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This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Mau district. For other uses, see Mau (disambiguation).
मऊनाथ भंजन
Mau is located in Uttar Pradesh
Coordinates: 25°56′30″N 83°33′40″E / 25.94167°N 83.56111°E / 25.94167; 83.56111Coordinates: 25°56′30″N 83°33′40″E / 25.94167°N 83.56111°E / 25.94167; 83.56111
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Mau
 • Type Municipal Council
 • Body Maunath Bhanjan municipal council
 • Total 180 km2 (70 sq mi)
 • Total 292,000
 • Official Hindi/ Bhojpuri/ urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 275101
Telephone code +0547
Vehicle registration UP 54-
Sex ratio 978 (as of 2011) /

Mau, now known as Maunath Bhanjan, is an industrial town in Uttar Pradesh, India, located nearly 120 km from Varanasi on the banks of Tamsa (Choti Saryu). It is a major centre of the textile weavers. It is divided into 4 tehsils, 9 blocks, 596 gram panchayats and 1644 villages. The Tamasa river flows through the city. In the 1960s it was the biggest supplier of a plant called plash. This town is the headquarters of the Mau district.

Etymology of the name[edit]

Many myths are popular regarding the history of Mau district. The word 'Mau' means 'padaav' or 'chhavani' in Turkish language i.e. barrack. The city was used as barracks by many rulers since long ago. Shershah Suri, Akbar, Aurangzeb are the prominent rulers who used the city in such a way. There is a mosque, built by Aurangzaib's sister Jahan Aara Beghum, the shahi mosque attached with a number of barracks (can be seen still now) in mohalla keyari tola.

It is also believed by the People of Mau that centuries before lived a man (a natt), a dancer named 'Muhoo Natt Bhajjan', who was cruel in nature. He always use to tease people the entire area therefore, a Holy man (Malik tahir baba, who was the chief of the area) asked him to leave that area, for the sake of his people, to which he replied negatively. Then the malik tahir baba challenged him to wrestle and win. If he wins, Malik tahir baba will leave the area else he himself will. After the wrestle the Malik tahir baba won. He asked the natt to leave the place at once. He agreed and kept his condition to leave. He asked the Malik tahir baba to keep the name of his area on his (Natt's) name. Malik tahir baba agreed and gave the name of his area 'Muhoo Natt Bhajjan'. This named was further modified to 'Maunath Bhanjan'.


District Mau has been cast out from district Azamgarh. It has a very rich historical background from the protohistorical period. The Archaeological Survey of India has found some records like coins of the king Kanishka's period.

During the reign of Sher Shah Suri, the famous emperor who defeated Humayun, visited Kolhuvavan (Madhuban) to meet the great Sufi saint Syed Ahmad Wadva.[1] Mahvani, one of the daughters of Sher Shah was settled permanently near the dargah of Syed Sahab. Various developmental works were undertaken by Sher Shah Suri during his reign for economic development of the Mau region. After Humayun had retaken India, it is mentioned in the historical book of Ziaudeen Barni saying that his son Akbar the Great passed through Mau, on his way towards Allahabad.[citation needed]

During the construction of a military base and the Shahi Masjid, a large number of laborers and artisans came with the Mughal Army. They, the weavers, etc. had originally come from Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey; they settled there permanently.[citation needed]

During the period of India's struggle for freedom the residents of Mau gave their full support to the movement. Pandit Algu Rai Shastri a great Leader and Indian Freedom fighter Facts about Pandit Algu Rai Shastri ji was Affiliated to Indian National Congress Constituency Azamgarh (UP) Lok Sabha Constituency Member of parliament Member of 1952 Member title MP, offer to Mahatma Gandhi came to Dohrighat on 3 October 1939 during the 3rd salt law breaking movement; many persons of Mau actively took part.

During the 1942 Quit India Movement a mob had collected in outrage of an action by a Madhuban Police Station Officer; Collector Navlate was present there, he ordered his men to open fire on the mob killing and injuring raghunath, bhar, Kanhyee bhar etc. In memory of the shaheeds of that day a monument was built on the site were the shaheeds had made the ultimate sacrifice.[citation needed]

Mau was an important township of Azamgarh district before its creation as a district itself. On 19 November 1988 it was made a district, largely due to the efforts of the Late Kalpnath Rai (MP Ghosi) The local language of Mau is peculiar to the area as it includes the dialects of Bhojpuri Persian, Turkish and Irani. The main Industrial setup here is of cloth making by powerloom due to the presence of a large number of weavers in the district. Sari, Lungi and other clothes being prepared there are exported to various states of India and also to various countries.

Religious places[edit]

Malik tahir baba r.a. Rauza is famous place where devotees use to visit every Thursday.

Shahi Katra Masjid build by Aurangzeb's daughter, is most popular place of worship.

In Ghosi Huzur Sadrussharia is famous for Islamic religion distance near about 20 km from Mau. There is a famous madarsa also, named Amjadia .

'Shitala Mata Dham' (Or Shitala Mandir) and 'Vandevi' are two important and Oldest Temples in Mau. Shitala Mata Dham is located beside the State Highway 34; East of Mirzahadipura of this city. This Temple is one of the oldest temple in the city. Many God and Goddesses of Hindu mythology are found in this temple including Lord Shiva, Lord Ganesha, Mata Parvati, Lord Hanuman. This temple is managed by 'Shitala Mata Samiti', and 'Shri Ram Bhakta Mandal Mau'. A small pond is present in its realm which full-fills the requirements in holy prayers, and mostly, makes this place the most attractive one. Priests of this temple believe that by the last twenty generation, no one is sure about the age of the temple but formally they believe that it is about 2,000 years old. In the holy month of Navratri (occurring twice a year), more than half a Million people, from different part of the country, visit this ancient temple to worship Goddess Shitala. Religious village Bagli is also a great place for inspiration. new memorable place known as Mukti Dham is built in Dohrighat


In sports Arena Mau have a tremendous History and their Vivid Persona to Glorified the Mau name on time to time -International Athletes and National wrestlers are there. few of them are Bhim Narayan Rai of village Revaridih -Sahroj, he has been awarded as National Champion and Record Holder in National Games 1961 in Athletics-javelin Throw & he has been broken the Asian Games record there, his record was also credentialed in National Games of School Federation Meet in 1960, in the state of UP he has awarded as Outstanding performer (Championship) in 1964 Athletics Meet of U.P.Other Eminent Sports persons are Long racer Bahadur Prasad who is participated in several Asian Games as well as in common wealth games for India, in wrestling category -Eminent Wrestler Kisore Pahlwan of Village Basiharam,Sprinter Ram das Sahani of Village Amila for 200 Meter Race, Tez Bahadur Singh of village Sarwan Ranbirpur & Tridip Rai -International Basket Ball player of village Kasara participated in Asian Games. Kamran Khan IPL Cricket player of village Nadwa Sarai, Santosh Yadav of village Tahirpura won the bronze medal in junior wrestling championship in Thailand, Rashmi Singh of village Pardaha, participated in Junior Hockey India Team in ASEAN games.

Geography and climate[edit]

Mau (Mau nath Bhanjan) is situated on the fertile plains of the Ganges–Ghaghara doab. It lies between 83° 17’ to 84° 52' East & 24° 47' to 26°17' North. At its north, Ghaghara river is on the border, Ghazipur district is on the south, Ballia district is on the east & Azamgarh district is on the west side. This district represents geographical characteristics of mid Gangetic plain. "Khachari" and "Khadar" are types of soil found in the areas of north of Azamgarh - Ballia Road. In some high places "Bangar" soil is also found. In the southern part of the district, river flow is absent, due to which that area has Bangar type of soil, which is not fertile. The river system of the district is dominated by the Tons River and its tributary Choti Sarju. The Ghaghara River forms the northern border of the district. The main means of irrigation in the district are tubewells. Ponds are used mainly for fishing and bird sanctuary purposes. In Mau "Pakari Piua" pond have 1.7 km breadth and 32 km length. It also has two big ponds (Tal) one Ratoy tal near Madhuban and Garha tal near Ratanpura.

Climate data for Mau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23
Average low °C (°F) 9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
Source: [Mau Weather]


In 2011, Mau had population of 2,205,968 of which male and female were 1,114,709 and 1,091,259 respectively with population density of 1287 people per km2.[2] In 2001 census, Mau had a population of 1,853,997 of which males were 933,523 and remaining 920,474 were females with population density of 1087 people per km2. There are 978 Females for every 1000 Male and child sex ratio of girls is 946 per 1000 boys in Mau, Which is above the national average of 940.[3] Census 2011 puts Urban population at 22.63%.Mau's literacy rate of 75.16 percent is close to the all-India average of 74 percent.Male literacy is 84.61 percent and female literacy 65.59 percent. Hindi, the official state language, is the predominant language in Mau. English is also used, particularly by white-collar workers. Urdu is spoken by a sizable minority.The Hindi dialect spoken in Mau is Awadhi, although Khariboli is also common in the city.

Religions in Mau[4]
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.001%), Christians (<0.001%).


Prominent English language dailies are The Times of India, North India Times, Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and The Indian Express. Several newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are also published daily. Hindi papers include Dainik Jagran, Crime and Detective Times, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta, I Next and Swatantra Bharat while the main Urdu papers are The Inquilab, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag, Roznama Urdu, and Subahnama Urdu.[5] Air vivid bharti(102.2) which broadcast from mau.

Shopping centres[edit]

Mau features a large number of shopping-centres and markets/bazaars. mau is a major shopping area situated in the heart of the city. which is home to bazaars, retail complexes, restaurants, hotels, theatres


Common Indian Festivals such as Eid, Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Vijayadashami, Chatha, Christmas are celebrated with great pomp and show in the city.[6]


The city is connected to most other Uttar Pradesh cities and major Indian cities such as Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Jhansi, Kolkata, New Delhi, Patna, Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram, Hyderabad, Indore, Kanpur, Lucknow and Jaipur. Auto Rikshaws are a popular mode of transportation.Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) are an important means of public transport.

Mau Junction (Hindi: मऊ ज⁧湩ंशन, Urdu: مو جنکشن ) is an important railway station. It falls on Allahabad‐Mau‐Gorakhpur Main Line. It is well connected to important cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune, Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad, Jaipur, Ranchi etc. At starting it was a standard gauge line. But in 1992 it converted into Broad Gauge.The present building towards city side was constructed in 1995 during the regime of Kalpnath Rai as a Cabinet Minister in Indian Government. The building is just like copy of Varanasi Junction. In city there are three Rail Over Bridge. In 2015 Railway Budget of India it was decided to improve it as a Terminal Station to avoid rush at Varanasi Junction. Recently Railway Board has decided to establish a new line between Mau Junction to Dildarnagar via Ghazipur. After establishment of this new line Mau will be directly connected to Howrah‐Delhi main line and Howrah‐Allahabad‐Mumbai line. Mau is just 93 Kilometers away from Varanasi. At Mau Junction good facilities of catering is available. Accident Relief Department also available at Mau Junction.


Mau is industrial town of eastern UP. After demise of textile industry of Banares and Mubarakpur, Mau stands as one of the last bastion of textile hubs of UP. A 1998-99 survey of Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) puts number of powerlooms at 58,381.[7] This industry employs low skilled workers, who mainly come from traditional weaving families. Main products are Sarees, however lungis,dhotis,towels, etc. are also produced in small quantities. The products are mainly marketed in south India and Maharashtra, as well as exported to Bangladesh,Sri Lanka and China.

There are speculations that this huge industry will benefit if GI is awarded to Mau as well as if clusters (of powerlooms, resembling modern industry) are encouraged. But as of date only one clustur has been identified as Palki Industries Pvt. Ltd. with 4100 units as per MSME survey of 2012.[8] Mau also contains three small industrial areas in Tajopur, Shahadatpura and Ghosi.[9]

  • 22.63% of District population resides in Urban area.
  • According to 1991 census sc/st population is 319,000 which is 22% of total population.
  • Population density of the district in 2011 census is 1287/km2
  • In 1997-98 total foodgrain production is 372,000 tonnes
  • Net irrigated area is 1,120 km2 & gross irrigated area is 1,530 km2
  • Percentage of electrified villages is 88.1% in the year 1997-98.
  • Per capita electricity consumption is 162 units in the year 1998-99.
  • In 1998 -99 total number of rural & small industrial units are 61526.
  • Total number of Handloom/Powerloom units are 58381 in 1998-99.
  • Percentage of Workers in the district, according to 1991 census, is 33.2%.
  • Number of dependents per hundred workers is 201.
  • According to 1991 census, 68.3% of total workers were directly involved in agriculture.
  • In 1996-97 per cultivator net sown area was 6,500 square metres
  • CD ratio in 98-99 is 11.96.
  • Length of metalled road per 100,000 population is 57 km.
  • Telephone connection per 100,000 population 275


Mau leads fairly well in terms of basic literacy, thanks to extensive network of Madrasas in Mau. The literacy rate of Mau district is 75.16% as per 2011 census (which is higher than national average). Male literacy rate stands at whooping 84.61% while female literacy is 65.59%.[3]

The literacy rate of Mau is quite high as compared to other areas of eastern UP, but it lags in higher education. One statistics shows that only 3% of people complete graduation. Several organizations are currently working to spread higher education in Mau, most notably Global Education and Career Guidance,[10] Scholar Foundation, Aligarh Old Boys Association, etc.

  • In 1998-99 teacher-Students ratio is
  • Junior High School 44
  • Senior Basic School 45.6
  • Higher Secondary School 46.1
  • Degree College 135.7

Schools and colleges[edit]

Primary and secondary education is available in schools affiliated to the ICSE, UP Board and CBSE.

Degree / Post Graduation Colleges[edit]


  • Government Polytechnic
  • Rishi Ram Naresh Technical Institute
  • Rama Electronics Institute
  • Global Technical Institute
  • Govind ITI


Notable people[edit]

In fiction[edit]

Mau is the setting for the third and final part of A Passage to India, a novel by the English author, E. M. Forster.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Sufi saint's abode now Uttar Pradesh don's den". 2012-02-10. Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  2. ^ "Census of India: Primary Census Abstract". Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  3. ^ a b "An Official Site of District MAU". Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  4. ^ [1] Archived 8 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Newspapers In Lucknow". Justdial. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  6. ^ "Festivals in Lucknow". Lucknow. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  7. ^ "GI Tag: Varanasi-Mau-Bhadohi leading in UP". Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  8. ^ "Government of India : Ministry of MSME : District Industrial Profile of Mau District" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  9. ^ "An Official Site of District MAU". Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  10. ^ "深圳市安富资产管理股份有限公司". Retrieved 2015-10-05. 

External links[edit]