Mau, Uttar Pradesh

Coordinates: 25°56′30″N 83°33′40″E / 25.94167°N 83.56111°E / 25.94167; 83.56111
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Mau is located in Uttar Pradesh
Coordinates: 25°56′30″N 83°33′40″E / 25.94167°N 83.56111°E / 25.94167; 83.56111
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
 • TypeMunicipal Council
 • BodyArshad Jamal (Chairman)
 • Total20 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation63 m (207 ft)
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
 • Regional Bhojpuri
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code+0547
Vehicle registrationUP-54
Sex ratio978 (as of 2011) /

Mau, also now known as Maunath Bhanjan, is an industrial town and the headquarter of the Mau district. It is located in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India. The town is known for its saree industry which is a traditional business and centuries old art of the people of this city; says, Pallavi Mishra.[2]


From historical and archaeological point of views, Mau is one of the oldest places in the region. Ancient cultural and archaeological remains have been found at multiple places in the area giving enough evidence of long history of human habitat in the area. The known archaeological history of Mau is about 1500 years old, when the entire area was covered under thick dense forest. The nuts who used to live along Tamsa river, are considered to be the oldest inhabitants and the ruler of the area.[3]

As per the records on official webpage of the district, in 1028 A.D. King Syed Shalar Masood Ghazi came with a huge army to conquer the area but he went back to Afghanistan, leaving few of his people in the area. A Sufi saint Baba Malik Tahir and his brother Malik Qasim were part of the remaining group. There are places like Malik Tahir Pura and Qasim Pura in the name of these two saints in Mau city. The tomb of Malik Tahir is also present in Malik Tahir Pura and locally known as Mazaar Malik Tahir Baba.[3]

Around 1540-1545, Sher Shah Suri, the famous emperor who defeated Humayun, during his reign visited Kolhuvavan (Madhuban) to meet the great Sufi saint Syed Ahmad Wadva.[4] Mahvani, one of the daughters of Sher Shah had settled permanently near the dargah of Syed Wadva. The area also finds place in the historical book of Ziyaudeen Barni with a description that the great Mughal emperor Akbar passed through Mau on his way to Allahabad. Since time immortal, labourer and artisans who were the original inhabitants of this land has kept the fine saree art work alive and despite a gradual decline of the handloom industry in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, the saree industry of Mau still remains the last bastion of handicraft in the area otherwise an industrially thriving region till the end of last century. It is also believed that one of Shah Jahan's daughter, Jahanara Begum had also settled in that area where she built a mosque. The original structure of the mosque is not surviving anymore but place is known as Shahi Qatra and there is a Shahi Mosque in that locality reminding of its past glory.[5]

Statue of Thakur Barisan Dev

During the Indian freedom struggle, the people of Mau had given full support to the movement, and Mahatma Gandhi had also made a visit to Doharighat region of the district in 1939.[3]

In 1932, Azamgarh was made independent district, Mau region was a part of it until 1988 when the current area of Mau district was carved out of Azamgarh on 19 November 1988 to make Mau a separate district in which the then Union Minister of State of India (Power) Kalpnath Rai played a pivotal role. He is also credited to start an array of developmental activities in the city including new Railway Station and a stadium.[6]

The known archival history of Mau is about 1500 years old, when the entire area was a dense forest. The wild and tribal castes used to live around the river flowing here. The oldest inhabitants of this place are considered to be nuts. He also ruled this area.

Baba Malik Tahir arrived around 1028 in this area, settled thousands of years ago on the Tamsa coast. He was a Sufi saint and came here with a detachment of army along with his brother Malik Qasim. The then ruler of these people was sent by Sayyid Shalar Maud Ghazi to capture this area here. At that time, while capturing other parts of the country, Ghazi had come to Satrik in Barabanki and from there he sent troops to capture different parts.

In those days Mau Nut ruled this region. A fierce battle ensued between Mau Nut and Malik brothers over the occupation, in which Mau Nut was cracked (killed) and this area was called Mau Nat Bhanjan which later became Maunath Bhanjan.

After establishing his supremacy over this area, Baba Malik Tahir made his center north of the place where the check is today, which is still known as Malik Tahirpura. Similarly his brother Malik Qasim settled the south of the Czech in the name of Kasimpura. The rank soldiers who were part of Malik Tahir’s army populated the areas at some distance in their own names, which are still present in the form of Husainpura, Bulakipura, Mirzahadipura, Kasimpura, Mohsinpura, Nyaz Muhammadpura, Pathantola, etc. After the arrival of Malik brothers, this area gradually got populated.

After the Deep Nirvana of the Maurya and Gupta kings, this place was under the Jaunpur state during the Mughal rule. Before this, between 1540-1545, the then emperor Sher Shah Suri arrived twice in this area. Sher Shah Suri had come to meet the Sufi saint Mirashah living in the dargah. His daughter Mahabano was living in the company of Mirashah. The old bridge of Mau Nagar, which became dilapidated in the floods of 1956, was built by Sher Shah Suri. It is said that due to the delay in the construction of the bridge, the historic road (Grant Tunk Road) built by Sher Shah Suri from Peshawar to Kolkata could not pass through here.

In 1629, during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, this area was given to his daughter Jahanara. The foundation of the present form of the city was laid during the reign of Jahanara. Jahanara Begum got her residence and Shahi Masjid built here at Katra and for her protection it was converted into a military cantonment. The remains of the barracks built to house the army still exist today. Jahanara had also built an underground tunnel 16 to 17 feet below in the royal Katra area, the remains of which are still found during excavations under the ground. Last year, the two places where bore wells were done in Katra area of the local municipality failed by going 17-18 feet. In the south-west part of the royal chambers in Katra was the residence of the royal family. Here was the relic of Imam Khana till the last days. The furnishings of the royal family were brought here on mules. The generation of those who brought them are still settled here and make their living by doing the work of transportation by mules. Laborers, artisans and other trained laborers also came along with the Mughal family, who gave birth to the art of weaving here. People who spun yarn associated with handloom weaving came and settled here from Gorakhpur. Two mohallas, Katuapura East and Katuapura West were built for his stay. It is told that in the name of brother Aurangzeb Begum Jahanara settled a new mohalla Aurangabad and renamed Maunath Bhanjan after her name as Jahanabad, but this name could not be popular and Maunath Bhanjan continued to progress progressively.

It is noteworthy that when Jahanara Begum was making new constructions here, apart from the laborers who came here with her, most of the people who came here were artisans and the main class among them was the cloth makers who settled here permanently. Most of the artisans who came here were of Iranian, Afghani or Turkish origin. In the local language of Mau, which is considered unique in its own way, most of the words are found in Persian, Turkish and Iranian languages, which have lost their original meaning today.

In the beginning of the eighteenth century, this land was given to Raja Azamshah of Azamgarh after separating it from the rule of Jaunpur. Azam Shah and Azmat Shah were both real brothers. Azamshah built Azamgarh Azmat Shah built Azmatgarh.

In 1801, Azamgarh and Maunath Bhanjan were acquired by the East India Company and this area was included in Gorakhpur district. In the year 1932, Azamgarh was made an independent district, which lasted till 1988 after independence. In the erstwhile district Azamgarh district, maximum revenue was received from Mau, but the effort for its development was negligible. Due to the district headquarters being 45 km away from here, the people of this place had to face great inconvenience. The demand for making Mau a district continued for many years, which was finally fulfilled on November 19, 1988 and Mau was created as a separate district in the map of the state.

After the formation of a new district in the year 1988, this land has been rejuvenated and  is on the path of continuous progress.


Mau is industrial town of eastern UP. After demise of textile industry of Banaras and Mubarakpur, Mau stands as one of the last bastion of textile hubs of UP. A 1998–99 survey of Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) puts number of powerlooms at 58,381.[7]

There are speculations that this huge industry will benefit if GI is awarded to Mau as well as if clusters (of powerlooms, resembling modern industry) are encouraged. But as of date only one cluster has been identified as Palki Industries Pvt. Ltd. with 4100 units as per MSME survey of 2012.[8] Mau also contains three small industrial areas in Tajopur, Shahadatpura and Ghosi.[9]


a building at night
Bus station of Mau at night


Intermediate college[edit]

  • Talimuddin Inter College
  • Talimuddin Girl's Inter College
  • Talimuddin Girl's PG College
  • Muslim Inter College
  • DAV Inter College
  • Nomani Inter College
  • Jeevan Ram Inter College

Islamic seminaries[edit]


Climate data for Mau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 23
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
Source: [Mau Weather]


Religions in Mau (2011)[10]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated
Distribution of religions

As per the census of 2011, Mau had a population of 278,745 of which 142,967 are males while 135,778 are females. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 42216 which is 15.15% of total population of Mau. Female Sex Ratio is of 950 against state average of 912 and Child Sex Ratio in Mau is around 952 compared to Uttar Pradesh state average of 902. Literacy rate of Mau city is 77.13% which is higher than the state average of 67.68%. Male literacy is around 82.37% while female literacy rate is 71.60%. Scheduled Castes make up 10.08% of the population.[11]

Mau is a Nagar Palika Parishad city and it is divided into 36 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. Mau Nagar Palika Parishad has total administration over 41,078 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage. It is also authorize to build roads within Nagar Palika Parishad limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction.[12]

There are 978 Females for every 1000 Male and child sex ratio of girls is 946 per 1000 boys in Mau, Which is above the national average of 940.[13]

Languages in Mau (2011)[14]

  Urdu (55.67%)
  Hindi (29.33%)
  Bhojpuri (14.65%)
  Others (0.35%)

Urdu is the most spoken language. Other languages such as Hindi and Bhojpuri, are spoken by a minority.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Uttar Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  2. ^ "UP's silk saree sector gets a raw deal". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 29 June 2005.
  3. ^ a b c "History | District Mau, Uttar Pradesh Government | India".
  4. ^ "Sufi saint's abode now Uttar Pradesh don's den". The Times of India. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Sufi saint's abode now don's den | Lucknow News - Times of India".
  6. ^ Kumar, Vinay (10 February 2012). "In Mau, a complex tapestry of caste and religion". The Hindu.
  7. ^ "GI Tag: Varanasi-Mau-Bhadohi leading in UP". Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  8. ^ "Government of India : Ministry of MSME : District Industrial Profile of Mau District" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  9. ^ "An Official Site of District MAU". Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  10. ^ "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Uttar Pradesh". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook: Mau" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  12. ^ "Census of India: Primary Census Abstract". Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  13. ^ "An Official Site of District MAU". Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  14. ^ "2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue - Uttar Pradesh (Town Level)". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 27 June 2022.

External links[edit]