Maximilian Nierenstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Maximilian Nierenstein
Alma materUniversity of Bristol
Known forNierenstein reaction
Scientific career

Maximilian Nierenstein (also known as Moses Max Nierenstein or Max Nierenstein; 1877–1946) was a professor of biochemistry at the University of Bristol.

He is known for the Nierenstein reaction, an organic reaction describing the conversion of an acid chloride into an haloketone with diazomethane.

In 1912, Polish biochemist Casimir Funk isolated a complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine" (a portmanteau of "vital amine"), a name reportedly suggested by friend Max Nierenstein.[1][2]

He also studied natural phenols and tannins[3] found in different plant species. He showed in 1945 that luteic acid, a molecule present in the myrobalanitannin, a tannin found in the fruit of Terminalia chebula, is an intermediary compound in the synthesis of ellagic acid.[4] Working with Arthur George Perkin, he prepared ellagic acid from algarobilla and certain other fruits in 1905.[5] He suggested its formation from galloyl-glycine by Penicillium in 1915.[6] Tannase is an enzyme that Niederstein used to produce m-digallic acid from gallotannins.[7] He proved the presence of catechin in cocoa beans in 1931.[8]

He also worked on milk and caseinogen.[9] He reviewed the discovery of lactose in 1936.[10]


  • Nierenstein, Moses Max (1904). Synthese des 2-Oxyflavonols.
  • Moore, Benjamin; Nierenstein, Maximilian; Todd, John Lancelot; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (1908). Concerning the Treatment of Experimental Trypanosomiasis.
  • Nierenstein, Maximilian (1910). Chemie der Gerbstoffe.
  • Nierenstein, M (1912). Organische Arsenverbindungen und ihre chemotherapeutische Bedeutung.
  • Nierenstein, M (1932). Incunabula of tannin chemistry: A collection of some early papers on the chemistry of the tannins reproduced in facsimile and published with annotations.
  • Nierenstein, Maximilian; Skene, Macgregor (1934). The Natural Organic Tannins: History, Chemistry, Distribution.


  1. ^ Combs, Gerald (2008). The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. ISBN 9780121834937.
  2. ^ Funk, C.; Dubin, H. E. (1922). The Vitamines. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company. The Vitamines.
  3. ^ Drabble, E.; Nierenstein, M. (1907). "On the Rôle of Phenols, Tannic Acids, and Oxybenzoic Acids in Cork Formation". Biochemical Journal. 2 (3): 96–102.1. doi:10.1042/bj0020096. PMC 1276196. PMID 16742048.
  4. ^ Nierenstein, M.; Potter, J. (1945). "The distribution of myrobalanitannin". The Biochemical Journal. 39 (5): 390–392. doi:10.1042/bj0390390. PMC 1258254. PMID 16747927.
  5. ^ Perkin, A. G.; Nierenstein, M. (1905). "CXLI.—Some oxidation products of the hydroxybenzoic acids and the constitution of ellagic acid. Part I" (PDF). Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 87: 1412. doi:10.1039/CT9058701412.
  6. ^ Nierenstein, M. (1915). "The Formation of Ellagic Acid from Galloyl-Glycine by Penicillium". The Biochemical Journal. 9 (2): 240–244. doi:10.1042/bj0090240. PMC 1258574. PMID 16742368.
  7. ^ Nierenstein, M. (1932). "A biological synthesis of m-digallic acid". The Biochemical Journal. 26 (4): 1093–1094. doi:10.1042/bj0261093. PMC 1261008. PMID 16744910.
  8. ^ Adam, W. B.; Hardy, F.; Nierenstein, M. (1931). "The Catechin of the Cacao Bean". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 53 (2): 727–728. doi:10.1021/ja01353a041.
  9. ^ Geake, A.; Nierenstein, M. (1914). "The Action of Diazomethane on Caseinogen: Preliminary Communication". The Biochemical Journal. 8 (4): 287–292. doi:10.1042/bj0080287. PMC 1276579. PMID 16742318.
  10. ^ Nierenstein, M. (February 1936). "The Discovery of Lactic Sugar". Isis. 24 (2): 367–369. doi:10.1086/347034. JSTOR 225293.

External links[edit]