particularly in Armenia[5] and Georgia.[6][7][8] In Japan, it is called Caspian Sea yogurt.[9]


The name of the product originates from Armenian matz (sour, glue).[10] The etymology is provided by Grigor Magistros, in his Definition of grammar (11th century).[11]


The first written accounts of matzoon are attested in medieval Armenian manuscripts by Grigor Magistros (11th century), Hovhannes Erznkatsi (13th century), Grigor Tatevatsi (14th century) and others.[11][12] Matsoni is mentioned in the 15th century Georgian medical book Karabadini by Zaza Panaskerteli-Tsitsishvili.[13]


Matzoon is made from cow's milk (mostly), goat's milk, sheep's milk, buffalo milk, or a mix of them and a culture from previous productions. Similar to yogurt it is usually made with the following lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus acidophilus (original only), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.[8] Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris was found to be a dominant bacterial strain producing polysaccharides that impart the characteristic high viscosity of matzoon.[9]


  1. ^ Also spelled matsoon, matsoun, matzoun, madzoon, madzoun, macun, matson
  2. ^ Kirk, Lawrence Eldred (1948). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 12. Matzoon or mazun, originating in Armenia. A lactobacillus (L. mazun), a streptococcus, a spore-producing bacillus and a sugar- fermenting yeast are responsible for the fermentation of this product.
  3. ^ Joseph A. Kurmann, Jeremija Lj Rašić, Manfred Kroger (1992). Encyclopedia of fermented fresh milk products: an international inventory of fermented milk, cream, buttermilk, whey, and related products. Springer. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-442-00869-7. Matzoon (En); mazun (Fr, De); matsun, matsoni, maconi. Short Description: Of Armenian origin; Georgia, Caucasus (USSR); traditional product; the milk of ewes, goats, buffalo, or cows or mixtures thereof; yoghurtlike product traditionally made from boiled milk and an undefined starter culture; firm consistency and acidic flavor. Microbiology: Traditional product made with undefined starter culture consisting of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic streptococci and thermophilic lactobacilli, and often with yeasts. Starter culture with defined microflora: proposed Streptococcus thcrmopbilus and Lactobacillus dclbmeckii subsp. buligaricus.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Fermented milk". Columbia Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  5. ^ "Matzoon, mat-soon". The Encyclopedia Americana. 18. Americana Corp. 1977. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-7172-0108-2. "a milk food used in Armenia; prepared by exposing milk in open vessels to a heat of 90°F., and when coagulation takes place the curd is broken up by a churning process and salt is added".
  6. ^ Goldstein, Darra (1999). The Georgian Feast: The Vibrant Culture and Savory Food of the Republic of Georgia. University of California Press. p. 34.
  7. ^ Byers, Branden (2014). The Everyday Fermentation Handbook: A Real-Life Guide to Fermenting Food. p. 66. "Matsoni, also known as Caspian Sea yogurt, this mesophilic yogurt comes from the region now known as Georgia".
  8. ^ a b Kenji Uchida, Tadasu Urashima, Nino Chaniashvili, Ikiti Arai, Hidemasa Motoshima (2007). "Major microbiota of lactic acid bacteria from Matsoni, a traditional Georgian fermented milk". Animal Science Journal. 78: 85. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00409.x.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ a b Uchida, Kenji; Akashi, Keiko; Motoshima, Hidemasa; Urashima, Tadasu; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao (2009). "Microbiota analysis of Caspian Sea yogurt, a ropy fermented milk circulated in Japan". Animal Science Journal. 80 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2008.00607.x. ISSN 1344-3941. PMID 20163589.
  10. ^ Adjarian, Hrachia (1971). Armenian Etymological Dictionary. 3. Yerevan. pp. 228–29.
  11. ^ a b Nicholas Adontz, «Дионисий Фракийский и армянские толкователи.», Saint Petersburg, 1915, p. 228. "Մածուն քանզի մածեալ է, սոյնպէս և անուանի." Approximate translation: "Matzoon, since it's gluey, hence it is called so."
  12. ^ ed: A. Desnitskaya, S. Katsnelson, «История лингвистических учений. Средневековый Восток.». "Nauka", Saint Petersburg, 1981, p. 17
  13. ^ Probiotics of Georgia and “Caucasian Longevity”

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Matsoni at Wikimedia Commons