Max von Gallwitz

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Max von Gallwitz
Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz in 1915.jpg
Gallwitz in 1915
Born (1852-05-02)May 2, 1852
Breslau, Province of Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia now Wrocław, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
Died April 18, 1937(1937-04-18) (aged 84)
Naples, Campania, Kingdom of Italy
Allegiance German Empire German Empire
Service/branch Army
Years of service 1870-1918
Rank General
Commands held Guards Reserve Corps
Twelfth Army
Eleventh Army
Second Army
Fifth Army
Army Group Gallwitz
Battles/wars World War I

Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz (2 May 1852 – 18 April 1937) was a German general from Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia, who served with distinction during World War I on both the Eastern and Western Fronts.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

Max von Gallwitz, 1915

Gallwitz grew up in a Catholic family in Breslau. In 1891, he married Friedrike (*1871). They had a daughter and son Werner, who became a Lieutenant general in the Second World War. Later, he began the First World War as a corps commander (Guards Reserve Corps) on the Western Front, but was almost immediately transferred east to join the Eighth Army under Hindenburg.[1] In 1915 he took command of Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz[3] (later redesignated Twelfth Army) and participated in the Galicia offensive alongside Mackensen, who commanded the Eleventh Army.[4]

Towards the end of 1915, he succeeded Mackensen as commander of the Eleventh Army, as the latter campaigned against Serbia. In 1916, Gallwitz moved back to the Western Front and defended against the British attack in the Battle of the Somme. He took over command of 2nd Army and of Heeresgruppe Gallwitz - Somme[5] controlling 1st and 2nd Armies. From 1916-18 he commanded the Fifth Army in the west, most notably engaging the Americans during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel.

Following his retirement from the army, Gallwitz served as a deputy in the Reichstag (1920–24) for the German National People's Party.[4]

Awards and decorations[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Duffy, Michael (2009-08-22), Who's Who - Max von Gallwitz, firstworldwar.com 
  2. ^ Duffy, Michael (2009-08-22), Primary Documents - Max von Gallwitz on the Battle of St Mihiel, 12 September 1918, firstworldwar.com 
  3. ^ Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command, generally formed as a temporary measure for a specific task.
  4. ^ a b Rickard, J. (2007-10-03), Max von Gallwitz, German General, 1852-1937 
  5. ^ Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander.
Bibliography (biography)
  • Jung, Jakob (1995). Max von Gallwitz (1852-1937) (in German). Biblio. p. 292. ISBN 978-3-7648-2435-8. 
Military offices
Preceded by
New Formation
Commander, Guards Reserve Corps
2 August 1914–9 February 1915
Succeeded by
Upgraded to Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz
Preceded by
Upgraded from Guards Reserve Corps
Commander, Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz
9 February 1915–7 August 1915
Succeeded by
Upgraded to 12th Army
Preceded by
Upgraded from Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz
Commander, 12th Army
7 August 1915–22 September 1915
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Max von Fabeck
Preceded by
Generalfeldmarschall August von Mackensen
Commander, 11th Army
23 September 1915-16 April 1916
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Arnold von Winckler
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Fritz von Below
Commander, 2nd Army
19 July 1916–17 December 1916
Succeeded by
General der Kavallerie Georg von der Marwitz
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Ewald von Lochow
Commander, 5th Army
17 December 1916–27 September 1918
Succeeded by
General der Kavallerie Georg von der Marwitz
Preceded by
New creation
Commander, Army Group Gallwitz
1 February 1918–11 November 1918
Succeeded by
Dissolved