May 1968

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
01 02 03 04
05 06 07 08 09 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31  

The following events occurred in May 1968:

May 10, 1968: France protests grow and demonstrators barricade the streets (as seen in Bourdeaux)
May 22, 1968: USS Scorpion nuclear submarine lost with all 99 crew

May 1, 1968 (Wednesday)[edit]

May 2, 1968 (Thursday)[edit]

Staff Sgt. Benavidez
  • Staff Sergeant Roy Benavidez of the U.S. Army's 5th Special Forces Group distinguished himself in battle near Loc Ninh in South Vietnam when he rescued 8 survivors of a 12-man Special Forces team that was surrounded by 1,000 enemy troops. Despite being off duty, Benavidez volunteered to travel by helicopter with the rescue team and was wounded four different times in the course of an 8-hour exchange of gunfire, but administered first aid to the other wounded officers, held off attackers by firing back and calling in airstrikes, secured classified documents, and dragged and carried wounded men to a safety. It would not be until 1981 that Benavidez would receive the Medal of Honor for his heroism. [9]
  • John Boozer of the Philadelphia Phillies became the first Major League Baseball player since 1944 (and only the second in MLB history) to be ejected from a game for violation of the spitball rule, after coming in briefly as a relief pitcher in a 3 to 0 loss to the host New York Mets. [10] Only three other players (Nels Potter in 1944, Phil Regan later in 1968, and Gaylord Perry in 1982) have been ejected from an MLB game under the spitball rule.[11]
  • Protocol 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights went into effect for member nations of the Council of Europe, with the signatory nations agreeing to prohibit debtor's prisons, to not restrict their populations from traveling inside or outside their country, to prohibit the expulsion of a citizen, and to prohibit the deportation of groups of foreigners on the basis of nationality. Four nations— the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Turkey and Greece — have never ratified the protocol. [12]
  • At the University of Oxford, the Christ Church Picture Gallery, designed by Philip Powell and Hidalgo Moya, was opened.

May 3, 1968 (Friday)[edit]

  • Braniff Flight 352 crashed near Dawson, Texas, killing all 85 persons on board. The turboprop Lockheed L-188A Electra took off on a scheduled flight from Houston to Dallas at 4:11 p.m. but flew into a severe thunderstorm 90 miles from its destination and broke up in midair. There were no survivors. [13] [14] Investigations would later reveal that the accident was caused by structural over-stress and failure of the airframe while attempting recovery from loss of control during a steep 180-degree turn executed in an attempt to escape the weather.[15]
  • A group of 500 students at the Sorbonne in Paris, France, protested against the closure of Paris University at Nanterre and the proposed expulsion of some students.[16] Police arrived to disperse the protesters, and "the first riot of mai 68 ensued" and led to riots and university closures across the country. [17]
  • The first heart transplant in the United Kingdom was performed by Dr. Donald Ross and a team of surgeons at the National Heart Hospital in London. The patient, Frederick West, would survive for 46 days until dying from complications of an infection. [18]
  • The United States and North Vietnam agreed that their representatives would meet in Paris on May 10 to begin the first discussions on the format for peace talks to end the Vietnam War. [19]
  • Died: Leonid Sabaneyev, 86, Russian mathematician and classical composer

May 4, 1968 (Saturday)[edit]

May 5, 1968 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The May Offensive was launched after midnight by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, initiating a second phase of January's Tet Offensive, with an attack on 119 targets throughout South Vietnam, including the capital, Saigon. [25][26] [27]
  • Four journalists— three from Australia and one from England— were murdered in Saigon by Viet Cong guerrillas after their mini-jeep drove into a trap in the city's Cholon sector. Killed in an execution were Reuters reporters Ron Lamary of England and Bruce Pigott; Michael Birch of the Australian Associated Press; and John Cantwell, Australian correspondent for Time magazine. A fifth journalist, free lancer Frank Palmos of Australia, pretended to be dead and would survive to tell what happened. [28]
  • A Grumman Gulfstream II became the first executive jet to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Died: Albert Dekker, 62, American character actor on stage, film and television was found hanged in his apartment in Hollywood.

May 6, 1968 (Monday)[edit]

Abolition de la société de classe.jpg
  • In Paris, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF), France's largest student union, along with the union of university teachers, staged a march to protest against police actions at the Sorbonne. More than 20,000 protesters marched towards the Sorbonne, and the police charged the crowd with batons. When some protesters created barricades and threw paving stones, the police respond with tear gas. Hundreds were arrested.
  • The sudden flooding of a coal mine at Hominy Falls, West Virginia trapped 25 miners underground [29] Fifteen were rescued after being trapped for five days [30], but the other 10, who had not been heard from since the accident, were believed to have died. [31] To the surprise of rescue workers, six of the 10 men had survived nearly for a week and a half in the flooded mine after they had built a barricade and rationed what food that they had left. [32]
  • The Argentine tanker MV Islas Orcadas exploded, caught fire and sank at Ensenada, Buenos Aires Province. Burning oil set two other tankers, MV Fray Luis Beltran and MV Cutral Co, on fire, sinking them as well.[33]

May 7, 1968 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The first of thousands of May 7 Cadre Schools, intended to "re-educate" party members, government bureaucrats, college students and professors, and other professionals with forced labor alongside peasant workers, was opened in Liuhe, a village in the Qing'an County section of China's Heilongjiang Province. On October 5, Mao Zedong would publish a directive to require all able-bodied persons to perform agricultural labor. At the height of China's Cultural Revolution, millions of Chinese professionals were sent to cadre schools fora at least a year. After the death of Lin Biao in 1971, many of the labor camps would be closed, and the remaining schools would be abolished on February 17, 1979. [34]
  • In Paris, students, teachers and young workers gathered at the Arc de Triomphe to demand that criminal charges against arrested students be dropped and that the authorities reopen Nanterre and Sorbonne universities.
  • Forward Pass, who had crossed the finish line second in the Kentucky Derby, was declared the winner after a urinalysis by the Kentucky State Racing Commission found traces of the painkiller phenylbutazone in Dancer's Image. The $122,600 first prize and the $5,000 gold cup were ordered returned by Peter Fuller, the owner of Dancer's Image, and transferred to the Calumet Farm. [35]
  • Born: Traci Lords, American actress and singer, in Steubenville, Ohio
  • Died:
    • Lurleen Wallace, 41, Governor of Alabama who was elected after because her husband, George C. Wallace, could not serve consecutive terms, died of cancer after 15 months in office. Lieutenant Governor Albert Brewer was sworn in as the new governor the next day. [36]
    • Mike Spence, 31, British racing driver, was killed while test driving a Lotus 56 turbocar in preparation for the Indianapolis 500. [37][38]

May 8, 1968 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Jim "Catfish" Hunter of the Oakland A's hurled the ninth perfect game in Major League Baseball history, and the first in an American League game in more than 45 years. Playing at home in a 4-0 win over the Minnesota Twins, Hunter threw 11 strikeouts, including the last two players he faced, Bruce Look and Rich Reese. The feat was witnessed by only 6,298 paying customers. [39]
  • The possibility of a coup to overthrow the British government was suggested in a meeting arranged by newspaper publisher Cecil King, and would be recounted eight years later in book by King's editor-in-chief at the Daily Mirror, Hugh Cudlipp. According to Cudlipp's 1976 memoir Walking on Water, King met with British war hero Lord Mountbatten and outlined the problems with the administration of Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Cudlipp, who was present at the meeting, reported King's belief that there would be civil disorter and said that King asked Mountbatten "whether he would agree to be titular head of a new administration". Government adviser Solly Zuckerman, according to Cudlipp, told King that the idea was "rank treachery" and added, "I am a public servant and will have nothing to do with it", and that Mountbatten ended the meeting. [40]
  • Communist Party leaders from five of Eastern Europe's nations met in Moscow to discuss a response to the liberal reforms going on in Czechoslovakia during the Prague Spring. Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev expressed his opinion that the situation was "exceptionally dangerous" and that counterrevolutionary party members were taking control of that Communist nation because of the indecisiveness of Czechoslovakia's Party Central Committee. "We must make sure that in the press in our countries," Brezhnev siad, "in all our speeches, and in works put out by artistic unions and other organizations, nothing appears that might be construed as even slightly encouraging to the 'new model of socialism' which the anti-socialist elements in the CSSR claim to be creating." [41] Walter Ulbricht (East Germany), Wladyslaw Gomulka (Poland) and Todor Zhivkov (Bulgaria) agreed with Brezhnev's assessment, while Janos Kadar of Hungary felt that Czechoslovakia's Action Program was a correction of its Party's mistakes rather than a counterrevolution.
  • Officials at Arlington National Cemetery announced that the burial ground for American veterans would run out of space by 1985, even with a recent 192-acre expansion that had provided space for 60,000 more gravesites. The plan for 17-years in the future was to provide burial only for national heroes after 1985, and to limit interment at Arlington to the placement of cremated remains inside marble vaults. [42]
  • Born: Chris Lighty, American music executive and founder of Violator Records; in the Bronx (committed suicide, 2012)
  • Died: Laurence M. Klauber, 84, American herpetologist and the world's foremost authority on rattlesnakes

May 9, 1968 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Candidates for from the United Kingdom's Conservative Party overwhelmingly won municipal elections held in cities and towns in England and Wales in what was seen as an indication of a loss of confidence in the Labour Party and the government of Prime Minister Harold Wilson. [43]
  • William Deng Nhial, an opposition leader and president of the Sudan African National Union, was assassinated a few days after the SANU had gained five seats in parliamentary elections. [44]
  • Born: Marie-José Pérec, French Olympic athlete, in Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe
  • Died:
    • Harold Gray, 74, American comic strip artist known for creating "Little Orphan Annie", which first appeared on August 5, 1924.
    • Arthur Wergs Mitchell, 84, African-American U.S. Representative who served Illinois' 1st District from 1935 to 1943. He was the first black Democrat to be elected to Congress, and the only black Congressman during his 8 years in office.
    • Marion Lorne, 82, American actress best known for her portrayal of "Aunt Clara", the confused witch, on the situation comedy Bewitched. She would be posthumously receive the Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series.
    • Mercedes de Acosta, 75, American poet, playwright, costume designer, and socialite
    • Finlay Currie, 90, Scottish stage, film and television actor

May 10, 1968 (Friday)[edit]

  • Representatives of the United States and of North Vietnam met at Paris for the first time to discuss peace talks, and agreed that discussions would take place at the International Conference Center of the French Foreign Ministry, located in the former Hotel Majestic. W. Averell Harriman led the American delegation with the assistance of Cyrus Vance, and former North Vietnamese foreign minister Xuan Thuy was assisted by Colonel Ha Van Lau. [45]
  • The government of France issued an order prohibiting the state run ORTF from televising the student demonstrations in France, but ORTF radio correspondents were allowed to make live reports. The independent Radio Luxembourg sent its own journalists to France and kept them there despite harassment from the French police. [46] Because of the live broadcasts, news of the rebellion spread from Paris to the rest of France and to media around the world. [47]
  • At nightfall, college and high school students began erecting makeshift barricades to seal off the streets around the Latin Quarter of Paris and to keep the police from entering the area. The action was imitative of the history lessons taught about the barricades erected by the crowds of the Paris Commune in 1871 and by the French Resistance fighters against the German occupation in 1944. [47]
  • Born: Al Murray, English stand-up comedian, in Stewkley, Buckinghamshire
  • Died: Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky, 70 Soviet Red Army general who commanded occupation troops in the Eastern sector of Germany after World War II and who unsuccessfully conducted the Berlin Blockade of 1948 in an attempt to take control of West Berlin.

May 11, 1968 (Saturday)[edit]

  • French police stormed the Latin Quarter of Paris in order to clear away the demonstrators in a chaotic end to the "Night of the barricades" that called worldwide attention to the chaos in France. [48][47]
  • A crowd of 30,000 students marched to the parliamentary building in Bonn, the capital of West Germany, where members of the Bundestag were going to vote on the "Emergency Laws" (Notstandgesetze) which would authorize the West German executive branch to suspend basic rights during a national crisis. The "Sternmarsch" would be unsuccessful in blocking the enactment of the emergency measure. [49]
  • Fifty-eight people were killed and more than 200 injured when fire broke out at a wedding pavilion near the Indian city of Vijayawada in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Most of the dead were trampled when the guests rushed toward the few available exits in the pavilion, which was surrounded by a six-foot high fence. The bride and the bridegroom were able to escape. [50]
  • In England, Manchester City F.C. and Manchester United finished first and second in the regular season of England's The Football League, in a race that ended on the last day of the season. In the penultimate week, City (25-6-10) and United (24-8-9) had identical 56 point records. City beat Newcastle United, 4-3, on the road, but United lost at home, 2-1, to Sunderland. [51] [52] [53]
  • The psychedelic rock band H. P. Lovecraft performed at The Fillmore in San Francisco . A recording of the event would be released 23 years later, in 1991.[54]

May 12, 1968 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Reginald Dwight, who played the piano for the English R & B group Bluesology, chose the stage name that would make him famous while on an airplane flight back to London after his final concert with Bluesology in Edinburgh. After a discussion with his bandmates, Dwight chose to use the first names of saxophonist Elton Dean and lead vocalist John Baldry to coin the pseudonym Elton John. [55]
  • North Vietnamese soldiers overran the U.S. Special Forces camp at Kham Duc and shot down an American C-130 transport as it was evacuating the area, killing all 156 men on board. All but six of the persons on the C-130 were South Vietnamese civilians who were being taken to safety. [56] The disaster remains the worst air crash in Vietnamese history. [57] In all, 500 survivors of Kham Duc were saved before the cam pwas overrun. U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Joe M. Jackson would receive the Medal of Honor for his daring rescue of the last 3 Americans to remain at Kham Duc, saving the USAF Combat Control Team after the last of the civilians had been evacuated. [58]
  • Elections took place in Panama for a new President and for a new National Assembly. Former President Arnulfo Arias received the most votes in a landslide over David Samudio Ávila, the candidate sponsored by outgoing president Marco Aurelio Robles. "Despite the all-out effort by the Robles administration to steal the election," a historian would later write, the victory of Arias "had been made official only after National Guard Commander Bolivar Vallarino insisted on a reasonably honest count of the ballots." [59]. Arias, however, would decline to honor the agreements that he had made with the Panamanian National Guard after being inaugurated on October 1, and would be be removed from office by the Guard only 10 days later. [60]
  • In the West African nation of Dahomey (now Benin), the ruling military junta annulled the results of the May 5 presidential election because nearly three-quarters of the eligible voters didn't participate. [61] Basile Adjou Moumouni had won the overwhelming majority of the votes cast (241,273 out of 295,667 or 84%) the junta leader, Colonel Alphonse Alley, refused to recognize the result because most of the 1.13 million registered voters had not shown up on election day. The junta picked its own civilian candidate, Dr.Émile Zinsou and scheduled a referendum for July 28 with the choice of yes or no for Zinsou to be elected.
  • The Israeli government declared the 28th of Iyar (which fell on May 31 in 1968) as the national holiday Jerusalem Day, to commemorate the June 7, 1967 (28 Iyar 5727 on the Hebrew Calendar) capture of East Jerusalem.
  • AS Saint-Étienne, which had won the 1967-68 regular season in French soccer football, defeated Girondins de Bordeaux, 2-1, in the championship final of the Coupe de France tournament.
  • Born:

May 13, 1968 (Monday)[edit]

May 14, 1968 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Workers at the Sud Aviation aircraft factory near Nantes followed the example of France's university students and went on a sit-down strike, becoming "the very first of the French factories to go on strike" and setting a precedent that would soon spread to the Renault automobile factories, then to western France and eventually to the entire nation. [66]
  • Algeria's President Houari Boumédiène ordered the nationalization of 14 foreign energy companies operating in the North African nation and assigned their assets to the government monopoly Sonatrach (Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures) (National Society for the Research, Production, Transport, Refining and Marketing of Hydrocarbons). [67]
  • The United Kingdom's 37-year old National Liberal Party, led by M.P. David Renton, voted for its dissolution, and merged into the Conservative Party. In the 1966 election, NLP candidates won just 3 of the 630 seats in the House of Commons. [68]
  • In Tokyo, Japan's Matsushita Electric Industrial Company (now Panasonic) introduced what was, at the time, the world's smallest television set. The tiny device, "so small it can be slipped into a coat pocket", had a 1 1⁄2 inch (3.8 cm) screen and weighed 1 1/3 pounds (600 grams). [69]
  • The Beatles announced the creation of Apple Records, a division of Apple Corps Ltd, at a press conference in New York City.'
  • The 56-story tall Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower, the first of six office buildings in the Toronto-Dominion Centre on Wellington Street West, was opened.
  • Died: Husband E. Kimmel, 86, retired U.S. Navy Admiral who was blamed for failing to prevent the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. [70][71]

May 15, 1968 (Wednesday)[edit]

May 16, 1968 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Two weeks after students in France had closed most of the nation's universities with a student strike, employees seized control of the automobile factories owned by the nationalized Renault company, taking control at Boulogne-Billancourt, Rouen, Le Havre, Le Mans and Flins. [76] Employees of Sud-Aviation, the state operated aircraft factory at Nantes, welded the factory gates shut. Workers struck two factories at Lyon, several newspapers in Paris, and shut down Orly, the Paris international airport. [77]
  • An 8.3 magnitude earthquake struck northern Japan at 9:49 in the morning, killing at least 47 people through a combination of collapsed buildings and a tsunami. The heaviest damage was at the city of Aomori, and the quake was the strongest in more than four years. [78]
  • The United Auto Workers was ousted from the AFL-CIO labor union conglomerate. UAW President Walter P. Reuther, a longtime foe of AFL-CIO President George Meany, received a letter of expulsion because the UAW had not paid its $90,000 per month dues for three months. [79]
  • ESRO 2B, a satellite built in Europe for the European Space Research Organisation, was launched into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. [80]
  • Ronan Point, a 23-storey tower block in Canning Town, east London, UK, partially collapsed after a gas explosion, killing five people. The disaster would highlight an area of design which had not previously been considered and which would lead to changes in legislation in the UK and other countries.[81]
  • Born: Chingmy Yau, Hong Kong film actress

May 17, 1968 (Friday)[edit]

May 18, 1968 (Saturday)[edit]

May 19, 1968 (Sunday)[edit]

May 20, 1968 (Monday)[edit]

  • Financed by a group of wealthy exiles from Haiti, a poorly handled attempt was made to overthrow the dictatorship of Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, starting with an attempt at aerial bombardment of Port-au-Prince. According to one account, a B-25 dropped a single explosive "which blew one more hole in an eroded road", followed by a package of leaflets "which did not scatter because the invaders had not untied the bundle before dropping it". [104] [105] An invasion force came ashore and temporarily captured the port city of Cap-Haïtien. One bomb dropped on Port-au-Prince destroyed some private rooms in Duvalier's residence, and "an undetermined number of persons were killed". [106] The 35-man invasion force would be defeated the next day [107]
  • The 1968 Giro d'Italia cycle race began in Campione with ten 13-man teams. Eddy Merckx and Vittorio Adorni of the Faema team would finish first and second on June 11 in the race's conclusion in Naples.
  • Born:

May 21, 1968 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • A massive rescue operation by ships from four nations saved all 178 passengers and crew of the Norwegian cruise ship Blenheim after the vessel caught fire in the North Sea, midway through its voyage from Newcastle to Oslo. Two fishing trawlers from Denmark, the Gine Wulf and the Taily, arrived first, and the supply ship Smith Lloyd from the Netherlands saved others and towed the ship to a safe port. Ships from West Germany and destroyers and helicopters from the United Kingdom's Royal Navy saved the others. [108]
  • France's President Charles de Gaulle exercised his constitutional power to grant amnesty for the leaders of the students who led the strike against French universities, but the number of French workers on strike increased to 8,000,000 as two million people walked off of their jobs during the day. Banks were closed as panicking depositors sought to withdraw their money, and the stock marked in Paris did not open for trading. [109]
  • Born: Julie Vega, Filipina child actress who died of illness at the age of 16; as Julie Pearl Apostol Postigo in Quezon City (d. 1985)
  • Died: Arturo Basile, 54, Italian symphony orchestra conductor, was killed in a single car accident along with his passenger, opera soprano Marika Galli, while driving near the Italian city of Vercelli.

May 22, 1968 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The American nuclear-powered submarine USS Scorpion sank 400 miles from the Azores, killing all 99 of its crew. [110] A search would be abandoned on June 5; the remains of the Scorpion would not be located for another four months.[111] It would later be revealed that at 1844 UTC, [112] eight listening stations had recorded "a major acoustic event" below the sea surface "followed by lesser acoustic events". The U.S. Navy's classified investigative report would be released on October 25, 1993, revealing its conclusion that the Scorpion was probably destroyed by one of its own torpedoes. [113]
  • All 23 people on board Los Angeles Airways Flight 841, a Sikorsky S-61L were killed in the worst helicopter accident in American history as the aircraft crashed onto Minnesota Avenue in Paramount, California. The 20 passengers were being shuttled by the crew of 3 from Disneyland to the Los Angeles International Airport and were halfway through their 32-mile trip when the helicopter exploded and broke apart at 5:47 in the afternoon. The dead included the mayor of Red Bluff, California [114] and 8 members of a family from Canton and Steubenville, Ohio who were on vacation. [115]
  • The pro-British United Bermuda Party won 30 of the seats in Bermuda's new, 40-seat House of Assembly, while the Progressive Labour Party, which advocated independence for the British colony, got the remainder. The election was the first under a new one-man, one-vote law. The winners were 26 white and 14 black candidates (7 of whom were UBP members. [116]
  • By 11 votes, the government of Prime Minister Pompidou of France survived a vote on another censure motion, as 233 of the members of the 485 seat National Assembly voted in favor, but fell short of the 244 required. [117]
  • Daniel Cohn-Bendit, the leader of France's protests, was barred from re-entering the country after completing a tour of Europe to talk with other student protesters. When he tried to cross into Forbach from the border station shared with Saarbrücken, West Germany, "Danny the Red" found that he had been declared an "undesirable" by the Interior Ministry. [118]
  • Born: Graham Linehan, Irish comedian and writer, in Dublin
  • Died: USMC Lieutenant David Westphall, 28, was killed along with 16 other United States Marines in a Viet Cong ambush near An Dinh in South Vietnam. His parents, Victor and Jeanne Westphall, would use the life insurance proceeds for their son to build the first memorial to Americans killed in the Vietnam War, and built a white chapel on land that they owned near Angel Fire, New Mexico. [119]

May 23, 1968 (Thursday)[edit]

  • For the first time, an enemy aircraft was successfully shot down by a ship-launched surface-to-air missile. The U. S. Navy guided-missile cruiser USS Long Beach (CGN-9) was safely out to sea off of the coast of North Vietnam and was 65 nautical miles (almost 75 miles or 120 kilometers) away from its target, a North Vietnamese MiG flying over North Vietnam. The RIM-8 Talos missile was fired from a distance of 65 nautical miles. [120] [121] [122]
  • The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) launched the "SOS Biafra" campaign, requesting the Red Cross humanitarian aid societies in 30 nations to work toward getting "massive material and financial support" from national governments to prevent famine and disease in the area that had seceded from Nigeria. [123]
  • Echo 1, the world's first communications satellite, fell out of orbit and burned up upon re-entry to the atmosphere. Launched on August 12, 1960, the 100 foot (30 m) polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) covered balloon had sustained punctures from its encounters with space dust at high speeds, and dropped to lower orbits over time as it deflated. On its re-entry, it passed over northern California, southern Arizona and Mexico's Jalisco state before burning up over the west coast of South America. [124]
  • Born: John Ortiz, American film actor, in Brooklyn
  • Died: Henry Dumas, 33, African American poet, novelist and short fiction writer, was shot and killed by a New York City Transit Police officer while at the 125th Street Station of the New York City Subway. Dumas, a counselor for Southern Illinois University, was visiting New York when the officer, Peter Blenkowski, shot Dumas three times after an altercation. Blenkowski claimed self-defense. [125] [126][127]

May 24, 1968 (Friday)[edit]

  • President Charles de Gaulle appeared on national television in France and made a plea to viewers for help in ending the strike by 10,000,000 workers and rioting in French cities. He announced a referendum for June and asked for voters to approve a grant of emergency power to force reforms and to halt the "roll to civil war". "Frenchmen, French women," he said, "you will deliver your verdict by a vote. In case your reply is 'no', it follows that I would no longer assume my functions." [128] In the hours leading up to the speech, thousands of demonstrators, many from outside the city, were converging on the center of Paris, while riot police prepared to contain the violence. [129] One historian would observe later that De Gaulle "did not come over as a man in charge of the situation, but a mere mortal struggling to for a way out... for the first time in his career de Gaulle seemed an anachronism." [130]
  • North Vietnam activated a new prisoner-of-war camp at Son Tay, 23 miles (37 km) northwest of Hanoi, and began the relocation of 55 of the 356 American POWs. The site, codenamed "Camp Hope", would be the object of an ultimately unsuccessful attempt (on November 21, 1970) by a Special Operations force to rescue the prisoners. [131]

May 25, 1968 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The world's 17th human heart transplant was performed at the Medical College of Virginia by Dr. David M. Hume and Dr. Richard Lower, but the hospital initially refused to disclose the name of the recipient or the donor, and an armed guard was kept on the floor where the patient was recovering. [132]. Reporters soon learned from other sources that the recipient was a white man, Joseph G. Klett, and that the heart came from an African-American, Bruce O. Tucker, who had suffered a traumatic brain injury the day before the surgery and whose body was unclaimed; [133] and then found the reason for the secrecy. William Tucker, the donor's brother, brought a lawsuit on behalf of the family on grounds that the heart had been removed without consent and that Bruce was technically alive when he had been was taken off of life support. [134] The suit, Tucker v. Lower would be "the first case to present the question of the 'definition of death' in the context of organ transplantation". [135] Four years to the day after Tucker's death, a Virginia jury would become "the first anywhere to accept the new medical concept of brain death, the idea that a man is no longer living if his brain is dead." [136]
  • In France, negotiations began between the Pompidou government, trade unions, and the Organisation patronale, leading to the Grenelle agreements.[137]
  • The incorporation of a new city with 30,000 residents, Sterling Heights, Michigan, was approved by voters in the Sterling Township of Macomb County. The election result was 3,492 in favor and 2,614 against, with the city to come into existence on July 1. [138] [139]
  • Died: Charles K. Feldman, 63, American screen agent who formed the Famous Artists Corporation, and who later became a successful film producer, including The Seven Year Itch and the screen adaptation of A Streetcar Named Desire

May 26, 1968 (Sunday)[edit]

May 27, 1968 (Monday)[edit]

1st Lt. Bush

May 28, 1968 (Tuesday)[edit]

May 29, 1968 (Wednesday)[edit]

May 30, 1968 (Thursday)[edit]

  • West Germany enacted the controversial "Emergency Laws" (Notstandgesetze) a day after the third reading of the legislation, authorizing its government the power to revoke civil liberties during a national crisis. [154]
  • France's Prime Minister, Georges Pompidou suggested that President Charles de Gaulle dissolve the National Assembly, call a new election, and then resign. President de Gaulle refused to resign, but called an election for June 23, and threatened to declare a state of emergency. Opposition parties agreed to the call for an election.[155]
  • French politician Charles Pasqua organized a counterdemonstration of support for President de Gaulle, with at least over 300,000 Gaullist supporters (and perhaps as many as one million) marching down the Champs-Élysées in Paris. [156]
  • The Indianapolis 500 was run on Thursday rather than on Memorial Day because rain had repeatedly postponed qualifying trials. Bobby Unser, driving a turbocharged Offenhauser-powered car, won the race with a record speed of 152.882 miles per hour and Dan Gurney finished second. [157] By the time of the finish, all but 11 of the 33 cars had been put out of the race by mishaps.
  • Born: Zacarias Moussaoui, French-born terrorist who had received pilot training but who was arrested 26 days before he could become one of the participants in the September 11 attacks; in Saint-Jean-de-Luz.

May 31, 1968 (Friday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vincent R. McDonald, The Caribbean Economies: Perspectives on Social, Political, and Economic Conditions (Ardent Media, 1973) p73
  2. ^ Ken Delve, Bomber Command 1936-1968: An Operational & Historical Record (Pen and Sword, 2005) p57
  3. ^ "Methodists End Ban On Clergy Drinking", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 2, 1968, p2
  4. ^ Jonathan Cummings, Israel's Public Diplomacy: The Problems of Hasbara, 1966-1975 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016) p81
  5. ^ Itay Harlap, Television Drama in Israel: Identities in Post-TV Culture (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017) pp4-5
  6. ^ Rotman, Patrick (2008). Mai 68 raconté à ceux qui ne l'ont pas vécu (in French). Seuil. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-2021127089. 
  7. ^ Temma Kaplan, Democracy: A World History (Oxford University Press, 2014)
  8. ^ "Poor People's March Begins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 3, 1968, p4
  9. ^ Diane L. Hamm, Military Intelligence: Its Heroes and Legends (The Minerva Group, 2001) pp129-130
  10. ^ "Mauch, Vargo Feud Over Spitball Rule— Boozer's 'Housecleaning' Chores Start Feature Attraction At Met Game", Pittsburgh Press, May 3, 1968, p35
  11. ^ Peter Morris, A Game of Inches: The Stories Behind the Innovations That Shaped Baseball: The Game on the Field (Ivan R. Dee, 2006) p103
  12. ^ "European Convention on Human Rights: Protocol IV (1963)", Encyclopedia of Human Rights, ed. by Edward H. Lawson and Mary Lou Bertucci (Taylor & Francis, 1996) p470
  13. ^ "84 Killed in Texas Plane Crash", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 4, 1968, p1
  14. ^ "85 Died in Crash", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 6, 1968, p4
  15. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  16. ^ Damamme, Dominique; Gobille, Boris; Matonti, Frédérique; Pudal, Bernard, eds. (2008). Mai-juin 68 (in French). Éditions de l'Atelier. p. 190. ISBN 978-2708239760. 
  17. ^ Chris Reynolds, Memories of May '68: France's Convenient Consensus (University of Wales Press, 2011 ) p1
  18. ^ Richard Hollingham, Blood and Guts: A History of Surgery (Macmillan, 2009) p154
  19. ^ "U.S., HANOI AGREE ON PARIS— Initial Talks May Begin Next Friday", Pittsburgh Press, May 3, 1968, p1
  20. ^ "Dancer's Image Captures Derby", Pittsburgh Press, May 5, 1968, p4-1
  21. ^ "Derby Winner Is Disqualified in Drug Use", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 8, 1968, p1
  22. ^ "THE 1968 KENTUCKY DERBY : THE VICTORY THAT WASN'T : Dancer's Image, Who Finished First, Was Disqualified After Positive Test for Illegal Medication". Articles.latimes.com. 1988-05-01. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  23. ^ "1968". Kentuckyderby.com. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  24. ^ "Pipers Win 122-113 In ABA Finals", Pittsburgh Press, May 5, 1968, p1
  25. ^ Andrew Rawson, Battle Story: Tet Offensive 1968 (The History Press, 2013)
  26. ^ Nolan, Keith W. (2006). House to House: Playing the Enemy's Game in Saigon, May 1968 (2006 ed.). Zenith Imprint. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7603-2330-4. 
  27. ^ "Cong Shell Big Airbase, Saigon a Battleground", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 6, 1968, p1
  28. ^ "'Press,' Cong Sneers, And 4 Newsmen Die", Pittsburgh Press, May 6, 1968, p1
  29. ^ "25 Miners Trapped In W. Va.", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 7, 1968, p1
  30. ^ "Rescued Miners 'In Good Shape, Pittsburgh Press, May 11, 1968, p1
  31. ^ "15 Coal Miners Rescued; 10 Others Believed Dead", Bridgeport (CT) Post, May 12, 1968, p4
  32. ^ "6 'Dead' W. Va. Miners Saved", Pittsburgh Press, May 16, 1968, p1
  33. ^ "Three tankers in port explosion". The Times (57245). London. 7 May 1968. col C, p. 5. 
  34. ^ "May 7 Cadre School", in Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, ed. by Guo Jian, Yongyi Song and Yuan Zhou (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p220
  35. ^ "DRUG DISQUALIFIES DERBY WINNER— Pain Killer Given Horse In Big Race", Pittsburgh Press, May 7, 1968, p1
  36. ^ "Ala. Mourns Death Of Lurleen Wallace", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 8, 1968, p2
  37. ^ "Driver Dies In '500' Race Tuneup", Pittsburgh Press, May 8, 1968, p73
  38. ^ Ferguson, Andrew (October 1996). Team Lotus: the Indianapolis Years. Somerset, England: Patrick Stephens Limited. pp. 181–184. ISBN 1 85260 491 3. 
  39. ^ "A's Hunter Hurls Perfect Game", Pittsburgh Press, May 9, 1968, p43
  40. ^ Andrew Marr, A History of Modern Britain (Pan Macmillan, 2009)
  41. ^ Jaromír Navrátil, ed., The Prague Spring 1968: A National Security Archive Documents Reader (Central European University Press, 1998) pp135-136
  42. ^ "Arlington to Halt Veterans' Burials by 1985", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 9, 1968, p1
  43. ^ "Labor Party Loses Heavily in Towns", Los Angeles Times, May 10, 1968, p2
  44. ^ "Leader Ambushed", Ottawa Journal, May 10, 1968, p1
  45. ^ "U.S., Hanoi Map Talks", Pittsburgh Press, May 10, 1968, p1
  46. ^ "Sensorial Techniques of the Self: From the Jouissance of May '68 to the Economy of the Delay", in The Long 1968: Revisions and New Perspectives, ed. by Daniel J. Sherman, et al. (Indiana University Press, 2013) p320
  47. ^ a b c "May 1968 in France: The Rise and Fall of a New Social Movement", by Ingrid Gilcher Holtey, in 1968: The World Transformed (Cambridge University Press, 1998)
  48. ^ "PARIS POLICE BATTLE MOB— Hurl Tear Gas, Crash Barricades", Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1968, p1
  49. ^ Justin Collings, Democracy's Guardians: A History of the German Federal Constitutional Court, 1951-2001 (Oxford University Press, 2015) pp100-101
  50. ^ "58 Are Killed At Wedding Fete", Philadelphia Inquirer, May 12, 1968, p1
  51. ^ "Worthy champions, The Observer (London), May 12, 1968, p24
  52. ^ "How United lost their crown", The Observer (London), May 12, 1968, p24
  53. ^ "Manchester City Wins Loop Title", Hartford (CT) Courant, May 12, 1968, p11-C
  54. ^ "Live May 11, 1968". Allmusic. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  55. ^ Holger Petersen, Talking Music (Insomniac Press, 2011) p53
  56. ^ "Reds Down C130, 156 Feared Dead", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 15, 1968, p1
  57. ^ Aviation Safety Network
  58. ^ Major Donald K. Schneider, Air Force Heroes in Vietnam (Airpower Research Institute, 1979) p74
  59. ^ Giancarlo Soler Torrijos, In the Shadow of the United States: Democracy and Regional Order in the Latin Caribbean (Universal-Publishers, 2008) p130
  60. ^ "Panama for the Panamanians: The Populism of Arnulfo Arias Madrid", by William Francis Robinson, in Populism in Latin America, ed. by Michael L. Conniff (University of Alabama Press, 2012) pp196-197
  61. ^ "25 Per Cent Vote, Election is Annulled", Pittsburgh Press, May 13, 1968, p6
  62. ^ "General Strike Grips France", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 13, 1968, p1
  63. ^ "The Perspective of a Vietnamese Witness", by Luu Doan Huynh, in The War That Never Ends: New Perspectives on the Vietnam War, ed. by David L. Anderson and John Ernst (University Press of Kentucky, 2007) p92
  64. ^ "Poor Erecting Prefab D.C. City", Pittsburgh Press, May 13, 1968, p1
  65. ^ "Abernathy, Ralph David", in Alabama Biographical Dictionary, by Jan Onofrio (Somerset Publishers, 1968) p8
  66. ^ Kristin Ross, May '68 and Its Afterlives (University of Chicago Press, 2008) p48
  67. ^ "Algeria: Development of Nation's Oil Industry discussed", by Jean-Bernard Hullot, Revue Francaise d'Eturdes Politiques Africaines (November 1969), reprinted in Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 850 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1970) p26
  68. ^ David Dutton, Liberals in Schism: A History of the National Liberal Party (I.B.Tauris, 2008) p203
  69. ^ "New Japanese TV Set Fits In Your Pocket", 'Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 15, 1968, p1
  70. ^ "Kimmel Is Dead; Pearl Harbor Goat", Chicago Tribune, May 15, 1968, p1
  71. ^ "'Scapegoat' of P.H. Attack Dies", Honolulu Advertiser, May 15, 1968, p1
  72. ^ "Tornado Onslaught Kills 70", 'Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 17, 1968, p2
  73. ^ "Girl's Lungs Given To Boy", Pittsburgh Press, May 18, 1968, p3
  74. ^ "New Nobel Prize", Pittsburgh Press, May 15, 1968, p7
  75. ^ Jon Elliston, Psywar on Cuba: The Declassified History of U.S. Anti-Castro Propaganda (Ocean Press, 1999) p195
  76. ^ "French Workers Follow Students, Seize Factories", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 17, 1968, p1
  77. ^ "Paris Workers Rebuff Students", Pittsburgh Press, May 17, 1968, p1
  78. ^ "28 Killed As Quake Jolts Japan", Pittsburgh Press, May 16, 1968, p1
  79. ^ "UAW Ousted For Failure To Pay Dues", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 17, 1968, p2
  80. ^ "Cosmic Craft Goes Into Orbit", 'Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 17, 1968, p5; The launch was at 0206 GMT 17 May, but at 5:06 p.m. local time on May 16
  81. ^ Beyond Failure: Forensic Case Studies for Civil Engineers. Reston, Virginia, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers Publications. 2009. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-7844-0973-2. 
  82. ^ Daniel Berrigan, The Trial of the Catonsville Nine (Fordham University Press, 2009)
  83. ^ "9 Invade Office, Burn Draft Records", Pittsburgh Press, May 17, 1968, p9
  84. ^ "Strikers Hold Major Plants Across France", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 18, 1968, p1
  85. ^ "Satellite Destroyed", Spokane (WA) Daily Chronicle, May 18, 1968, p2
  86. ^ The Day the Nimbus Weather Satellite Exploded, by Maya Wei-Haas, Smithsonian magazine (January 2017)
  87. ^ "Sirhan Doesn't Want Diaries to Be Used in Trial", Bridgeport (CT) Telegram, February 25, 1969, p1
  88. ^ "Sirhan Shouts Guilty Plea At Trial for RFK Murder", Detroit Free Press, February 26, 1969, p1
  89. ^ Lamar Waldron and Thom Hartmann, Legacy of Secrecy: The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination (Counterpoint Press, 2008) p626
  90. ^ "Cannes Festival stops", The Observer (London), May 19, 1968, p1
  91. ^ "Protest Cancels Cannes Film Fete", Baltimore Sun, May 19, 1968, p2
  92. ^ "Film festival closed", The Guardian (London), May 20, 1968, p1
  93. ^ "Performing the Revolution", by James S. Williams, in May 68: Rethinking France's Last Revolution (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) p281
  94. ^ "Cabinet Resigns In Saigon Shakeup", Pittsburgh Press, May 18, 1968, p1
  95. ^ "Dogpatch USA", by Brooks Blevins, in The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Volume 16: Sports and Recreation, ed. by Harvey H. Jackson III (University of North Carolina Press, 2011) p280
  96. ^ Marley Brant, Join Together: Forty Years of the Rock Music Festival (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2008) pp41-42
  97. ^ "Best Show Is Not On Stage", Fort Lauderdale (FL) News and Sun-Sentinel, May 19, 1968, pB-1
  98. ^ Associated Press (1968-05-19). "Washington Girl Named Miss USA". Reading Eagle. 
  99. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  100. ^ "Reds Gain In Italian Election", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 21, 1968, p2
  101. ^ "Nigerians Take Over Port City", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 20, 1968, p8
  102. ^ "15 Killed as Crowd Rushes to See Vision", Pittsburgh Press, May 21, 1968, p1
  103. ^ "Asian Cup: Know Your History – Part One (1956–1988)". Goal.com. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  104. ^ Mark Kurlansky, 1968: The Year That Rocked The World (Random House Paperbacks, 2005) p255
  105. ^ "Plane Drops Bombs On Haiti Capital", Fresno (CA) Bee, May 20, 1968, p1
  106. ^ "Rebels Land in Haiti, Call for Overhtrow of Duvalier, Exiles Claim", Philadelphia Inquirer, May 21, 1968, p1
  107. ^ "'Papa Doc' Has No Trouble Quelling 35 Haiti Invaders", Muncie (IN) Evening Press, May 22, 1968, p5
  108. ^ "178 Saves As Norwegian Ship Burns", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 22, 1968, p2
  109. ^ "Amnesty Given Paris Students", Pittsburgh Press, May 21, 1968, p1
  110. ^ "Atomic Sub Overdue, 99 Aboard", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 28, 1968, p1
  111. ^ "Strange Devices That Found the Sunken Sub Scorpion." Popular Science, April 1969, pp. 66–71.
  112. ^ Lee C. Lawyer, et al., Geophysics in the Affairs of Mankind: A Personalized History of Exploration Geophysics (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2001) p164
  113. ^ "25 years after accident, Navy admits the Scorpion killed itself", Chicago Tribune, October 26, 1993, p1
  114. ^ "23 Killed On Copter In Crash Near L.A.", Pittsburgh Press, May 23, 1968, p1
  115. ^ "8 In Canton Area Family Killed In Copter Crash", Akron (OH) Beacon Journal, May 23, 1968, p1
  116. ^ "Pro-British Win In Bermuda", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 23, 1968, p2
  117. ^ "Anti-De Gaulle Censure Fails", Pittsburgh Press, May 22, 1968, p1
  118. ^ "Sensorial Techniques of the Self: From the Jouissance of May '68 to the Economy of the Delay", by Noit Banai, in The Long 1968: Revisions and New Perspectives (Indiana University Press, 2013) p303
  119. ^ "'Hanoi Jane' and the Myth of Betrayal: The Cultural War on the Home Front", by Beverly C. Tomek, in The Vietnam War in Popular Culture: The Influence of America's Most Controversial War on Everyday Life, ed. by Ron Milam (ABC-CLIO, 2016) p328
  120. ^ Friedman, Norman, "The Navy's Ramjet Missile," Naval History, June 2014, p. 11.
  121. ^ James F. Dunnigan and Albert A. Nofi, Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War (Macmillan, 1999) p124
  122. ^ Treadway, James A., Hard Charger! The Story of the USS Biddle DLG-34, Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse, 2005, p. 119, ISBN 978-0-595-36009-3.
  123. ^ John J. Stremlau, The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Princeton University Press, 2015) p208
  124. ^ "Echo I Goes Down In Flames, As Expected", Pittsburgh Press, May 24, 1968, p1
  125. ^ "SIU Counselor Killed by New York City Policeman", Alton (IL) Evening Telegraph, May 27, 1968, p10
  126. ^ "A Tragic End To a Career", Central New Jersey Home News (New Brunswick, NJ), May 23, 1968, p14
  127. ^ "Dumas, Henry", by Trudier Harris, in The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature (Oxford University Press, ) p118-119
  128. ^ "DE GAULLE THREATENS TO QUIT— He asks Full Powers To Cope With Crisis"], Pittsburgh Press, May 24, 1968, p1
  129. ^ "PARIS SETS UP FOR MASSIVE RIOT— De Gaulle Lays Down Peace Plea", El Paso (TX) Herald-Post, May 24, 1968, p1
  130. ^ Nicholas Atkin, The Fifth French Republic (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) p107
  131. ^ William H. McRaven, Spec Ops: Case Studies in Special Operations Warfare: Theory and Practice (Random House Publishing Group, 2009) p287
  132. ^ "Richmond Doctors Mum After Heart Transplant", UPI report in Montgomery (AL) Advertiser, May 26, 1968, p1
  133. ^ "MCV Heart Patient Alert In 5 Minutes", The Progress-Index (Petersburg VA), May 31, 1968, p1
  134. ^ "Donor's Brother: 'No Donation'", Tampa Bay Times, June 16, 1968, p3
  135. ^ "A Statutory Definition of the Standards for Determining Human Death, by Alexander M. Capron and Leon R. Kass, in Biomedical Ethics and the Law, ed. by James M. Humber (Springer, 2013) p567
  136. ^ The Courier-Journal (Louisville KY), May 26, 1972, p9
  137. ^ Michael Seidman, 'Workers in a Repressive Society of Seductions: Parisian Metallurgists in May–June 1968', French Historical Studies 18:1 (1993), p. 264.
  138. ^ "State Gets New City", Traverse City (MI) Record-Eagle, May 27, 1968, p2-11
  139. ^ Images of Modern America: Sterling Heights (Arcadia Publishing, 2017) p7
  140. ^ "Aussies Win Tennis Cup", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 27, 1968, p33
  141. ^ Rolling Stone, No. 13, "Little Willie John Dies in Prison", July 6, 1968
  142. ^ "San Diego, Montreal Get NL Franchises", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 28, 1968, p18
  143. ^ Patrick Emmenegger, The Power to Dismiss: Trade Unions and the Regulation of Job Security in Western Europe (Oxford University Press, 2014) pp138-139
  144. ^ "United States v. O'Brien, by Donald A. Fishman, in Free Speech On Trial: Communication Perspectives on Landmark Supreme Court Decisions, ed. by Richard A. Parker (University of Alabama Press, 2003) p130
  145. ^ "New Premier Takes Office in Saigon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 73, 1968, p1
  146. ^ "Guard Sent In to Quell Louisville Disorder", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 28, 1968, p1
  147. ^ Williams, Kenneth H. (1988). ""Oh Baby…It's Really Happening:" The Louisville Race Riot of 1968". The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. 3: 57–58. 
  148. ^ Kitty Kelley, The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty (Knopf Doubleday Publishing, 2004)
  149. ^ "29 Killed in Crash Of Plane in India", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 29, 1968, p1
  150. ^ Dogan, Mattei (1984). "How Civil War Was Avoided in France". International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique. 5 (3): 245–277. doi:10.1177/019251218400500304. JSTOR 1600894. 
  151. ^ Mendel, Arthur P. (January 1969). "Why the French Communists Stopped the Revolution". The Review of Politics. 31 (1): 3–27. doi:10.1017/s0034670500008913. JSTOR 1406452. 
  152. ^ "Blast, Fire Kill 7 Tots, 2 Adults At Ga. Nursery", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 30, 1968, p1
  153. ^ Chengetai J. M. Zvobgo, A History of Zimbabwe, 1890-2000 and Postscript, Zimbabwe, 2001-2008 (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009) p136
  154. ^ Hans Küng, Disputed Truth: Memoirs (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014) p109
  155. ^ "Lycos". Archived from the original on 2009-04-22. 
  156. ^ Kristin Ross, May '68 and Its Afterlives (University of Chicago Press, 2008) p59
  157. ^ "Bobby Unser Wins '500' as Turbines Fail— Hot Offenhauser Sets New Record", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 31, 1968, p1
  158. ^ "Ex-Head of Lebanon Shot", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 1, 1968, p2
  159. ^ "No. 44602". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 June 1968. p. 6340.