May 1964

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May 14, 1964: Nasser and Khrushchev press button for explosion at Aswan Dam
"Papa Doc" Duvalier named Haiti's President-for-life
May 24, 1964: Candidate Goldwater suggests using nuclear weapons in Vietnam War

The following events occurred in May 1964:

May 1, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • At 4:00 a.m.[1] at Dartmouth College, mathematics professors John Kemeny and Thomas Kurts ran the first program written in BASIC(Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy to learn computer programming language that they had created. The original version had 14 statements (DATA, DEF, DIM, END, FOR, GOSUB, IF, LET, NEXT, PRINT, READ, REM, and RETURN) and nine built in DEF functions (Sin, Cos, Tan, Atn, Exp, Log, Sqr, Rnd, and Int). Kemeny would write later that "We at Dartmouth envisaged the possibility of millions of people writing their own computer programs" [2]
  • Born: Yvonne van Gennip, Netherlands speed skater, winner of three gold medals in 1988 Winter Olympics; in Haarlem

May 2, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • About 1,000 students participated in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War, marching in New York City as part of the "May 2nd Movement" that had been organized by students at Yale University.[3] Marches also occurred in San Francisco, Boston, Seattle, and Madison, Wisconsin.
  • A North Vietnamese frogman sank the U.S. Navy aviation transport USNS Card after it had taken on a cargo of helicopters at Saigon. At about 5:00 in the morning, a hole was blown in the Card below the waterline, and the ship began sinking, eventually reaching the bottom of the 48-foot deep Saigon River. The flight deck and superstructure remained above the surface, and all 73 men on board were able to escape uninjured.[4][5] The ship was soon refloated and repaired.
  • Forty-six teenagers were injured, one fatally, in an escalator accident at Baltimore's Memorial Stadium, where they were given free admission to a baseball game between the Orioles and the Cleveland Indians. Ironically, the youngsters were among 20,000 who had been invited for "Safety Patrol Day". Annette S. Costantini, 14, was at the front of the line and was crushed by the stampede that resulted when the top of the escalator was partially blocked by a wooden barricade.[6][7]
  • West Ham United won the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating Preston North End 3-2 at Wembley Stadium.
  • The long running BBC television documentary series Horizon was broadcast for the first time, with the new BBC-2 network presenting "The World of Buckminster Fuller".[8]
  • Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh's seven-week-old son was christened Edward Antony Richard Louis – today he is The Earl of Wessex.[9]
  • Senator Barry Goldwater received more than 75% of the vote in the Texas Republican Presidential referendum, "a nonbinding survey of voter sentiment".[10]
  • Died:

May 3, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Voting on independence for the European islands of Malta concluded after three days, with 54.5% of the valid votes in favor of a proposed constitution that provided for Malta as a parliamentary democracy with a British Governor-General. On the question "Do you approve of the constitution proposed by the Government of Malta, endorsed by the Legislative Assembly, and published in the Malta Gazette?", 65,714 voted "yes" and 54,919 voted "no".[13][14]
  • Voting for the 99-seat Parliament of Lebanon concluded after five consecutive Sundays, with independent candidates winning 70 of the contests. The other 29 seats were scattered among six political parties, with Camille Chamoun's National Liberal Party getting 7 of the seats.[15]
  • Born: Ron Hextall, Canadian ice hockey goaltender; in Brandon, Manitoba

May 4, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Gandak River Irrigation and Power Project was inaugurated in Nepal by Nepal's King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, four years after the two nations had agreed to the construction of a barrage to dam the river to provide electrification of the area.[16]
  • The U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution, by voice vote, recognizing that bourbon whiskey was a "distinctive product of the United States" and asking that U.S. government agencies "take appropriate action to prohibit the importation into the United States of whiskey designated as bourbon whiskey". The measure, "an expression of congressional sentiment" rather than a law, had passed the U.S. Senate in September, and noted that Scotland, Canada and France prohibited the importation, respectively, of scotch, Canadian whisky and cognac.[17]

May 5, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The government of Israel announced that it had completed construction of the National Water Carrier of Israel, an irrigation project for increased usage of the Jordan River. On January 16, Egypt's President Nasser and the leaders of 12 other Arab nations had declared that they would divert the three main tributaries of the river away from Israel. After warnings from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations, the Arab nations dropped their diversion plans and made no further objections to the Jordan Waters project.[18]
  • Born: Heike Henkel, German track athlete and Olympic gold medalist in the women's high jump, 1992; in Kiel, West Germany
  • Died: Howard Zahniser, 58, American environmentalist who authored the Wilderness Act of 1964, died of heart disease two months before Congress passed the legislation.

May 6, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

May 7, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

May 8, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

May 9, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A plot to assassinate U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara was foiled, three days before his visit to South Vietnam, with the arrest of Viet Minh agent Nguyen Van Troi. Troi, who would be celebrated as a martyr in North Vietnam after his October 15 execution, had planned to detonate a bomb as McNamara was being driven across the Cong Ly Bridge in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City on May 12.[30][31]
  • South Korean President Park Chung Hee reshuffled his Cabinet, after a series of student demonstrations against his efforts to restore diplomatic and trade relations with Japan. Choi Tu-son, the publisher of South Korea's largest newspaper, resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced two days later by Foreign Minister Chung Il-kwon.[32]
  • The steam engine GWR 4073 Class 7029 Clun Castle ran between Plymouth to Bristol Temple Meads non-stop in a record time of 133 minutes and 9 seconds. Had it not been restricted to 80 mph down Whiteball bank near Wellington, it could have improved on the time.[33]
  • Born: Kevin Saunderson, American electronic music producer and Detroit techno artist; in Brooklyn, New York
  • Died: Ngo Dinh Can, 53, South Vietnamese politician who had brutally governed the area around the city of Huế after being picked by his older brother, the late President Ngo Dinh Diem. Convicted by the military government of murder, extortion and illegal arrests, Can was refused asylum by the United States embassy after the assassination of Diem and another brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu. Because he was severely ill with diabetes and heart trouble, Can was taken on a stretcher to a sporting field in Saigon, tied to a wooden stake, and executed by a firing squad. Earlier in the day, Phan Quang Dong, the former chief of Can's secret police force, was executed at the municipal stadium in Huế before a crowd of 40,000 people.[34]

May 10, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

Treblinka memorial

May 11, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

l

May 12, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The first of 507 people to be hospitalized, in the Scottish city of Aberdeen, for typhoid from food poisoning began when a student at the University of Aberdeen was admitted to the infirmary at her dormitory.[42] Two days later, her roommate would become ill, and within a week, the number of admissions to City Hospital had risen to 12.[43] By the end of the month, 238 patients would in isolation at the infectious disease ward. Health inspectors would eventually trace the origin to a supermarket on Aberdeen's Union Street, where many of the patients had purchased sliced corned beef or other cold meats. The origin had been a seven-pound can of corned beef,[44] imported from Argentina, that had been contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella typhi; other meats cut afterward with the same slicing machine, and then stored in an uncooled display case in front of a window, were tainted with the same bacteria. The epidemic would abade by the end of July, though consumption of corned beef in the United Kingdom would fall by more than half for the rest of the year. Though only 50 supermarket customers were initially infected, the disease had spread by contact from there, leading to the joke that "Only in Aberdeen would you get 507 slices out of a can of corned beef." [42]
  • The government of Tunisia passed a law barring foreigners from owning land in the North African nation. In 1958, 20 percent of the land owned by non-Tunisians had been ceded by agreement with France, and in 1960, another 25% was confiscated. Under the nationalization policy, 505,000 hectares (1,250,000 acres) came under government ownership.[45]
  • Died: Clarence Cannon, 85, U.S. Representative for Missouri since 1923 and Chairman of the House Appropriations Committee, died in Washington D.C., soon announcing his plans to run for a 21st term of office.

May 13, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

May 14, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

May 15, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

May 16, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

beta blocker
  • Sir James Black, a British physician synthesized propranolol, the first beta blocker drug, a class of medication used to manage cardiac arrhythmias, and to protect the heart muscle after a myocardial infarction against a recurrence. Black recognized that the blocking of Beta receptors, a form of adrenergic receptor proteins, could prevent the overstimulation of neurotransmitters within the heart tissue. For his discovery, Black would share the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
  • Twelve young men in New York City publicly burned their draft cards to protest against the Vietnam War, the first mass act of resistance in the history of this particular war.[53][54] The demonstration, with about 50 people in Union Square, was organized by the War Resisters League chaired by David McReynolds.[55]
  • U.S. Defense Secretary McNamara ordered the deactivation of the Titan I missiles, which had become obsolete because they had to be raised out of their silos and fueled before they could be launched. The first Titan I missile would be taken off alert on January 4.[56][57]
  • A U.S. Army Captains Ben W. Stutts and Charleton W. Voltz, whose OH-23 helicopter was shot down over North Korea May 17, 1963, when they strayed north of the Demilitarized Zone, were released after 365 days of imprisonment. In return for the release, the United Nations Command had agreed to sign a statement that the Stutts and Voltz had committed espionage. North Korea declined to return the helicopter.[58][59]

May 17, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • "Operation Desert Strike", the largest American military exercise since the end of World War II, began in an 18,000 square mile area of desert in the U.S. states of California, Nevada and Arizona, and involved 89,000 U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force personnel training for two weeks in mock combat.[60] Coordinated by United States Strike Command, the "huge mock war between the mythical nations of Calonia and Nezona" employed tanks, artillery, jet fighters, paratroopers, and tens of thousands of men using blank-loaded weapons.[61][62] Based on data from the exercise, the U.S. Army developed the Air Support Operations Center, which would soon be introduced into the Vietnam War.[63] Despite the precautions, 34 American servicemen had been killed by the time that the exercise ended on May 30, mostly in traffic accidents involving military vehicles.[64]
  • The debate over a new Canadian flag in time for Canada's 1967 centennial began at the 20th Royal Canadian Legion convention, in Winnipeg, when Prime Minister Lester Pearson told an unsympathetic audience that the time had come to replace the red ensign with a distinctive maple leaf flag. "I believe most sincerely," Pearson told the veterans, "that it is time now for Canadians to unfurl a flag that is truly distinctive and truly national in character, as Canadian as the Maple Leaf that should be its dominant design; a flag which cannot be mistaken for the emblem of any other country; a flag of the future which honours also the past; Canada's own and only Canada's." Pearson would introduce the resolution in the Canadian House of Commons on June 5.[65][66][67]
  • In New York City, 150 bicyclists rode together through the streets from Manhattan to the site of the World's Fair in Flushing "in an attempt to make the city's roads and bridges more bicycle-friendly." [68]
  • Born:
  • Died: Steve Owen, 66, American NFL coach and Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee

May 18, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • Jackie Cochran, who in 1953 had become the first woman to "break the sound barrier" by flying faster than Mach 1, became the first woman to fly faster than Mach 2, setting a new women's airspeed record of 1,429 mph (2,300 km/h) in an F-104 Starfighter.[69] At the time of her death from heart problems in 1980, Cochran "held over 250 speed, altitude, and distance records, more than any other pilot in the world, male or female." [70]
  • Mwanawina III, King of Barotseland, and Kenneth Kaunda, Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), signed the Barotseland Agreement establishing the Lozi people's autonomy within Zambia as the Western Province. In return, Barotseland would renounce its relationship with the British crown. The autonomy would last only five years after Zambia's independence. In 1969, a majority of Zambians (but only 31% of the people in Barotseland) voted in a referendum to approve Zambia's "Consittutional Amendment Act of 1969", which declared that all provinces in Zambia would receive equal status.[71]
  • By a 5-3 decision in the case of Schneider v. Rusk, the U.S. Supreme Court allowed the restoration of American citizenship of more than 50,000 people who had been stripped of their naturalized citizenship under a 1952 amendment of the Immigration and Nationality Act. The Court declared unconstitutional a provision that took away the status of foreign-born people, who had become naturalized U.S. citizens, if they lived for more than three years continuously in their native land.[72]

May 19, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The United States Department of State disclosed that more than 40 hidden microphones had been found embedded in the walls of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, and that it had filed a protest with the Soviet government. The devices, which were at least 8 inches inside the walls and "integrated to main structural reports" had apparently been in place since 1953, when the building was first leased to the United States. All of the microphones were found on the eighth, ninth and tenth floors of the building, where embassy offices were located, and were not found until February, when Embassy officials tore down the walls of a room that "frequently was used for sensitive discussions". The other microphones were found by following the wiring system from the first one discovered.[73]
  • Two days after Pope Paul VI announced its creation at the celebration of the holiday of Pentecost, the Secretariat for Non-Christians was created, with Cardinal Paolo Marella as its first secretary.[74][75]
  • The United States began "Operation Yankee Team", low-level and medium-level reconnaissance flights from South Vietnam over Communist strongholds in neighboring Laos, at the request of the Royal Laotian Armed Forces. Two days after flights began over southern Laos in the area that was part of the "Ho Chi Minh Trail", U.S. Navy planes would conduct sorties over northern Laos.[76]

May 20, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Johnson signed into law the Bartlett Act of 1964, subtitled "Prohibition of Foreign Fishing Vessels in the Territorial Waters of the United States", making it unlawful for vessels of any other nation to conduct fishing operations within three nautical miles (3.4524 miles or 5.5561 kilometers) of the U.S. coast, as well as areas further out designated under the Convention on the Continental Shelf as "continental shelf fishery resources of the United States".[77] With regard to the United States continental shelf, designated resources under the exclusive jurisdiction claimed by the U.S. ranged as far as 200 miles off of the coasts of New England and Alaska.[78]
  • Died: Rudy Lewis, 27, lead vocalist for The Drifters, died of a heroin overdose the day before he was scheduled to record one of the group's most famous songs, "Under the Boardwalk". The next day, backup singer Johnny Moore took Lewis's place, singing "in a lower register than his norm" [79] because the key and the music had been written for Lewis.

May 21, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

May 22, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • In his commencement speech to University of Michigan graduates as well as to his largest audience as President (90,000 people at Michigan Stadium at Ann Arbor, Michigan), U.S. President Johnson formally introduced his vision of "the Great Society", a welfare state of federally-funded social programs to fight poverty and transform the nation.[83] "For in your time," he told graduates, "we have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society," which he said "rests on abundance and liberty for all... demands an end to poverty and racial injustice.. a place where every child can find knowledge to enrich his mind and to enlarge his talents." Johnson, who received an honorary law doctorate, used the term "Great Society" nine times in his 15-minute speech.[84] Though his plan was elaborated at Michigan, President Johnson had first used the term 15 days earlier in a May 7 speech at Ohio University.
  • Indonesia defeated Denmark, 5 games to 4, to win the 1964 Thomas Cup badminton competition held in Tokyo. In the final match, the team of Tan King Gwan and A. P. Unang beat Erland Kops and Henning Borch, 15-6, to capture the Cup.
  • Died: deLesseps "Chep" Morrison, 52, former Mayor of New Orleans and former U.S. Ambassador to the Organization of American States, was killed along with six other people in the crash of a private Piper Aztec airplane on a business trip in Mexico. Morrison and his party departed Matamoros, Tamaulipas at 5:05 in the afternoon for what was to be a one-hour flight to Tampico, but crashed into the side of a mountain in the Sierra de Tamaulipas during a severe thunderstorm.[85]

May 23, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • As the North Yemen Civil War continued, Egyptian military intelligence "came within an ace of assassinating" Hassan ibn Yahya, the Crown Prince of the Royalists who were supported by Saudi Arabia in their fight against the Yemen Arab Republic that had overthrown the monarchy in 1962. A member of the Hashid tribe, hired by Egyptian agents, raided Prince Hassan's headquarters in the mountains at Al-Gahrir, while Hassan's low-paid bodyguards revolted because they were paid only half as much as the guards of other princes. Hassan "escaped with his life, but not before losing his hoard of gold." [86]
  • Nearly four years after the discovery of a large underground oil reservoir in the Tyumen Oblast of the Soviet Union, the first cargo from the Shaim Oil Field was shipped on the Irtysh River to a refinery in Omsk.[87]
  • Mrs. Madeline Dassault, 63, wife of French multimillionaire Marcel Dassault, was kidnapped while getting out of her car in front of her Paris home.[88] Two gendarmes from Creil rescued Mrs. Dassault, unharmed, the next day at an abandoned farmhouse near the village of Villers-sous-Saint-Leu 27 miles (43 km) north of Paris, after being tipped off by neighbors who had become alarmed by lights inside the building. After overpowering her captor, Matheiu Costa, the police were surprised when the farm's owners, brothers Gabriel and Gaston Darmont, drove up.[89]
  • Pablo Picasso painted his fourth version of Head of a Bearded Man.
  • Died: Bob Alcorn, 66, former Dallas County, Texas deputy sheriff who had shot killers "Bonnie and Clyde" (Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow) in an ambush near Gibsland, Louisiana. Alcorn's death from a heart attack came 30 years to the day after the May 23, 1934 gunfire that he and five other lawmen had carried out. The day before, he had spoken to a reporter about his recollections.[90][91] 1

May 24, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In the second-deadliest riot ever at a sporting event, 328 people were killed and more than 500 injured at an international soccer football match at Lima between Peru and the visiting team representing Argentina. The game was part of the qualifier of the seven-nation CONMEBOL South American competition for two of the 16 spots in the 1964 Summer Olympics.[92] Argentina had already clinched a spot, but Peru and Brazil were tied for second place. With six minutes left, and Argentina leading, 1–0, Peru's Kilo Lobaton had apparently scored a tying goal, but referee Angel Pazos from Uruguay called a foul and disallowed the score. Two angry spectators ran onto the field and were severely beaten by police, and the crowd was enraged. As fans on the south side of the Estadio Nacional tried to get out of the exits, the police began firing tear gas into the stands. People who remained in their seats were uninjured, and most of the deaths were from people who were trampled or pinned against the closed doors at the exits.[93]
  • Republican presidential candidate and U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater suggested the use of nuclear weapons in the Vietnam War during an interview with reporter Howard K. Smith on the ABC program Issues and Answers. Goldwater didn't advocate using the weapons against enemy troops, but did say that enemy supply lines could be made unusable if the cover offered by rain forests and jungles was removed. "[D]efoliation of the forests by low yield atomic weapons could well be done", he said on a pre-recorded interview with Smith. "When you remove the foliage, your remove the cover. The major supply lines too, I think, would have to be interdicted where they leave Red China... according to my studies of the geography, it would not be difficult to destroy these routes." [94] An author would later describe Goldwater's idea as "a gift to Democratic Party campaign managers who wanted to position Johnson as a responsible man of peace"[95] and UN Secretary General U Thant said that anyone advocating the use of atomic weapons in Vietnam was "out of his mind". Goldwater would go on to lose to President Johnson in a landslide defeat in November.
  • General Electric company brought out the first "solid state" portable television set that used transistors rather than vacuum tubes, allowing a much lower weight to carry.[96]
  • The Soviet space probe Zond 1, set for a July 18 flyby of the planet Venus, began to have its first problems, with the failure of one of the transmitters. Telemetry received back on Earth indicated that the orbital module had depressurized during the flight, because "the glass of the solar orientation sensor dome was not airtight", followed by a short circuit. The descent capsule would continue to transmit data and receive command until June, allowing for two trajectory corrections to be made, before failing. With corrections no longer possible, the probe would pass no closer than 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) of that planet.[97]
  • NASCAR driver Glenn "Fireball" Roberts was fatally injured in the World 600 race at the Charlotte Motor Speedway, after he spun out during the seventh lap and drivers Junior Johnson and Ned Jarrett crashed into the back of his car.[98] Jim Paschal would ultimately win the race. Roberts, with burns over more than 60 percent of his body, would survive for 39 days in a burn unit before dying of pneumonia. His death would lead to "the development of fire-retardant racing suits".[99]
  • Born: Adrian Moorhouse, English swimmer, 1991 world champion and 1988 Olympic gold medalist; in Bradford
  • Died: Erich Möller, 59, German road and motor-paced cycling champion

May 25, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • By a 67-0 vote in the Haitian Congress, President of Haiti Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier was declared to be "President-for-Life" (Président à vie) under Article 197 of a new constitution.[100] The measure reportedly would be overwhelmingly approved in a referendum on June 22. Duvalier's oppressive rule would continue for the rest of his life. Upon his death on April 21, 1971, his 19-year-old son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, would become President.[101]
  • The United States Supreme Court issued its decision in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, unanimously ordering Prince Edward County, Virginia to reopen its public schools, which had been closed for more than four years. The Court reversed a 1963 decision by Virginia's highest court holding that the state was not required to operate schools in any of its counties. Justice Hugo Black wrote that the decision denied equal rights to the county's schoolchildren, declaring that "Prince Edward children must go to a private school or none at all; all other Virginia children can go to public schools." [102] The county's public schools had been closed since 1959 after the school board declined to follow a federal court order to file a plan for desegregation of schools, and no school taxes can be levied by the county during that time.[103]
  • At the 16th Primetime Emmy Awards ceremony, The Dick Van Dyke Show and The Defenders won the major awards for Program Achievement, while Jack Klugman and Shelley Winters won the main acting awards.[104]
  • Born: Ray Stevenson, Northern Irish film actor, in Lisburn

May 26, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Mission 1005 of the Corona spy satellite series broke up during its uncontrolled re-entry into Earth's atmosphere, and its capsule crashed on a farm near La Fría, Venezuela. Sent up by the United States on April 27, the fifth "Corona-J" satellite had been presumed lost in the Atlantic Ocean after five bright pieces were seen flying over Maracaibo, but the farm owner would stumble across it on July 7. On August 1, Leonardo Davilla, a Venezuelan photographer, would contact the U.S. Army attaché after the farmer had attempted to sell him the machinery. The Venezuelan Army would confiscate the object before the American attaché could arrive, and the capsule would not be returned United States until August 10.[105]
  • President Abdul Salam Arif of Iraq and President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt signed an agreement creating the "Joint Presidential Council" as the first step in a unification of the two countries within the United Arab Republic. On October 16, the two would agree to created the "Unified Political Command" to merge the two nations over a period of two years, but by May 1965, the merger proposal would fall apart.[106]
  • Born:

May 27, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India since the nation's independence in 1947, died from a ruptured aorta. The evening before, he and his daughter, future Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, had returned to New Delhi from a vacation in Dehradun, worked at his desk until 11:00 that night, and prepared for the next day's work. At 6:25 in the morning at his residence, shortly after he awoke, he was stricken with chest pains and collapsed. At 2:00 that afternoon, Minister of Steel Chidambaram Subramaniam announced to his fellow members of parliament in the Lok Sabha, "The prime minister is no more. The light is out." Gulzarilal Nanda, the Minister of Home Affairs, was sworn in as the Acting Prime Minister at midnight.[107][108] became the acting Prime Minister until he was replaced by Lal Bahadur Shastri on June 9.
  • U.S. President Johnson revealed that the United States and the Soviet Union had completed negotiations on a treaty to establish consulates in each other's nations, in a treaty whose contents would be kept secret until June. The occasion marked "the first bilateral treaty between the two nations since the United States recognized the Russian communist regime" in 1933.[109]
  • Nearly one third of the National Army of Colombia began "Operation Marquetalia", the destruction of the "Marquetalia Republic", a leftist guerrilla stronghold in the rural Colombian departamento of Huila.[110] By June 14, the Colombian soldiers would be able to declare a victory, driving out the guerrillas and their allies, and destroying anything left behind.
  • The UK pirate radio station Radio Sutch began broadcasting from Shivering Sands Army Fort in the Thames Estuary.[111]
  • Internazionale beat Real Madrid 3-1 at the Prater Stadium at Vienna to win soccer football's European Cup
  • Born: Adam Carolla, American comedian, in Los Angeles

May 28, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Palestinian National Council, with 422 representatives, convened in Jerusalem, which was still part of Jordan at the time. At the conclusion of the meeting on June 2, the Council would proclaim the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and adopted the Palestinian National Covenant, calling for the right of Palestinian Arabs to return to the area occupied by the nation of Israel and for their right of self-determination within the area.[112] Ahmad Shukeiri was elected as the first Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO, whose 14 members he was authorized to select.[113][114][115]
  • AS-101, the sixth Saturn I rocket launch, made the first successful placement of the prototype of the Apollo Command/Service Module into Earth orbit,[116] and confirmed the structural integrity of the design for the vehicle that would take astronauts to the Moon. Following the launch at 12:01 p.m. from Cape Kennedy, the stage and payload would re-enter Earth's atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean on June 2.[117]
  • An estimate one and a half million people attended the funeral of Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, whose body was publicly cremated on a funeral pyre at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River. At 4:36 p.m. in New Delhi, Nehru's 17-year-old grandson, Sanjay Gandhi, applied a torch to the cremation platform.[118] The next day, Nehru's ashes would be taken to his birthplace at Allahabad to be scattered at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganges rivers.
  • Born: Jeff Fenech, Australian professional boxer, former IBF bantamweight champion (1985-1987), WBC super bantamweight champion (1987-1988) and WBC featherweight champion (1988-1989); in St Peters, New South Wales

May 29, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Air Force's anti-satellite system was declared to be fully operational. The U.S. Army had inaugurated a different system on August 1, 1963.[119]
  • The German football club SV Südwest Ludwigshafen was founded.

May 30, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A. J. Foyt won the Indianapolis 500, but the annual motor race was marred by a seven-car accident that killed drivers Eddie Sachs and Dave MacDonald. Only two minutes after the start of the race, MacDonald, a 26-year old rookie driver, went into a spin on the second lap after coming out of turn. Sachs's car then collided with MacDonald's, and both vehicles exploded. For the first time in the race's history, driving was halted, and would not resume for nearly two hours. Besides Sachs and MacDonald, five other drivers and three spectators suffered burns.[120] Foyt's victory was the last 500 won by a front-engined "roadster". All races since then have been won by rear-engined cars.[121]
  • Manuel Santana defeated Nicola Pietrangeli 6–3, 6–1, 4–6, 7–5, to win the men's singles at the French Open (at the time, referred to simply as the French tennis championship.[122]
  • Born: Wynonna Judd, American country-music singer, in Christina Claire Ciminella in Ashland, Kentucky
  • Died: Leo Szilard, 66, Hungarian-born nuclear physicist who, along with Enrico Fermi, patented the nuclear reactor

May 31, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BASIC", by Brig Elliott, in Encyclopedia of Microcomputers, Allen Kent and James G. Williams, eds. (CRC Press, 1988) p134
  2. ^ "Kemeny, John George", in International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers, J. A. N. Lee, ed. (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1995) p412
  3. ^ William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II: 1961-1964 (Princeton University Press, 1986) p250
  4. ^ "U.S. SHIP SUNK BY VIET REDS— Carries Load of Copters to Bottom", Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1964, p1
  5. ^ Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 35.
  6. ^ "1 Dies, 45 Hurt at Ball Game— Children Panic on Baltimore Escalator", Chicago Tribune, May 3, 1964, p1
  7. ^ "In fans' memories, tragedies echo among the cheers", by Rafael Alvarez, Baltimore Sun, July 28, 1991
  8. ^ "Science on television: a coming of age?", by Jana Bennett, in Communicating Science, Volume 2 (Routledge, 1999) p159
  9. ^ "Announcement of the christening of Lady Louise Windsor". The British Monarchy. 8 April 2004. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  10. ^ "Barry Wins Texas G.O.P. Primary Poll", Chicago Tribune, May 3, 1964, p1
  11. ^ Tamara R. Harrison, Today's FBI: Facts and Figures 2010-2011 (U.S. Department of Justice, 2011) p30
  12. ^ "Lady Astor, 84, Dies in Castle", Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1964, p1
  13. ^ British Documents on the End of Empire: Malta (Institute of Commonwealth Studies in the University of London, 2006) p326
  14. ^ "Independence Vote in Malta in Final Day", Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1964, p4
  15. ^ Dieter Nohlen, et al., Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook (Oxford University Press, 2001) p189
  16. ^ D. N. Dhungel and S. B. Pun, The Nepal-India Water Relationship: Challenges (Springer, 2009) p23
  17. ^ "If It Ain't Ours, It Ain't Real Bourbon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 5, 1964, p15
  18. ^ Michael Brecher, Dynamics of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Springer, 2017) pp141-142
  19. ^ "Doctor Wins Half Penny in 'Exodus' Libel", Chicago Tribune, May 7, 1964, p1D
  20. ^ "A Ha'penny & the Truth: Dr. Dering's Trial in London", Encounter magazine (August 1964), p71
  21. ^ John Sutherland, Bestsellers: Popular Fiction of the 1970s (Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1981)
  22. ^ Banham, Martin (1995). The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 827. ISBN 0-521-43437-8.
  23. ^ "44 Die as Air Liner Cracks up, Explodes", Chicago Tribune, May 8, 1964, p1
  24. ^ "'I've Been Shot,' Pilot Called in Crash; Pistol Traced to Heavily Insured Rider", Philadelphia Inquirer, May 9, 1964, p1
  25. ^ "Gun Used To Shoot Pilot Is Traced To Olympics Figure", Cincinnati Enquirer, May 10, 1964, p1
  26. ^ "Aeronautical Mass Murder", in Encyclopedia of Murder and Violent Crime, Eric Hickey, ed. (SAGE, 2003), p1
  27. ^ "President Asks Nation to Build 'Second America'— Seeks 'Great Society' Without Poverty", Minneapolis Star-Tribune, May 8, 1964, p1
  28. ^ Colin Burgess, Chris Dubbs, Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle (Springer, 2007) p101
  29. ^ Daniel Allen Hearn, Legal Executions in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky and Missouri: A Comprehensive Registry, 1866-1965 (McFarland, 2015) p178
  30. ^ "Nguyen Van Troi", in Historical Dictionary of Ho Chi Minh City, Justin Corfield, ed.
  31. ^ "PLOT TO KILL McNAMARA!— 2 Admit Plan to Blow up Viet Bridge", Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1964, p1
  32. ^ "Korea, Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p489
  33. ^ Cadge, Richard (general ed.) (1985). Portrait of a record-breaker: the story of GWR No. 7029 "Clun Castle". Birmingham Railway Museum.
  34. ^ "Ngo Dinh Can Killed by Viet Firing Squad", Chicago Tribune, May 10, 1964, p1
  35. ^ Elections in the Americas: a data handbook, Dieter Nohlen, ed. (Oxford University Press, 2005) p532
  36. ^ James E. Young, The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (Yale University Press, 1993) p188, p364
  37. ^ Daniel Kremer, Sidney J. Furie: Life and Films (University Press of Kentucky, 2015) p110
  38. ^ "Frank Sinatra Almost Drowns", Pittsburgh Press, May 11, 1964, p1
  39. ^ "Habitat", in Encyclopedia of Interior Design, Joanna Banham, ed. (Routledge, 1997) p539
  40. ^ Philip Kaplan, Big Wings: The Largest Aeroplanes Ever Built (Pen and Sword Aviation, 2005 pp110-113
  41. ^ "U. S. Unveils XB-70A That Cannot Bomb", Chicago Tribune, May 12, 1964, p2-53
  42. ^ a b T. Hugh Pennington, When Food Kills : BSE, E.coli and disaster science (Oxford University Press, 2003) pp42-43
  43. ^ "Typhoid: 12 cases in Aberdeen", The Guardian (London) May 22, 1964, p1
  44. ^ "Typhoid caused by corned beef", The Guardian (London) May 27, 1964, p1
  45. ^ "Tunisia", in The Economies of the Arab World: Development Since 1945, by Yusuf A. Sayigh (Routledge, 2014) p486
  46. ^ "Syrian Arab Republic", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994)
  47. ^ Dean Kohlhoff, Amchitka and the Bomb: Nuclear Testing in Alaska (University of Washington Press, 2002) p58
  48. ^ "JET HITS 9 HOMES, KILLS 5— F-105 Plows Through Area in N. Las Vegas", Chicago Tribune, May 14, 1964, p1
  49. ^ "Nasser Calls Nikita 'Tops' By a Dam Site", Chicago Tribune, May 15, 1964, p6
  50. ^ "Guided Missile Ship Tests 7-Nation Crew", Chicago Tribune, May 16, 1964, p1
  51. ^ The Presidential Recordings, Lyndon B. Johnson: Towards the Great Society, March 9, 1964 - April 13, 1964, David Shreve and Robert David Johnson, eds. (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p965
  52. ^ Air Force Missileers: "Victors in the Cold War", John Mark Jackson, ed. (Turner Publishing Company, 1998) p25
  53. ^ "9 Demonstrators Burn Draft Cards in Protest", Hartford (CT) Courant, May 17, 1964, p32A
  54. ^ "War Protesters", in Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices Roger Chapman, ed. (M.E. Sharpe, 2010) p596
  55. ^ Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America's Hearts and Minds (Rowman & Littlefield, 2002) p13
  56. ^ James B. Quest, Images of America: Beale Air Force Base During the Cold War (Arcadia Publishing, 2014) p29
  57. ^ Air Force Missileers: "Victors in the Cold War", John Mark Jackson, ed. (Turner Publishing Company, 1998) p27
  58. ^ Chuck Downs, Over the Line: North Korea's Negotiating Strategy (American Enterprise Institute, 1999) pp112-113
  59. ^ "Korean Reds Free 2 Yanks", Chicago Tribune, May 16, 1964, p1
  60. ^ David A. Bainbridge, A Guide for Desert and Dryland Restoration: New Hope for Arid Lands (Island Press, 2012) p48
  61. ^ "Operation Desert Strike Opens With Nezona Attack", The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), May 18, 1964, p21
  62. ^ "'Calonia, Nezona' In Mock Battle", Pittsburgh Press, May 18, 1964, p10
  63. ^ William W. Momyer, Air Power in Three Wars (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978) p261
  64. ^ "Desert Strike Toll Now 34", San Bernardino County (CA) Sun, May 31, 1964, pC-1
  65. ^ Gordon Robertson, Memoirs of a Very Civil Servant: Mackenzie King to Pierre Trudeau (University of Toronto Press, 2000) p225
  66. ^ "Legion Boos Pearson Plan For Maple Leaf Unity Flag", Montreal Gazette, May 18, 1964, p1
  67. ^ "Pearson Flag Plan Jeered; He's Cheered", Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1964, p2-15
  68. ^ Lawrence R. Samuel, New York City 1964: A Cultural History (McFarland, 2014) p192
  69. ^ "Jackie Cochran Flies 1,429 MPH", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette", May 19, 1964, p24
  70. ^ "Cochran, Jacqueline", by Rosanne Welch, in Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection (ABC-CLIO, 2017) p311
  71. ^ "Lozis", in Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations, James Minahan, ed. (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002) p1118
  72. ^ "Expatriates to Get Citizenship Back", Chicago Tribune, May 19, 1964, p5
  73. ^ "U.S. Says 40 Mikes 'Bugged' Moscow Embassy for Decade", Philadelphia Inquirer, May 20, 1964, p1
  74. ^ "Non-Christian Contact Eyed by Pope Paul", Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1964, p2-15
  75. ^ Risto Jukko, Trinity in Unity in Christian-Muslim Relations: The Work of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue (BRILL, 2007) p13
  76. ^ "Yankee Team, Operation", in The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p1356
  77. ^ Shigeru Oda, Fifty Years of the Law of the Sea: With a Special Section on the International Court of Justice (Martinus Nijhoff, 2003) p273
  78. ^ Daniel A. Sharp, U.S. Foreign Policy and Peru (University of Texas Press, 1972) p76
  79. ^ Steve Sullivan, Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings (Scarecrow Press, 2013) p480
  80. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: The Last Photo Plane," Naval History, October 2010, p. 64.
  81. ^ "Reds Hit U.S. Jet Spying Over Laos", Chicago Tribune, May 22, 1964, p1
  82. ^ Norman Polmar and John F. Bessette, Spyplanes: The Illustrated Guide to Manned Reconnaissance and Surveillance Aircraft from World War I to Today (Voyageur Press, 2016) p196
  83. ^ "Johnson Challenges Nation To Build a 'Great Society'", Detroit Free Press, May 23, 1964, p1
  84. ^ Documents for America's History, Volume 2: Since 1865, James A. Henretta, et al., eds. (Macmillan, 2011) p358
  85. ^ "DIPLOMAT, 6 DIE IN PLANE— de Lesseps Morrison and Son, 7, Killed", Chicago Tribune, May 24, 1964, p1
  86. ^ Clive Jones, Britain and the Yemen Civil War, 1962-1965: Ministers, Mercenaries and Mandarins : Foreign Policy and the Limits of Covert Action (Sussex Academic Press, 2010) p156
  87. ^ "Siberia", in The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry, M. S. Vassiliou, ed. (Scarecrow Press, 2009) p460
  88. ^ "Plane Maker's Wife Kidnapped at Paris Home", Chicago Tribune, May 23, 1964, p3
  89. ^ "French Kidnap Victim Saved", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1964, p1
  90. ^ "Killer of Two Desperadoes Dies", Valley Morning Star (Harlingen TX), May 26, 1964, p1
  91. ^ "Deaths Elsewhere", Philadelphia Inquirer, May 25, 1964, p30
  92. ^ "SOCCER FANS RIOT; 263 DIE— Referee's Ruling Sets off Stampede in Peru", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1964, p 1
  93. ^ "Lima 1964: The world's worst stadium disaster" by Piers Edwards, BBC Sport, 23 May 2014
  94. ^ "Goldwater Urges Atom Use in Asia— Would Flatten Reds' Forests", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1964, p 3
  95. ^ Matthew Jones, After Hiroshima: The United States, Race and Nuclear Weapons in Asia, 1945–1965 (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p441
  96. ^ "G.E. Introduces Portable TV Set", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1964, p 3–61
  97. ^ Christian Lardier and Stefan Barensky, The Soyuz Launch Vehicle: The Two Lives of an Engineering Triumph (Springer, 2013) pp 181–182
  98. ^ "Veteran Race Car Driver Badly Hurt in Crash", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1964, p 3-1
  99. ^ Larry Upton, Jonathan Jeffrey, Bowling Green Stock Car Racing (Arcadia Publishing, 2010)
  100. ^ "Duvalier Elected for Life", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 26, 1964, p1
  101. ^ Inter-American Yearbook on Human Rights, 1988 (Martinus Nijhoff, 1991) p587
  102. ^ "Schools Must Open, Virginia County Told", Chicago Tribune, May 26, 1964, p8
  103. ^ Christopher Bonastia, Southern Stalemate: Five Years without Public Education in Prince Edward County, Virginia (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  104. ^ "CBS Dominates in Emmy Awards; Shunned by 2 Nets", Chicago Tribune, May 26, 1964, p1
  105. ^ Robert L. Perry, A History of Satellite Reconnaissance: The Robert L. Perry Histories (Government Printing Office, 2012) p286
  106. ^ Malik Mufti, Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq (Cornell University Press, 1996) pp170-171
  107. ^ "Maker of Modern India, Nehru Dies From Heart Attack", Ottawa Journal, May 27, 1964, p1
  108. ^ BBC ON THIS DAY | 27 | 1964: Light goes out in India as Nehru dies. BBC News. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  109. ^ "U.S., Russia O.K. Pact on Consulates", Chicago Tribune, May 28, 1964, p1
  110. ^ René De La Pedraja, Wars of Latin America, 1948-1982: The Rise of the Guerrillas (McFarland, 2013) pp131-133
  111. ^ "Radio Sutch & City in Pictures & Audio Part 1". Bob Le-Roi. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
  112. ^ Mutaz Qafisheh, Palestine Membership in the United Nations: Legal and Practical Implications (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014) p140
  113. ^ "The Draft Basic Law for the Palestinian National Authority During the Transitional Period", by Anis Al-Qasem, in The Arab-Israeli Accords: Legal Perspectives, Eugene Cotran, et al., eds. (KLuwer Law International, 1996) p108
  114. ^ Helena Cobban, The Palestinian Liberation Organisation(Cambridge University Press, 1984) p.30
  115. ^ "Palestine Refugees Open Meeting, Hear Hussein", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 29, 1964, p6
  116. ^ "Orbits Model of Moonship", Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1964, p1
  117. ^ Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland, Apollo: The Definitive Sourcebook (Springer, 2006) pp68-69
  118. ^ "Nehru's Body Cremated as Vast Throng Grieves", Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1964, p3
  119. ^ David S. Patterson, The Foreign Relations of the United States: 1964-1968: National Security Policy (Government Printing Office, 2002) p156
  120. ^ "2 DIE IN FIERY '500' CRASH— MacDonald, Sachs Dead; Foyt Wins", Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1964, p1
  121. ^ Art Garner, Black Noon: The Year They Stopped the Indy 500 (Macmillan, 2014)
  122. ^ "Spanish Champ Takes French Singles Crown", Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1964, p2-5
  123. ^ "Vote Boycott Fizzles; Paz Is Re-Elected", Chicago Tribune, June 1, 1964, p18
  124. ^ "METS LOSE TWICE IN RECORD 10 HOURS— 57,037 See Giants Win 23 Inning Marathon in 7 Hours, 23 Mins.", Chicago Tribune, June 1, 1964, p3-1