Maurice Hearne Byers
|Born||10 November 1917|
|Died||17 January 1999(aged 81)|
|Education||University of Sydney|
Sir Maurice Hearne Byers CBE QC (10 November 1917 – 17 January 1999) was a noted Australian jurist and constitutional expert. He was the Commonwealth Solicitor-General from 1973 to 1983, in which capacity he played a role in the Gair Affair and the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. He had an unmatched record of success in his appearances before the High Court of Australia, and he has been characterised as the finest lawyer never to have been appointed to the High Court.
Maurice Hearn Byers was born on 10 November 1917. He attended St Aloysius' College in Sydney. He studied law at the University of Sydney and was admitted to the Bar in 1944. In 1957 his Sydney practice in Wentworth Chambers joined those of John Kerr and Gough Whitlam. His practice was mainly in the fields of equity, taxation, company and constitutional law. He appeared frequently before the Privy Council. He became a Queen's Counsel in 1960.
In 1973 he was appointed Commonwealth Solicitor-General, serving until 1983. He had an unparalleled success rate when appearing before the High Court in that capacity. He was said to have had "mesmeric powers" over the High Court.:12 On entering the law, his ambition had been to become the best constitutional lawyer in the country. His peers considered he achieved his goal.
In April 1974, Byers provided a legal opinion supporting the Whitlam Labor government's argument that Senator Vince Gair had ceased to be eligible to remain a senator from no later than 20 March, the day the Irish Government had accepted his appointment as Ambassador to Ireland, which is an office of profit under the Crown. The matter was of great interest to the Senate, which for a number of days debated Gair's letter to the Senate President advising that he had ceased to be eligible to be a senator upon his appointment (it was not a letter of resignation as such). The Opposition argued that Gair had participated in debates and votes in the Senate until as late as 2 April, without any objections from the government, and had not tendered his letter to the President until 3 April, by which time the writs for 5 Queensland senators for the forthcoming half-Senate election were already issued. The matter was resolved when Whitlam called a double dissolution instead of a half-Senate election.
High Court appearances
Byers' name is first recorded in the Commonwealth Law Reports as junior to Spender KC in Horsey v Caldwell (1946). Byers appeared regularly in the High Court, including as counsel in the following notable cases:
- Latec Investments Ltd v Hotel Terrigal Pty Ltd (1965) — property law
- Victoria v Commonwealth (1971) — the Payroll Tax Case
- Cormack v Cope (1974) — the Joint Sittings case
- Murphyores Inc Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1976) — trade and commerce power
- Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia v Fontana Films Pty Ltd (1982) — corporations power
- Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen (1982) — validity of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975
- Commonwealth v Tasmania (1983) — the Tasmanian Dam Case
- Castlemaine Tooheys Ltd v South Australia (1990) — freedom of interstate trade
- Australian Capital Television Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1992) — implied freedom of political communication
- Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) (1996) — institutional integrity principle
- Wik Peoples v Queensland (1996) — native title
1975 constitutional crisis
Maurice Byers played a role in the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, which brought his former colleagues Gough Whitlam and (now Sir) John Kerr into conflict in the most dramatic way. Whitlam was now the Labor Prime Minister, and in 1974 he had appointed Kerr Governor-General.
Byers' predecessor as Solicitor-General was Bob Ellicott, who had served under Whitlam but resigned in 1973 to enter politics himself and was now a Liberal Party member of the House of Representatives and a member of the Shadow Cabinet of Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser. As the crisis caused by the Senate's blocking of Supply deepened, Ellicott issued a legal advice on 16 October 1975, to the effect that the Governor-General had the power to dismiss Whitlam, and should do so forthwith if Whitlam could not state how he would obtain Supply.
Kerr rang Whitlam on 19 October, asking permission to consult with the Chief Justice of the High Court, Sir Garfield Barwick (who was himself a former Liberal politician and Attorney-General, and who happened to be Bob Ellicott's cousin). Whitlam advised Kerr not to consult with Barwick, quoting precedent stretching back over 50 years. On 21 October Kerr requested that the Government provide him with a written legal opinion rebutting Ellicott's opinion. On 22 October Whitlam asked his Attorney-General Kep Enderby to prepare such advice, and he in turn delegated the task to his Solicitor-General, Maurice Byers, who prepared a 6,000-word document. Enderby disagreed with parts of the advice, and when he handed it to Kerr on 6 November, he did so with Byers' name crossed out and his own inserted.
By now Kerr had determined to sack Whitlam if he would not advise an election to break the impasse and guarantee Supply. But he formed the view that Whitlam should be given no hint of his thinking, and he (Kerr) should seek his own counsel. Contrary to Whitlam's express instruction, Kerr met with Barwick and asked him for a written opinion, which was provided on 10 November, and which concurred with Ellicott's view. On 11 November, Kerr dismissed Whitlam's government and commissioned Malcolm Fraser as Prime Minister; it was a condition of Fraser's appointment that he guarantee Supply and immediately advise a general election. Later that day, the Senate granted Supply, an election was called for 13 December, and Parliament was dissolved in a double dissolution.
On 17 November, Maurice Byers' opinion was leaked to The Australian Financial Review, and it acutely embarrassed both Kerr and Barwick. Byers said parts of the Ellicott opinion were "clearly wrong" and said "the mere threat of, or indeed the actual rejection of, Supply neither calls for the ministry to resign nor compels the Crown's representative thereupon to intervene". The leak undermined the justification Kerr had given for his action, and led to him disclosing the advice he had taken from the Chief Justice, contrary to his Prime Minister's instruction.
Maurice Byers was Leader of the Australian Delegation to the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law in 1974, and then from 1976 to 1982.
In 1985 the Hawke Government appointed Byers to the Constitutional Commission. He was joined by Professor Enid Campbell; Professor of Law at Monash University; Professor Leslie Zines, former Professor of Law at the Australian National University; Sir Rupert Hamer, former Premier of Victoria; and Gough Whitlam. The Commission's report led to four proposals to amend the Constitution, which were put to the people in the Australian referendum, 1988. None of the proposals was carried.
Byers continued to practise law privately. His last two cases before the High Court were the Wik Peoples v Queensland and Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) (in which he represented Gregory Wayne Kable, the first man imprisoned in NSW under the Community Protection Act without having been convicted of a crime.)
He was married to Patricia, and their children were Barbara, Mark and Peter.
Sir Maurice Byers died on 17 January 1999, aged 81.
In 2000 the New South Wales Bar Association established the Sir Maurice Byers Lecture, to be given by a distinguished jurist on an area of constitutional or public law, in memory of Byers' contribution to these areas.
Previous Byers lectures
|2015||Justin Gleeson SC||The Australian Constitution and international law|
|2014||The Hon Justice Virginia Bell AC||Appellate review of the facts|
|2013||The Hon Murray Gleeson AC QC||Finality|
|2012||Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC||Dictator or dialogue? The relationship between the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Court of Justice|
|2011||The Hon James Spigelman AC QC||Truth and the law|
|2010||David Bennett AC QC||Rules that ought not to be applied — the ultimate iconoclasm|
|2009||The Hon Justice Stephen Gageler SC||Beyond the text: A vision of the structure and function of the Constitution|
|2008||Dame Sian Elias GNZM PC||Judicial review today|
|2007||The Hon Dyson Heydon AC QC||Theories of constitutional interpretation: a taxonomy|
|2006||David Jackson AM QC||The implications of the Constitution|
|2005||The Hon William Gummow AC QC||Statutes|
|2004||The Hon Keith Mason AC QC||What is wrong with top-down legal reasoning?|
|2002||Professor Leslie Zines||Legalism, realism and judicial rhetoric in constitutional law|
|2001||The Hon Michael McHugh AC QC||Does Chapter III of the Constitution protect substantive as well as procedural rights?|
|2000||Sir Gerard Brennan AC KBE QC||Strengths and perils: The Bar at the turn of the century|
- Sydney Morning Herald, Pickwickian figure helped shape nation, 19 January 1999
- Obituary, New South Wales Bar Association
- Law Council pays tribute to Sir Maurice Byers
- Trove NLA
- Spigelman, James (26 May 2011). Truth and the law (PDF) (Speech). (2011 Winter) Bar News 99. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Heydon, Dyson (3 May 2007). Theories of constitutional interpretation (PDF) (Speech). (2007 Winter) Bar News 12. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Horsey v Caldwell (1946) 73 CLR 304.
- Cormack v Cope (1974) 131 CLR 432.
- Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia v Fontana Films Pty Ltd (1982) 150 CLR 169.
- Evan Whitton, Can of Worms II
- Sir David Smith, Why the Governor-General is Australia's Head of State
- Sir David Smith, Seminar Graduate Public Law Course, Faculty of Law, Australian National University, 9 May 1994
- Mason, Keith (26 February 2004). What is wrong with top-down legal reasoning? (PDF) (Speech). (2004 Winter) Bar News 10. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- It's an Honour: CBE
- London Gazette, 3 June 1978
- It's an Honour: Knight Bachelor
- "Sir Maurice Byers Lecture". New South Wales Bar Association. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Perram, Nye and Pepper, Rachel, eds. (2012). The Byers lectures: 2000-2012. Federation Press. ISBN 9781862878518.
- "Prizes". Sydney Law School. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Gleeson, Justin (23 April 2015). The Australian Constitution and international law (Speech). (2015) 40 Australian Bar Review 149.
- Bell, Virginia (20 August 2014). Appellate review of the facts (PDF) (Speech). (2014 Summer) Bar News 26. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Gleeson, Murray (10 April 2013). Finality (PDF) (Speech). (2013 Winter) Bar News 33. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Phillips, Nicholas. Dictator or dialogue? The relationship between the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Court of Justice (PDF) (Speech). (2012 Winter) Bar News 66. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Bennett, David. Rules that ought not to be applied — the ultimate iconoclasm (PDF) (Speech). (2011 Winter) Bar News 99. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Gageler, Stephen. Beyond the text: A vision of the structure and function of the Constitution (PDF) (Speech). (2009 Winter) Bar News 30. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Elias, Sian. Judicial review today (PDF) (Speech). (2008 Winter) Bar News 32. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Jackson, David (30 March 2006). The implications of the Constitution (PDF) (Speech). (2006 Winter) Bar News 28. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Gummow, William (17 March 2005). Statutes (PDF) (Speech). (2005 Summer) Bar News 30. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Zines, Leslie (16 October 2002). Legalism, realism and judicial rhetoric in constitutional law (PDF) (Speech). (2002 Summer) Bar News 13. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- McHugh, Michael (17 October 2001). Does Chapter III of the Constitution protect substantive as well as procedural rights? (PDF) (Speech). (2001 Summer) Bar News 34. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Brennan, Gerard (30 November 2000). Strengths and perils: The Bar at the turn of the century (PDF) (Speech). (2000 Summer) Bar News 32. Retrieved 2 January 2016.