Mauser Model 1871

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Mauser Model 1871 / Gewehr 71
Infanteriegewehr m-1871 Mauser - Tyskland - kaliber 10,95mm - Armémuseum.jpg
Mauser Model 1871
Type Service rifle
Place of origin German Empire
Service history
In service 1872–1888 (as the standard German service rifle)
1881–1945 (limited and foreign use)[1]
Used by Germany
See Operators
Wars Satsuma Rebellion,
First Boer War,
Serbo-Bulgarian War
First Sino-Japanese War,
Second Boer War,
Boxer Rebellion,
Balkan Wars,
Serbo-Bulgarian War,
Easter Rising,
World War I (limited)
World War II (limited)
Production history
Designer Mauser
Designed 1867–1871
Manufacturer Mauser
Produced 1871–1890
No. built 1,900,000
Variants Jägerbüchse
Carbine
M1878/80(Serbia)
G.A.G. M1879(Border Guards)
M71/84
M1887(Turkey)
M80/07C(Serbia)
Specifications
Weight 4.5 kg (9.92 lbs)
Length 1350 mm (53.15 in)
Barrel length 855 mm (33.66 in)

Cartridge 11.15×60mmR
10.15×63mmR
11.15×37mmR
9.5×60mmR
11×59mmR Gras
7×57mm
7.65×53mm
6.5×53.5mmR
Caliber .43
Action Bolt action
Muzzle velocity 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) (11×60mmR)
Feed system Single-shot
M71/84: 8-round tubular magazine
M80/07: 5-round stripper clip, internal magazine
Sights Iron sights

The Mauser Model 1871 adopted as the Gewehr 71 or Infanterie-Gewehr 71, or "Infantry Rifle 71" ("I.G.Mod.71" was stamped on the rifles themselves) was the first rifle model in a distinguished line designed and manufactured by Paul Mauser and Wilhelm Mauser of the Mauser company and later mass-produced at Spandau arsenal.[2]

History[edit]

Paul Mauser developed his bolt-action rifle from 1867 to 1871. During 1870–71 trials with many different rifles took place, with the "M1869 Bavarian Werder" being the Mausers' chief competitor. The Mauser was provisionally adopted on 2 December 1871, pending the development of an appropriate safety. With support from the government's Spandau arsenal, the improvements to the safety mechanism were completed and the rifle was formally accepted on 14 February 1872 as Infantry Rifle Model 1871 by the German Empire excluding Bavaria. General issue to troops began in late 1873 and all units had been converted by the spring of 1875. The Mauser 1871 was replaced by the magazine-fed, smokeless powder using Gewehr 1888 from 1888 through 1890.

Design[edit]

The action was not based on its predecessor, the Dreyse needle gun which had seen service during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, and which was found to have a number of weaknesses.[2][3][4] The now well known Mauser "wing" type safety lever was developed for the Gewehr 71. The Gewehr 71 is a conventional looking bolt action chambered in 11mm using black powder cartridges. The action included only a bolt guide rib as its single locking lug, locking forward of the receiving bridge. The original design was a single-shot. The design was updated in 1884 with an 8-round tubular magazine designed by Alfred von Kropatschek, making this Germany's first repeating rifle. This version was designated the Gewehr 1871/84.[5] A version of this repeater was adopted by the Ottoman Empire. Designated the M1887, it differentiated from the M71/84 in that it had a side mounted cleaning rod, a second locking lug on the rear of the bolt, and it was in caliber 9.5×60mmR, which Paul Mauser touted as the most efficient (black powder) cartridge. In the early 20th century a few were converted to 7.65×53mm smokeless by the arsenal in Ankara.

A shorter version of the Model 1871, the M1879 Grenzaufsehergewehr, was issued to the border guards in 1880. It shot a unique 11.15×37.5mmR cartridge, a trimmed down version of the full-power military cartridge.[6]

Serbia adopted a more up-to-date version of the rifle in 1881, the M1878/80, still single-shot, but chambered in its own 10.15×63R caliber. It had unique additions in that it had a bolt guide (much like the M1870 Italian Vetterli) and the "progressive rifling" (rifling which increases in twist rate as the bullet travels up the bore, to more gradually impart spin) developed by the Serbian Major Kosta "Koka" Milovanović (Коста "Кока" Миловановић), and it is commonly known as "Mauser-Koka", "Mauser-Milovanović", or "Kokinka" ("Кокинка"). The muzzle velocity of the Mauser-Koka was 1,680 feet per second (510 m/s). It saw first combat in the Serbo-Bulgarian War. Approximately 110,000 Mauser-Koka rifles entered the Serbian arsenal. Starting 1907, about half of these were converted in Kragujevac to shoot the 7×57mm from a 5-shot box magazine; the new barrels were purchased from Steyr. Both the old and new guns (designated M80/07) saw action in the Balkan Wars and World War I.[7] The converted M80/07 are often referred to as "Đurić Mausers" (Ђурић-Маузер).[8]

The M71 was used by the Korean Empire Army (especially Guard units—this rifle replaced the Russian Berdan rifle). The number of rifles used is uncertain but the Korean Empire manufactured ammunition for them, which means that the Korean Empire used a respectable number of them. After the Germans adopted the Gewehr 1888, over 1,000,000 discarded Model 1871 were put into use by the Chinese Qing dynasty army.

In 1894, Uruguay had their stockpile of M71 rifles converted to 6.5×53.5mm SR by Société Française d'Armes Portatives Saint Denis in France. They were given new stocks, barrels, sights, bands, and side mounted cleaning rods. These were unsatisfactory due to weak springs, and many were thrown away.[citation needed]

Irish Republicans imported some 900 single-shot 1871 Mausers in the Howth gun-running for the nationalist militia called the Irish Volunteers in 1914. They were used in action by the Volunteers in the Easter Rising of 1916, an unsuccessful insurrection aimed at ending British rule in Ireland. The 1871 Mauser became known in Ireland as the "Howth Mauser".[9]

Comparison with contemporary rifles[edit]

Comparison of 1880s rifles[10]
Calibre System Country Velocity Height of trajectory Ammunition
Muzzle 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) Propellant Bullet
.433 in (11.0 mm) Werndl–Holub rifle Austria-Hungary 1,439 ft/s (439 m/s) 854 ft/s (260 m/s) 620 ft/s (190 m/s) 449 ft/s (137 m/s) 328 ft/s (100 m/s) 8.252 ft (2.515 m) 49.41 ft (15.06 m) 162.6 ft (49.6 m) 426.0 ft (129.8 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g)
.45 in (11.43 mm) Martini–Henry United Kingdom 1,315 ft/s (401 m/s) 869 ft/s (265 m/s) 664 ft/s (202 m/s) 508 ft/s (155 m/s) 389 ft/s (119 m/s) 9.594 ft (2.924 m) 47.90 ft (14.60 m) 147.1 ft (44.8 m) 357.85 ft (109.07 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 480 gr (31 g)
.433 in (11.0 mm) Fusil Gras mle 1874 France 1,489 ft/s (454 m/s) 878 ft/s (268 m/s) 643 ft/s (196 m/s) 471 ft/s (144 m/s) 348 ft/s (106 m/s) 7.769 ft (2.368 m) 46.6 ft (14.2 m) 151.8 ft (46.3 m) 389.9 ft (118.8 m) 80 gr (5.2 g) 386 gr (25.0 g)
.433 in (11.0 mm) Mauser Model 1871 Germany 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 859 ft/s (262 m/s) 629 ft/s (192 m/s) 459 ft/s (140 m/s) 388 ft/s (118 m/s) 8.249 ft (2.514 m) 48.68 ft (14.84 m) 159.2 ft (48.5 m) 411.1 ft (125.3 m) 75 gr (4.9 g) 380 gr (25 g)
.408 in (10.4 mm) M1870 Italian Vetterli Italy 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 835 ft/s (255 m/s) 595 ft/s (181 m/s) 422 ft/s (129 m/s) 304 ft/s (93 m/s) 8.527 ft (2.599 m) 52.17 ft (15.90 m) 176.3 ft (53.7 m) 469.9 ft (143.2 m) 62 gr (4.0 g) 310 gr (20 g)
.397 in (10.08 mm) Jarmann M1884 Norway and Sweden 1,536 ft/s (468 m/s) 908 ft/s (277 m/s) 675 ft/s (206 m/s) 504 ft/s (154 m/s) 377 ft/s (115 m/s) 7.235 ft (2.205 m) 42.97 ft (13.10 m) 137.6 ft (41.9 m) 348.5 ft (106.2 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 337 gr (21.8 g)
.42 in (10.67 mm) Berdan rifle Russia 1,444 ft/s (440 m/s) 873 ft/s (266 m/s) 645 ft/s (197 m/s) 476 ft/s (145 m/s) 353 ft/s (108 m/s) 7.995 ft (2.437 m) 47.01 ft (14.33 m) 151.7 ft (46.2 m) 388.7 ft (118.5 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g)
.45 in (11.43 mm) Springfield model 1884 United States 1,301 ft/s (397 m/s) 875 ft/s (267 m/s) 676 ft/s (206 m/s) 523 ft/s (159 m/s) 404 ft/s (123 m/s) 8.574 ft (2.613 m) 46.88 ft (14.29 m) 142.3 ft (43.4 m) 343.0 ft (104.5 m) 70 gr (4.5 g) 500 gr (32 g)
.40 in (10.16 mm) Enfield-Martini United Kingdom 1,570 ft/s (480 m/s) 947 ft/s (289 m/s) 719 ft/s (219 m/s) 553 ft/s (169 m/s) 424 ft/s (129 m/s) 6.704 ft (2.043 m) 39.00 ft (11.89 m) 122.0 ft (37.2 m) 298.47 ft (90.97 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 384 gr (24.9 g)

Operators[edit]

In fiction and popular culture[edit]

11-mm Mauser is the service rifle of the Martian Army in The Sirens of Titan by Kurt Vonnegut.[12] Though, the book states these were bought as surplus from the Spanish–American War, which would in fact make them Model 1893 7×57mm Mauser.

In the film The Last Samurai, the Japanese Imperial Army carries German bolt-action Mauser M1871/84 rifles. The 1884 models were altered in appearance by film makers to resemble the more period accurate 1871 models.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Ball 2011, p. 148.
  2. ^ a b Keith W. Doyon. "71 Mauser". Militaryrifles.com. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  3. ^ Ball 2011, p. 8.
  4. ^ Ball 2011, p. 147.
  5. ^ Keith W. Doyon. "71-84 Mauser". Militaryrifles.com. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  6. ^ http://www.zollwaffen.de/gag79.html
  7. ^ John Sheehan, 1 of 110,000. The Serbian M78/80 is one of the Rarest of Mauser Rifles", Guns magazine, May 2012, pp. 36-39
  8. ^ Ball 2011, p. 314.
  9. ^ "ireland.com / Focus / The 1916 Rising". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  10. ^ "The New Martini-Enfield Rifle" (PDF). The Engineer. 2 July 1886. p. 16. Retrieved 3 April 2017 – via Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. 
  11. ^ "Gunsworld and Hand Guns". Gunsworld.com. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  12. ^ Kurt Vonnegut (1959). "The Sirens of Titan". Indiana: Delacorte Press. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]